Architecture for the rich, mere
shelter for the poor: is this a continuity since the neolithic and urban revolution
began? "Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!" Shelley's Ozymandias predicted
another historical continuity as to empire's demise with alluring architecture
turned to dust. “The Glory of Greece and the grandeur of Rome” is a
haughty exclamation of empire and power exhibited by architecture extrapolated
from Poe's poem glorifying the beauty of women. A poem designed to honor
Helen (a friend of Poe and/or Helen of Troy) ratcheted into a mantra buttressing Western exceptionalism
sees an idea soaring off into another vector which includes glorification of
western architecture. All cultures have used art and architecture to honor
their accomplishments and dreams of empire. If architecture throughout world
history is intelligent creation of forms and spaces that in themselves
express an idea/ideas, then, what are those ideas? This article housing
digital resources for architecture in world history addresses and gives
examples of ideas expressed in architecture. One can see a summary
of those diverse ideas in the column or list below:
- Architecture as history.
- Architecture as shelter.
- Architecture for the
Rich, mere shelter for the poor.
- Architecture without
- Architecture as Art.
- Architecture as Design,
- Architecture &
Literature-narration of space.
- Architecture as Trash.
for public use and space.
- Architecture as
- Architecture as
- Architecture as
spiritual and sacred space.
- Architecture as
- Architecture as
- Architecture and
- Architecture as research
agenda for sociology.
- Architecture as a
as gendered space.
- Architecture as dissent.
- Architecture as racist.
Digital resources for
architecture in world history has been organized into sections beginning with
world or global resources, then videos and documentaries, followed by digital
resources divided into geographic regions, lesson modules, teaching syllabi,
mostly university, and finally websites and blogs. There has been an attempt in
each section to list resources in chronological order.
Architecture Digital Resources:
"Neanderthals Built Homes With Mammoth Bones," The Telegraph (UK),
December 18, 2011. Research is indicating Neanderthals were more complex
than earlier thought with evidence of architecture utilizing mammoth bones.
Have Practiced the Ancient Art of Interior Design," Smithsonian Magazine
blog, December 3, 2013, posted by Colin Schultz. Julien Riel-Salvatore
believes Neanderthal decorated their cave architecture.
Architecture or Shelter?" Boundless Art History-Prehistoric art of the
Jayson Braza Portem,
"Prehistoric Architecture," The Freeman Architect. Concise
history with photographs and drawings of prehistoric architecture.
V. Gordon Childe,
The Urban Revolution, The Town Planning Review, Vol. 21, No. 1,
April 1950, pp. 3-17, Liverpool University Press. Accessed 19/9/2011.
Archaeologist Dr. Childe's essay encompasses earliest human urbandevelopment
and architecture globally.
1902 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th-10th editions. See links to
"articles" on world architecture.
"History of Architecture," (Columbia College, NY) 7th ed., 1909.
History of Architecture textbook seen in Gutenberg.org.
Andrew Howley, "Why
Did Ancient Civilizations Build Such Huge Monuments?" National Geographic,
May 1, 2013. Pt. 2 of a 3 pt. series on "The Ancient Past as a Window to
"11 Spectacular Ruins of the Ancient World-Photos," Weather.com.
Annotated photos of 11 of world history's greatest pieces of architecture
still with us as "ruins."
"Architectural Breakthroughs That Changed the World," io9.com, posted
December 11, 2013. Annotated photographs of what Vincze Miklos believes are the
greatest architectural breakthroughs in world history and these examples could
be viewed as change over time in architecture technology and design. See replies
to Miklos's choices. One person claimed his choices are Euro-centric.
architecture and history website developed in 2000, Real?Virtual website to aid
students in the study of Ancient, Early Christian/Byzantine, Islamic, Modern,
Baroque, Renaissance, etc. architecture. See Medieval Architecture section: http://www.learn.columbia.edu/ha/html/medieval.html
Architecture," Academic Room. General summary of world history of architecture
from earliest times through modern times. See links on left side of page
for more resources if one wishes to subscribe to Academic Room site.
"Architecture," Fordham University Primary Source Documents. Search
for "architecture" primary source documents in Fordham website found
Architectural Styles," Essential-Architecture. Note many pictures
and explanations of world architectural styles from ancient Egyptian to 21st
Penn State University
site describing with some images and videos world architecture styles. Heavily
Vikas Shah, "Role
of Architecture in Humanity's Story," Thought Economics blog, June 18,
2012. Interview with some of world's greatest thinkers as to nature of
architecture and it's role in society over time.
Between Civil Engineering and Architecture," differencebetween.net, last
updated July 28, 2011.
Authority," National Building Museum, Washington DC Exhibit, May 18, 2011.
See tabs at top of page (Castles, Parliament, etc.) for images and
discussions of architectureand authority. Mitchell Kapor claims,
"Architecture is politics."
Google Book-Paul Jones,
"The Sociology of Architecture," Liverpool University Press,
2011, 195 pages. Paul Jones' thesis revolves around the concept of
positioning architecture as a research agenda for sociologists and others interested
in the relationship between power, culture and collective identities.
"Walking, Poems, Buildings:
A Poetry and Architecture Collaboration," Poets.org, 2005.
Poetry in shape of a building, called "concrete poetry" but
what about a building in the form of a sonnet? Poet Annie Finch and
Architect Ben Jacks, both faculty at Miami University, Ohio have created an
exhibit of student works incorporating poetry and architecture. See an example
of concrete poetry: http://www.schools.pinellas.k12.fl.us/educators/tec/pravda3/concrete.html
"History of Cities and City Planning," art.net. History of city
planning over time.
World," UMass, Boston blog published in 2012 to share resources
electronically from Frank P. Davidson andKathleen Lusk Brooke, 2
Vols., "Building the World: An Encyclopedia of the Great
Engineering Projects in History," Greenwood Press, 2006. Instead
of architecture the site refers to these projects as
Architectural History Survey Examples," Bryn Mawr University website.
Large numbers of links to images of world architectural sites.
Abbeville Press list of
books on architecture, 55 titles.
Fortresses," Essential Architecture.
K. Kris Hirst,
"Monumental Architecture," about.com. Earliest architecture, mounds,
Temples," World Archaeology, May 31, 2013. Click on small photograph
to see enlarged image of each temple.
Norbert Soloria Bermosa,
"Famous Commemorative and Triumphal Arches in the World," Quazen.com,
July 19, 2008. Website shows four pages of famous arches from the Renaissance
to the 20th century.
Architecture," alientravelguide. Use arrows at top right of page to
navigate this site.
Houses," allpics4u website @ 2008-2013, seen September 20, 2013. A
brief overview of the history of stilt houses architecture from neolithic and
bronze age with photographs of houses which were built in many regions of the
Architecture History and
Styles, Wiley, 29 pages of Architecture history and style's titles, google
Carol Strickland, "The
Annotated Arch: A Crash Course in the History of Architecture,"
Kansas City: Andrew McMeel Publishing, 2001. Paperback booklet 178
pp. review of architecture-eurocentric. See selections of the book: http://books.google.com/books/about/The_annotated_arch.html?id=rdiFhC6XOWwC
Architecture," Library of Congress resources, lessons, websites.
R. O. Pierce, "A
Brief History of Theatre Architecture and Stage Technology," San Dieguito
Union High School District, February 4, 2010. Power Point with drawings
andphotographs explaining Greek, Roman, Medieval, Renaissance,
Elizabethan, 1650-1900, Japanese Kabuki, and 20thcentury theatre and
"Religion's Influence on Architecture and Culture," World & I,
2005. Short essay on world religion's impact on buildings and culture.
See Tibetan Buddhist stupa from this "The World and I" article:
Murshid Samuel L. Lewis
and Hazrat Inayat Khan, "Spiritual Architecture," Sufi Ruhaniat
International (Eugene, Oregon), 1978. Sufi Ruhaniat project discussing
spiritual architecture using examples of Egyptian, Asiatic, Classical Europe,
Contemporary, shrine and temple architecture. This resource cited with
permission of the Sufi Ruhaniat Secretariat and Treasurer Basira Beardsworth,
Hawaii. See their home site: http://www.ruhaniat.org/
Information Page," stupa.org. Click on stupa image or title to move
you into sections to see Stupa architecture globally. The Tibetan word
for stupa is "Chorten" which means the basis of offering.
Rudolf Stegers, "A
Design Manual-Sacred Buildings," Basel, Boston, Berlin:
Birkhauser, 2008. Stegers as author and editor of this book
includes chapters on the Synagogue, Mosque, Acoustic Analysis-Sound in Sacred
places-synagogue and mosque, and sound and light in sacred places. Seen
in scribd.com preview.
"Sacred Bahai Architecture," Bahai Library, September 1999, posted by
Jonah Winters October 19, 2003. Author, then, was student at
International Baccalaureate Program, Poudre High School, Fort Collins, Colorado.
See more at Bridgette Schnider, "Ba'hai Architecture of
Israel," Arch 499 Non Western architecture, University of Idaho: http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/arch499/nonwest/bahai/home1.htm
"The Science of Healing Places With Esther Sternberg," On Being,
October 24, 2013. See podcast interview with Immunologist Esther
Sternberg on physical space (architecture) as "healing spaces" not
places which produce stress and sickness. See other segments on
"Architecture Debate: Christopher Alexander and Peter
Eisenman," numinist website, posted May 10, 2013. Numinist includes
photographs of three samples of architecture referenced in the debate. See
transcript of this legendary debate held November 17,1982: http://www.katarxis3.com/Alexander_Eisenman_Debate.htm Peter Eisenman is a
prominent Deconstructivist Architect while Christopher Alexander is a
builder focused on methodologies outside the mainstream of architecture,
including holism, human feeling, objective beauty and living structure.
See links to Islamic architecture world wide.
search in Saudi Aramco World free online journal. See many articles dealing
with architecture mainly in Muslim regions.
Takeo Kamiya, Islamic
Architecture website. Takeo Kamiya, a Japanese architect, has been
targeted by the Japanese construction Mafia which he explains in a letter
beneath the Islamic architecture tabs on his website. The tabs will take
you to regional Islamic architecture sites such as India, Bulgaria, Africa,
Architecture, Pilgrimage Sites," Wonder Mondo website. See articles
and photographs of famous religious sites in world history.
Architecture," ArchNet website. One can download many articles
having to do with water and architecture in world history.
waterhistory.org. See examples of water technology and designs.
"Aqueducts in World
History," Water World blog, January 2012. Summary of aqueduct
architecture in world history.
"Water and Cultures
in the Ancient World," Water World blog, November 2011. Summary of
water and water architecture in ancient world history.
Courses," Openculture.com. See Free Architecture online courses
available on this site. Will need Itunes to open.
Collection," Architecture Week. 1000 selected classics of world
architecture and hundreds of their great designers in this general architecture
reference site. See also Building Types and Architecture Styles from
neolithic through neo-Vernacular styles at:
And more from this site:
Greatest Hits," Great Buildings site (UK) @ 1997-2006. Site offers
most visited architectural sites.
Mary Ann Sullivan,
"Digital Imaging Project, Chronology Index," Bluffton College. More
than 20,000 sculptures and architecture photos/images from pre-history to
"Houses Around the
World," Hagafoto, Haga Library, Tokoyo, Japan. Photographs of
dwelling architecture around the world withshort annotated descriptions
of each house style.
Architecture," History World. Fourteen pages of architecture history
from prehistoric caves through the 19th century in 14 pages. 20th-21st
centuries to be completed.
"Reaching For the Sky," Ancient Architecture-The Art History Archive,
December 2007. Links for ancient Africa, Babylon and Persia, Egypt, Greece,
Inca, Mayan, and Roman architecture.
History & Styles," Visual-Arts-Cork.com, and Encyclopedia of
Art. See at top of page "The Art of Building Design: Famous
Architects-A through Z," and "History of Architecture (3000
BCE-Present, 2000 CE).
"Lessons From Research on Learning Environments," Architecture,
design, geography and effects on student learning, UNESCO research paper, 2012.
Kenyan, Spanish, and Dutch students and their learning environments are presented as case
studies in this study.
Google Book. Peter
Galison and Emily Ann Thompson, "The Architecture of
Science,"MIT Press, 1999. Galison
and Thompson examine how the "spaces" in which science is done speaks
to how people view science. Book is divided into six sections.
Short description with
link to Neuroarthistory and Professor John Onians, University of Missouri
education, 2010. Dr. Onians, who specializes in architecture, researches
neuroarthistory which combines neuroscience and art history to work out what
happens in artists/architect's brains.
Kim Gurri, Leon Straker,
and Phillip Moore, "A History of Seating in the Western World,"
Curtin University of Technology, Perth Western Australia. The three
authors show chair furniture "seating" and posture from Egyptian to
"History of City Planning, Introduction," Art Net. Short
article on the world history of city planning and urban architecture.
"Architecture Without Architects: What Ancient Structures Reveal
About Collaborative Design," brain pickings, January 23, 2012. Ms.
Popova discusses Bernard Rudofsky (Moravian born American, 1905-1988) and his
work during the 1960's concerning architecture without architects and primitive
and communal designs.
Google Book, Bernard
Rudofsky, "Architecture Without Architects: A Short Introduction
to Non-pedigreed Architecture," NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1964.
Bernard Rudofsky," J. Paul Getty Museum Exhibition March 11-June 8, 2008.
Rudofsky was a fashion designer, vernacular architect and critic who's
most famous works were "Are Clothes Modern?" 1944, "Architecture
Without Architects," 1964, "Streets For People, 1969 and
"Now I lay me down to eat," 1980. His Bernardo sandals (1944)
shaped to the architecture of the human foot are coming back intostyle
"A Brief History of
the World's Tallest Buildings," Time Photos 11 slide share, 2013.
"Buildings That Changed the World-A Millennium of Masterpieces,"
Architecture About.com. Ms. Craven's choices taken from a polling of
About.com readers are euro-centric and rationale for selection to list is slim.
Michael H. Mitas, "Architecture
and Civilization,"Rodopi, January 1, 1999, 208 pp. Google
Marian Moffett, Michael
W. Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse, "A World History ofArchitecture,"
Lawrence King Publishing, 2003, 592 pp. Google E-Book.
Andrew Howley, "Is
Every Civilization Destined to Collapse," National Geographic, May 1,
2013. Series of "posts" or articles on ancient
civilizations such as What is civilization, Egypt, Mesopotamia,
India/Pakistan, Maya, and article on Why did Ancient Civilizations Build
such large monuments seen here: http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/05/01/the-ancient-past-as-a-window-to-the-future-part-2-of-3/
"Architecture as a Product of Culture, History, Science, Technology, Economics,
Society, Religion, and State-5000 Years of Architecture and City Planning in
the Western World," History of Architecture blog, December 3, 2010.
General comments on architectural history with some photographs.
Saskia Sassen, "Why
the Middle Class is Revolting," The Hindu, January 14, 2013. Dr.
Sassen, a Sociology professor at Columbia University, discusses the
architecture of globalization, the Global Street, cities and finances,
and sustainable human settlements in this interview with India's "The
Hindu." She references global corporations as committing
"grand larceny" and explains that this robbery is one reason for
middle class protest from Chile to Egypt to India.
Architecture," World Cat, bibliography of books on gender/feminism
in architecture and world history.
Architect.org. Short list of books from 1980's and 1990's with gender and
architecture as topics.
Google Book-Iain Borden,
Barbara Penner, Jane Rendell (Editors), "Gender, Space, Architecture,"
Routledge, April 12, 2002. Seminal book filled with essays on gender and
architecture focusing on European and US examples.
Fear and Architecture," Architect.org. Short list of books with
theme of architecture and fear.
"Surveillance, Architecture and Society," ezine articles, submitted
January 11, 2010. Surveillance architecture has long been a method of
control and a symbol of power. Paul Goss also compares Bentham's Panopticon
and modern video surveillance and close circuit TV in this short essay.
See more on Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon:
Surveillance: The Panopticon." Website detailing Bentham's
Panopticon ("all seeing") model prison and link to Bentham's specific
architectural specifications for his surveillance machine from his 1787
Google Book-Nan Elin,
ed., "Architecture of Fear," Princeton Architectural Press,
1997. Series of essays describing and discussing how urban design, home
architecture, laws and security build separation due to fear.
H.V. Savitch review of
Stephen Graham, ed., "Cities, War and Terrorism," Malden,
MA: Blackwell, 2004 seen in metropoles.revues (France), December 18,
2008. Series of essays on urbanity and violent conflict, urbicide with point
of view slanted against "Neo-Imperial" nations (led by US) who are
out to destroy and subjugate under-developed regions.
Examples of Bosnia War (1992-1995 Sarajevo) and Israeli use of
architecture and urban planning to dominate the landscape.
Martina Milla Bernad,
"Colonialism and Architecture," Post Colonial Studies, Emory
University, spring 1998, updated May 2012.
Architecture: Resources," Environmental Design University of California,
Berkeley Library, 2012. Resources compiled by Elizabeth Douthitt Byrne, October
"Bodies of Evidence: Architecture, photography and real lives,"
Architonic.com, 2013. Simon Keane-Colwell uses photographs by Dutch
photographer Iwan Baan to argue that the built environment must include real
people. He claims that there has been a long tradition of architectural
photography picturing depopulated spaces--devoid of the
very users for which the architecture were designed.
Art History website
presented by Khan Academy. Note architecture included.
Architecture," Great Buildings, Architecture Week. Examples of vernacular
architecture. What is Vernacular Architecture? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernacular_architecture
"The 10 Best Works
of Architecture in 2010," The Coolist.com, 2010. Best Buildings of
2010 around the world.
Biography of top
European and American architects, Architecture.Architecture.sk website.
Scroll down the page of each biography to see the rest of the bio for
"Secret Underground Cities," hubpages.com, last updated July 8, 2013.
Cities from America to Australia. See 2:51 video clip on
Cappadocia, Turkey underground home and drawings and photographson Giza
Plateau underground cities.
and Buildings," Peachy Green, posted by Stephanie July 16, 2009. See
short article and photographs of underground homes and building globally.
"12 Cool Examples
of Modern Cave Architecture," Furniture Fashion Modern Design website,
September 22, 2011.
Tunnel Page," lotsberg.net. Large number of links as to tunnels in
world history many European and American.
"Illegal Vodka Pipelines," Mother Jones, September 15, 2013.
Hawaii Molasses pipeline leaked causing much damage. See other
"illegal" pipelines in current world history including vodka, orange
juice, Kentucky fried chicken tunnel, beer, whiskey, etc..
Buildings," World of Architecture, January 2013. See world's tallest
buildings, defined as "skyscrapers" or office, commercial
buildings and not including churches, cathedrals, pyramids, since 1870. Note
change over time from Europe to American and recently Asia and Dubai.
10 Picture slide show
from "Floating Architecture: Finding Ways to Live With Rising Water,"
by Saskia De Melker, PBS, May 2012. Saskia De Melker's article can be
seen here with examples from Russia, the Netherlands, Louisiana fishermen,
Thailand, England's Thames River and a floating mosque: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2012/05/preparing-for-a-life-on-water-with-floating-architecture.html
"Global Warming Effect on Art and Design Because the World is Melting,"
Yatzer, August 8, 2013. Photographs of art and architecture using global
warming as a metaphor.
"Architecture: The Making of Metaphors," Cambridge Scholars,
2012, ed. by Edward Hart. This link provides a sample of architect and designer
Barie Fez-Barrington's book which includes Chapter 1 and part of Chapter 2.
See another source for Barie Fez-Barrington's,"Architecture:
The Making of Metaphors," for his
architect and design course set as a slide show or power point seen in
academia.edu. Barrington's thesis is that architecture has meaning in
space much like a metaphor in literature.
"Community Oriented Architecture in Schools and How Extroverted Design Can
Impact Learning and Change the World," Arch daily, March 5, 2012.
See 3 minute video and Ms. Quirk's views on architecture and learning.
Global Country of World Peace, Mahrishi Mahesh Yogi-Founder, @ 2011. This
site is promoting architecture and engineering in accord with natural law, even
Vedic laws of nature and harmony. A point of view of balance and harmony
not unlike Chinese Feng-shui.
"Peace Building Architecture," essay with sources seen in George
Mason University website, nd. Beginning in the 1960's peace, anti-nuclear and
green movements grew but soon turned into political parties in Europe.
Building sustainable environments is a key to moving the world toward
Cinema," The Architecture of Fear blog, March 25, 2007. Blog talks about
Paul Virilio,professor of philosophy, b. 1932, Paris, and with modern
technology in war "the image" becomes the target on a screen and that
target isarchitecture. More on Paul Virilio: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/paul-virilio/biography/
Spain, "Gendered Spaces," University of North
Carolina Press, 1992. Ms. Spain discusses architecture which
separates men and women. Chapters include Space and Status, nonindustrial
societies, Mongolian Ger and Tuareg Tent,
Ceremonial Men's Huts, United States gendered spaces, 19th century and contemporary
Joop de Boer, "A
New Generation of Separation Walls," Pop up City, November 11, 2009.
Berlin wall fell over two decades ago, but separation walls designed to
isolate the rich from the masses continue. See "previous" and "next"
icons to view other articles dealing with architecture, city planning and
David Tamm, AP World
History website with annotated pictures, photographs, drawings of architecture
and art over time fromancient history through the Renaissance. Hudson
Florida High School. See David's AP World home website: http://hudsonfla.com/ap.htm
City of the Future," The Future of Things, July 2008.
"Floating Cities of
the Future," National Geographic, July 2012. See slides and
descriptive articles on each floating model.
Rise of Organic Architecture," kuriositas.com, January 2011. See
large annotated photos exhibiting this new style of architecture.
"Are These the
Ugliest Buildings in the World?" Telegraph (UK), seen December 17, 2013.
Slide share of what the Telegraph views as ugly architecture, or are
they missing cultural metaphors for the design?
"The History of
Fabric Structures," Designing Buildings Wiki, last edited July 31, 2013.
Professor G. G. Schierie,
"Design of Fabric Structures," University of Southern California
School of Architecture Lecture (power point), April 30, 2009.
Architectural design style of Portable Fabric Structures.
John Koch, "Pole
Frame Structure Architecture," laybyrinth.net.
Emily Badger, "Are
Global Cities Really Doomed to become Citadels for the Rich?" The Atlantic
Cities, June 17, 2013. Ms. Badger is reacting to Simon Kuper's Financial Times
essay which claims that large global cities are "vast gated communities
where the one percent reproduces itself." Continuation of idea of
architecture as divider of classes.
"What is Architecture," rebirth of reason, review of "What
Art Is," by Louis Torres and Michelle Marder Kamhi, originally
published in The Free Radical. Website dedicated to Ayn Rand includes
Auckland architect, Peter Cresswell debate as to Torres and Kamhi's thesis
that Ayn Rand thought architecture was not art. See more on " Online,"
Chapter 10-Architecture: 'Art' or 'Design?' What Art Is: http://www.aristos.org/whatart/ch10.htm
Crete," Interactive Dig, 10:33 video tour of rare Minoan highland site
including architecture second-millennium BCE. Archaeology Magazine, 2013.
Prehistoric Architecture, Delta Valley College, San Francisco, California. See
videos on prehistoric architecture and tabs for "Egypt"
and"Greece" architecture videos. See Home Site for
Architecture-Early Civilizations to
Middle Ages, Links, Readings and Videos: http://voyager2.dvc.edu/~dabbott/archi_156/archi_156_index.html
Hanging Gardens of
Babylon, 48:52 youtube video showing the architecture (Archimedes Screw)
and 8,200 gallons of water used daily to irrigate the gardens which are
considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Some doubt the
Ian Reynolds, "The
History and Architecture of Petra," History of the Ancient World, April
28, 2013. See slim article on Petra's history and architecture and 25
"Jesus was a Stone
Mason," National Geographic TV, Mysteries of the Bible: Living in
the Time of Jesus: Making a Living, youtube.com, posted December 13, 2010,
video 4:10. Video clip on Nazareth and Jesus
as a stone mason, not a carpenter. This is part of the historiography of
the Historical Jesus Movement interested in his humanity not as much in
San Vitale, Ravenna," 10:18 Video Smart History Khan Academy.
Speakers Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker with text by Alan Farber.
Focus on the Byzantine Justinian mosiac architecture at San Vitale begun
in 526 or 527 CE.
Temples," Templenet.com. Three videos on Hindu temples with other
resources. See Home Page Site developed by K. Kannikeswaran @ 1996: http://templenet.com/Tamilnadu/subrswam.html
Temple," Youtube. Short 1 minute 5 second video of Kailash temple
which was dedicated to Lord Shiva in Ellora, India in mid 8th-9th century.
"The Baha'i House
of Worship, Virtual Walking Tour," Short video showing New Delhi, India Baha'i
57 minute 11 second youtube documentary based on David Macaulay's book, PBS,
published April 1, 2012.
"World Architecture-Middle Ages to 18th century," Diablo Valley
College, Archi 157. See 12 videos on Gothic and
Renaissance architecture from this college course website.
Cathedrals," Nova PBS series on Sacred Architecture, Aired October 5,
2011. 58 minute video on middle age Gothic architecture. See other
sacred architecture videos, documentaries and podcasts on this Nova website.
"History of the World," brothers-brick.com, November 3, 2013.
Eurocentric website with flickr photos of microscale architecture built
with collectible minifigs. Not a documentary or video, but a slideshow timeline.
See Lego Architecture (brick legos) website: http://architecture.lego.com/en-us/
See more images of Lego
monumental architecture: http://speckyboy.com/2009/10/11/around-the-world-with-35-famous-lego-monuments-and-buildings/
"Around the World With 35 Famous Lego Monuments and Buildings,"
speckyboy.com, October 11, 2009.
Architectural Engineer," Secret Life of Scientists, Nova PBS.
Emily Whiting is an architectural engineer who specializes in Gothic
cathedrals and learning how they have stood so long and transferring that
knowledge into modern building. She is also an avid rock climber.
See the four short video clips on her research, rock climbing,
and architectural research.
PBS Treasures of the World series, 1999. 58 minute youtube documentary
video on building of the Taj Mahal.
Islamic Architecture and Art," 1:33:25 documentary video narrated by
Waldemar Janoszczak added to youtube December 24, 2012. Janoszczak states,
"True test of civilization is it's architecture. Architecture never
lies as evidenced by the Greek and Islamic civilizations."
(51:20): Aperture, Yazd, Iran, Press TV Doc, 2013, Daily Motion documentary
video showing architecture and history of Iranian oasis city, Yazd, and it's
famous wind tunnels which draw hot air out of buildings.
"Sinan the Islamic
Architect," Ottoman Architecture Video, 4:56. Suleiman's architect
Sinan is featured. Examples of his domed mosques and monumental
architecture, published May 5, 2008. Biography of Sinan born 1489
of Greek Christian parents drafted into the
Ottoman army becoming a construction officer and architect, d. 1588: http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Sinan.html
Architect," Ottoman Architecture Video, 5:47.
China's Great Wall, Pt.
1, Youtube video. See Pt. 2 to right of video page as you open link.
Wonders of the World," History.com. See eight short video clips of
ancient architectural wonders such as Egypt's pyramids, etc.
"Lost Cities of the
Amazon," Documentary.com, National Geographic 46 minute 11 second
Angkor Wat," Buddhist Thai Post multimedia, National Geographic
Architecture," youtube, (9:15) uploaded December 8, 2009. Turning volume
down helped me get through this video. Perhaps having students
viewing the images for 3 minutes and asking them what they see as to these
Angkor Wat pieces of architecture. The Khmer emperors ruled with powerful
divine right as evidenced in the religious and political architecture.
"Ethiopian Ancient Architecture and The Ethiopian
History-Documentary," (56:55), July 7, 2012.
Videos and documentaries," Architecturalvdos.blogspot, September 2011.
Documentary.net. See a number of modern videos on architecture, most
"History of the
Empire State Building," Deconstructing History from history.com, video 2
minutes. Also see 16 other video shorts on architectural wonders such as
the Taj Mahal, Buckingham Palace, etc. as you scroll down the page.
"Less is a Bore:
A Lesson in Postmodern Architecture," Slog The Stranger, March 7,
2013. Seven minute video posted by Charles Mudede on Postmodern
"Architecture in the Early 20th Century: Modernism, Bahaus, DeStijl
and the International Style," May 17, 2012. Video slide show
"Profile of the La
Sagrada Familia," Video.about.com, Architecture. 2 minute 35 second
video of Antonio Gaudi's 1883 design of the La Sagrada Familia which exhibits
Gothic Naturalism and Gaudi's genius of combining naturalist/landscape
design into the cathedral.
Elizabeth Lev, "The
Development of Sacred Space in Rome, the Cradle of Christian Architecture,"
Biola University (California private Christian university) 43 minute Video
Space," Catholic TV of Boston 27 minute video interview by Bishop Coyne of
artist and architect Rita Smith who has designed Catholic churches in the
Architecture-Living Architecture," Bullfrog films. "Seven North
American Native Communities that reinterpret traditional forms for contemporary
purposes." See 3 minute video clip.
"Watch Fire Ants
Use Their Bodies to Form Living Architecture," Smithsonian Magazine blog,
November 27, 2013. See short video clip (1:27) "moving" photographs
of Brazilian fire ants building bridges, etc. These fire ants live underground
but when it floods they use their bodies to build architecture to move from
Architecture of War," Imperial War Museum, London, 49:43 youtube video,
posted November 20, 2013. A panel of experts talks about theme of construction
during WW I through WW II by examining images of work places,
fortifications and mechanisms built for war.
"Anarchist Architecture-Healthy Architecture," posted November 20,
2010 as an introduction/trailer to Sheen's documentary,
"First Earth," a look at using healthy building materials from the
earth as architectural elements and an attack on our consumer
the Poor," Spike.com, posted May 11, 2007. Video 8:55, Architecture
Education Exhibition 2001 King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang,
Thailand. See school website: http://www.ic.kmitl.ac.th/
David Sheen, "First
Earth: Uncompromising Ecological Architecture Video," watchdocumentary.org.
9:23 video documentary-What's Wrong With Architecture-Prologue to full
length documentary, "First Earth."
David Sheen, "The
Future of Architecture," PM Press, TED Talks, Johannesburg, South Africa,
November 2010. Sheen synthesizes his 90 minute documentary, "First
Earth," into a 17 minute 24 second Ted Talk Video.
"Law and Architecture," Lund School of Architecture video, vimeo.com,
2012. Leopold Lambert is editor of Funambulist architecture website.
(48 minutes) Seen in: http://weaponizedarchitecture.wordpress.com/
"Books on American
Cities," Book TV CSpan 2. See two Video discussions on American
Cities, first being Andrew Moore's "Detroit Disassembled," a
photographic documentary of a crumbling industrial city with poet Philip Levin
who worked on an assembly line. Moore's photographs show the crumbling
architecture of Detroit, Michigan. See more of Andrew Moore's work from
Akron Art Museum exhibit and Western Reserve Public Media Special
film documentary (24 minutes) which aired July 3, 2010: http://video.westernreservepublicmedia.org/video/1536891086/
"History of the Highrise," NY Times Docu Op, October 2013. Four
interactive videos/films dealing with architecture and social equality in an
increasedly urbanized world, ie., "who lives on the top floor?" Pt.
I, "Mud," Pt. 2 "Concrete," Pt. 3, "Glass."
a Desert," Discovery Channel, 2013. 43 minute video on the building
of Dubai, engineering and architecture in a desert. See Dubai video in first
row of Discovery documentaries.
Deconstructivist Architecture," youtube, (4:56), uploaded November
My days as a young rebel," Ted Talks video, filmed March 1990 posted
March 13. 2008. Frank Gehry discusses his architecture with a slide show
presentation in this 44 minute Ted Talk video
A Master Architect asks, Now What?" Ted Talks 22 minute video with
Richard Saul, filmed February 2002 posted January 2008. See other
architecture videos on right side of this page. Richard Saul begins video
with claiming Frank Gehry was not a "sell out" in his career.
See North American section for a criticism of Gehry's "deconstructivist"
architecture from Niklos Salingaroos who argues for Unified Architecture style.
Dr. Ronald Rael,
"Borderwall as Architecture," series of videos posted by Berkeley
professor Ronald Rael on the US-Mexico borderwall and how to make the wall a
helper and not a divider. Series of videos.
"Who Builds Your
Architecture," What is the Architect's responsibility to workers who build
the buildings and the environment surrounding the architecture 2:06:56
Video from The New School, New York City published May 7, 2012. This panel discussion
examines architecture, or, for that matter, all art and social justice and
"Architecture in the Age of Globalization," 1:41:30 Video of lecture
given at Harvard University Graduate School of Design, published July 25, 2013.
Dr. Frampton is Ware Professor of Architecture at Columbia University,
"Doug Aitken is Redefining How We Experience Art," Smithsonian
Magazine, December 2013. Background article to video 2:53 "A Multimedia
Spectacle at the Hirshhorn," showing artist Doug Aitken transforming the
outside of the Hirshhorn Art Museum into a panoramic movie screen. An
example of syncretism, architecture and video as urban earth
work of art. See 2:53 video here: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/multimedia/videos/A-Multimedia-Spectacle-at-the-Hirshhorn.html
feel free to use these images in your school reports. To save the image, simple
Source of photograph:
"Hawaiian Architecture," Hawaii History. Note Hawaiian
culture included an architecture skilled group in the Kahuna class responsible
for leading the community in building projects of all types. This
traditional Polynesian home was called a "hale."
Architecture," Janeresture.com site, revised April 3, 2009. Photographs
and short summaries of ancient Oceania architecture.
of the Mariana Islands," Our Pacific Ocean, revised December 2, 2008.
See precolonial megaliths architecture constructed by Chamorros called
"Oceania Architecture," Inquire Within. Frederick Ratzel's
work, on native groups throughout the world.The History of Mankind,was
published in 1896.
Ancient World Review, September 28, 2013. See annotated videos for
Oceania archaeological sites. Note Kon-Tiki 1947 video does not open.
Tim Thomas (U. of
Otago), Peter Sheppard (Auckland U.), Richard Walter (U. of Otago),
"Landscape Violence and Social Bodies: Ritualized Architecture In
a Solomon Islands Society," Royal Anthropological Institute, 2001,
pp. 545-572 seen in academia.edu.
Paul Wallin and Helene
Martinsson-Wallin, "Monumental Structures and the Spirit of Chiefly
Actions," Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and
Culture, Volume 4 Issue 1, March 2011, pp. 43-58 seen in academia.edu. Gotland
University, Sweden professors, Paul and Helene Martinsson-Wallin, explain
monumental architecture change due to competition among Polynesian chiefs.
Geoffrey Clark and
Helene Martinsson-Wallin, "Monumental Architecture in West Polynesia:
Origins, Chiefs and Archaeological Approaches," Archael, Oceania 42
Supplement, 2007, pp. 28-40 seen in academia.edu.
Ancient.wisdom. Nan Modal is a ruined city on the island of Pohnpei in
Micronesia formerly the capital of the Sandeleur dynasty until 1500 CE.
Nan Modal was called the Venice of the Pacific as numerous canals
connected ceremonial sites on this island that claimed 25, 000 inhabitants with
occupation evident from the 1st and 2nd centuries CE and complex architecture
noted in 8th and 9th centuries CE.
National Museum of Natural Science, @ 2007. See tabs and links to Oceania
settlements, dwellings and culture, Building forms, building techniques.
"Oceanic Art and
Architecture," Encyclopedia Britannica on-line. A number of pages of
Oceania's art and architecture.
"Architecture in New Zealand-Traditional Maori Architecture,"
Daejeon, Korea Architectural website, AWA.
"The Pa Maori or
Fortified Village," Military Architecture, @ 2011-2012. Click on "READ
MORE" to see long article on this New Zealand ancient Maori village
fortification architecture. Also see other resources for military architecture
on this website. Home page for Military Architecture website: http://www.militaryarchitecture.com/
Philip Drew review of
Paul Memmott, "Gunyah-Goondie-Wurley: The Aboriginal Architecture
of Australia," University of Queensland Press, 2007 seen in
Sydney Morning Herald, December 14, 2007. Memmott's work is the first
anthropological work to detail Australian Aboriginal architecture and turns on
its head the belief that Indigenous People were devoid of houses or towns
when Europeans first reached Australia. See excerpts of Paul
Memmott's book: http://books.google.co.nz/books/about/Gunyah_Goondie_and_Wurley.html?id=xNhsTkT6MZ8C
David Gardiner and
Kathryn Wells, "Australian Indigenous Architecture," Australia
Government, last updated January 7, 2008.
Aboriginal Identities in Architecture, September 1, 2003 seen in
Architecture Australia September 2003 (Vol. 92, No. 5).
"Gendered Space in Traditional Architecture," Gender and the Built
Environment Database. Ms. Melhuish focuses on the Waripiri, aboriginal
people of Australia, and gender separation of the "jilimi" or
separate house for widows, healing place for women during and after childbirth
with short mention of the traditional Indian/Hindu family
house or "haveli." See other articles and case studies on right
side of this page.
"Nomadic Resistance: Tent Embassies and Collapsible Architecture,
Illegal Architecture and Protest." Greg Cowan discusses the Aboriginal
Tent Embassy protest movement which has been camped outside the Canberra Provisional
Parliament House since 1972 protesting "illegal" British
camping/colonization of Australia.
Michael John Kolb,
"Social Power, Chiefly Authority, and Ceremonial Architecture in an Island
Polity, Maui, Hawaii," Paper written for PhD dissertation for the
University of California, Los Angeles Anthropology department, 1991. Seen
in academia.edu. Note discussions of Heiau architecture sites built for
"Power and Precedence in Ancient House Societies: A Case Study From
the Society Island Chiefdoms," 2007, seen in academia.edu. Jennifer
Kahn cites Claude Levi Strauss in her introduction for establishing
"societes a maisons" as a method for establishing and defining
primary social grouping. Social organization and social relationships
relate to architectural space in societies. Strauss cited Indonesia, Melanesia
and Polynesia as examples of this sociological rubric.
Michael John Kolb,
Diachronic Design Changes in Heiau Temple Architecture on the Island of
Maui, Hawai'i, Asian Perspectives, Vol. 31, no. 1, Spring 1992,
University of Hawaii Press. Michael Kolb was archaeologist with the State
Historic Preservation Division, Department of Land and Natural Resources,
Honolulu, Hawaii in 1992.
Mark D. McCoy,
"Life Outside the Temple: Reconstructing Traditional Hawaiian Ritual
and Religion Through Ritualized Practices," Paper presented at conference
in 2008. Paper seen in academia.edu. In Mark McCoy's abstract for this
paper he claims, "the construction of increasedly larger,
more elaborate and standardized temples is a common trajectory identified
with the rise of complex societies. However, this focus on temple
studies can (narrow) how we view ancient ritual and religion...we should employ
a practice theory...by which certain places, people and objects are made to
stand out from the everyday." McCoy uses a case study from the
Hawaiian Islands to understand the "place of ideology in the evolution of
complex societies." See more on Dr. McCoy's papers:
Mark McCoy, University
of Otago, Architecture and archaeology research downloads, academia.edu.
Jennifer G. Kahn &
Patrick V. Kirch, Residential Landscapes and House Societies of the Late
Prehistoric Society, Islands, Journal of Pacific Archaeology, Vol.
4, No. 1, 2013 seen in academia.edu. See more of Jennifer Kahn's research:http://wm.academia.edu/JenniferKahn
Jennifer Kahn, College
of William and Mary Anthropology professor specializing in Landscape
Architecture. See her research on academia.edu. See
information on Patrick V. Kirch: http://grad.berkeley.edu/lectures/event.php?id=771&lecturer=499
Races of Oceania-Labour, Dwellings and Food in Oceania," -3 Volumes, London: Macmillan
Publishing, 1896 by Professor Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904). Late 19th
century research on Oceania/Polynesia seen in The History of Mankind.
Architecture with pictures/drawings by German zoologist/biologist
turned geographer and ethnographer seen in this late 19th century work.
"A Culture Written in Stone and Soil," National Geographic News,
February 18, 2011. Journalist Tasha Eichenseher wrote this article from Mo'orea
where the Nuuroa Marae stone structure complex was found in Haapiti, Mo'orea
(French Polynesia). See comparative "lesson" on this architecture
in Lessons section at the end of this article where along with the Shona
people's Great Zimbabwe stone structures early European explorers felt that the
Polynesians and the Shona were not capable of building these magnificent
Architecture of the Pacific Islands," espace.library, University of
Queensland, Australia, pdf. Very general overview of traditional and European
influenced architecture of Australia, New Zealand and select Pacific Islands.
Architecture of Oceanic Societies," Universalium, Academic Encyclopedia
and Library, Russia.
Symbolism," First Chinese Church of Christ in Hawaii. See First Chinese
Church of Christ Hawaii website and explanation and photographs of their
architecture. The church was completed in 1929.
Island Architecture," Spontoon website. See links to photographs and
descriptions of Pacific island architecture and buildings.
Architecture," digplanet.com from wikipedia. See examples of
Naomi Wilcock, "A
Prison in the Pacific," World Architecture News, March 14, 2013.
Spanish architects win architecture competition with Ocean Prison Design.
MSAP Hawaii website
which celebrates Muslim art and architecture in the Asia Pacific region.
See articles on Muslim architecture globally.
Sustainable Projects for
Pacific Rim Cities, Sustainable Pacific @ 2012. See urban design
Liesi Clark and Peter
Tyson, "Explore Ancient Egypt," PBS NOVA, @1996-2013. See many
resources on Egypt's pyramid architecture and virtual tours of Old and New
Egypt, University College London, 2002. Click on each period's image for
more resources and see link to Coptic Architecture.
Dr. Joyce Tyldesly,
"Egypt's Pyramid Builders," BBC, February 17, 2011. The private lives
of the work force that built the pyramids.
Egypt-Egyptian Architecture," Canada Museum of Civisations.
"Aspects of Life in Ancient Egypt," Reshafim.org.il, March 2001, last
updated February 2011. Scroll down to "Buildings" section to see
articles, drawings on ancient Egyptian architecture.
Architecture South of the Sahara," Stanford.edu. See websites, links
to African architecture and culture.
"Remarks on Kushite Temples Dated to the Napatan-Merotic Period,"
Ancient Sudan Art History, 2007, updated July 2009. Driven out of Egypt
the Nubians built a Kingdom of Meroe 400 BCE-350 CE and prospered as Greek and
Roman trade developed.
Black History-African Architecture," Britannica.com @ 2013.
"Ancient Architecture of Africa," About.com Architecture, December
26, 2011. Short articles with photos of ancient African architecture.
Architecture," The NBS. Note two links, first one opening to other digital
resources as to ancient African architecture and second link opens to website
on Mali ancient architecture.
(Mande)," Arch Net. Description of West African Manding architecture with
two images at bottom of this page.
of Indigenous African Architecture," science.jrank.org, copyright 2013.
Short article citing varioussources for indigenous African
"Literature Review: The Berber House by Pierre Bourdieu,"
Mitchell Benham wordpress, November 2011. Mitchell Benham discusses
Pierre Bourdieu's description of a typical North African Berber house from Bourdieu's
essay in ed. Setha M. Low and Denise Lawrence,The Anthropology of
Space and Place: Locating Culture, Zuniga, Malden, MA:
Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Bourdieu's essay is in a section of the
book called "Gendered Spaces." This section details how
architecture can be an anthropological window into the gender relations of a
culture, in this case the Berbers. See World Cat preview of Space
and Place: http://www.worldcat.org/title/anthropology-of-space-and-place-locating-culture/oclc/49799173/viewport
"Kharga-Oasis of Temples and Castles," Look Lex Egypt. The
largest oasis in the world and former slave tradehub between Egypt, Nubia
and East Africa. See photo of keyhole well from Tore Kjeilen website:
of temples and castles
||Figure 4: Traditionally keyhole shaped well, but with a modern pump helping as the pressure of the underground reservoirs has dropped in modern times.
architecture, copticarchitecture.com. Coptic website dedicated to
teaching Copts in diaspora how to build a true Coptic church as was done in
Nubia," Nubia and It's art website.
"Christianity and Architecture in Ethiopia: Monuments Carved Out of
Rock," Cemmis (Greece), @2010-2012. Short article on rock carved
Christian churches in Ethiopia. Scroll down to bottom of page to see
linked article, "Rock-Hewn Churches of Tigray, Ethiopia-1973" with
"High Church," Financial Times, last updated April 7, 2012. Description
of rock hewn churches of northern Ethiopia's Tigray region with photos.
Heritage Architectural Concept," science.jrank.org, copyright 2013.
Short article on Christian, Muslim, traditional religions and their
effects on domestic architecture of African homes.
Trinh T. Minh-ha,"Vernacular Architecture of West Africa-A World
in Dwelling,"Routledge 2011. This Routledge ad for
this book includes a brief description of the book, and tabs for
"Contents," "Author Bio," and other books in this
genre-"Subjects" tab. Power of the book is what
"home" means to west African ethnic groups and peoples. See
description of book:
dwellings of hundreds of African ethnic groups offer a variety of conceptions
and building practices that contradict the widespread image of the primitive
hut commonly attributed to rural Africa. Each house or group of houses is
designed not only to shelter the members of a family, but also to enable
intimate communication with ancestors and divinities and to harmonize with the
forces of nature. Such an architecture thrives in a community context where it
is simply not acceptable to plunder resources from the earth, and resources are
used only in accordance with their availability, in quantity, and at times of
year that minimize environmental impact. This cultural dimension and its
realization through different architectural practices are illustrated in this
work with examples taken from dwellings across numerous ethnic groups in
sub-Saharan West Africa. Drawings, plans, axonometric projections, and
photographs show the beauty and complexity of this architecture that is a
spiritual praxis--as much place of life as work of art.
"Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali and Songhay, Great Empires
of the Past, NY: Facts on File, Inc. 2005, Ancient and Medieval History
Online, Facts on file. Arab Scholar al-Bakri's description of western Sudan
Soninke (Ghana) empire, culture and architecture. Al-Bakri lived in
Cordova, Spain and gained knowledge of the culture and capitol city from
traveling Muslim merchants, 1067-1068 CE.
Kmt Space website
featuring African art and architecture.
Africa," PBS website featuring various African regions, cities and their
architectural, artistic wonders or treasures. The Website is interactive
with resources for educators.
K. Kris Hurst,
"Swahili Towns-Medieval Communities of the Swahili Coast,"
"Yoruba Architecture," ANT3145Yoruba, wikispaces.com. See
drawings and description of a typical Yoruba town.
Anselm E. O. Ench and
Ojanigu Friday Ati, "The Influence of Rainfall on Hausa Traditional Architecture,"
Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(8):
695-702, 2010 @ Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2010. Both authors of this
article are from Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Nigeria, Ench from the
Department ofArchitecture, Faculty of Environmental Design and Ati from
the Geography Department.
Architecture," Afropedia. Short article of Zulu architecture with
pictures. See kraal and Zulu huts built so strong only an elephant could
Great Buildings. Click on "Google Images" tab to see articles
with photographs of South African Zulu kraal architecture
European Colonial Influences on African Architecture," science.jrank.org,
copyright 2013. Short article on European colonial influences on
Cordelia O. Osasona,
"From Traditional Residential Architecture to the Vernacular: The
Nigerian Experience," mudonline.org, 2007. Paper by Cordelia O.
Osasona for Department of Architecture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,
Nigeria. Osasona traces the influences of British colonial architecture
and the Afro-Brazil style, which the British facilitated on
the traditional architecture of southern Nigeria.
Architecture," Africa term paper, wikispaces. Granite Vortrekker
Monument, an example of remembrance architecture and political/social power,
built in 1949 in Pretoria, South Africa to honor the white farmers and settlers
who moved north into the south African veldt to "colonize." See
4 videos on that movement. Comparative to European settlers moving
west in American history and the many pieces of architecture honoring that
history such as the St. Louis, Missouri Gateway arch designed by Finnish
architect Eero Saarinen.
Herman Casakin, review
of J. A. Noble, "African Identity in Post-Apartheid Public Architecture:
White Skin, Black Masks," Ashgate Publishing Limted, Farnahm, 2011,
seen in academia.edu. Noble's book revolves around five public design
works beginning in post apart heid Africa 1994.
"Despite the State's Violence, Our fight to escape the mud and fire of
South Africa's slums will continue," The Guardian (UK), November 11,
2013. The Shack Dweller's movement began in Durban in 2005 and today includes
12,000 people in 60 Shack Settlements. They campaign against evictions,
for public housing architecture and stopping South
African cities from becoming ATMs for the rich.
in South Africa," Property 24, October 11, 2012. The South African
constitution "enshrines a citizen's right to adequate housing. But,
as seen in article above, the South African government has been struggling to
keep up with the demand.
The Architecture of Islam in West Africa, African Arts, Vol. 1, No.
2 (Winter, 1968), pp. 32-74. Seen in jstor from David Rifkind website, School
of Architecture, Florida International University.
Dr. Babangido Hamza,
"The Role of 'urf' on the Architectural Character of the Urban Hausa
Traditional House in Northern Nigeria," medinanet.org. @ 2013. Dr.
Hamza, Department of Architecture Technology at Hassan Usman
KatsinaPolytechnic, explains the role of "urf," translated
means "to know," customs and how these cultural
architectural customs played a role in urban Hausa house building.
"Religion in the
Pays Dogon," Paul's Travel Blog, December 16, 2008. Traditional faith
and architecture in Mali. The Dogon continue to practice traditional
spirituality while surrounded by Christian and Muslim neighbors. See Paul's
blog photographs of buildings in this Dogon village.
Babalola, "Intersections: Western and Yoruba Theories of Space and
the City in Relation to Yoruba History," African Hermeneutic Systems blog,
April 19, 2009. Richard Babalola discusses the political and cultural
elements involving two architectural proposals for his Nigerian Yoruba home
town "afin" or temple palace. One architectural proposals comes
from "modernists" who wish a modern style while another comes from Youruba
Suzanne Preston Blier,
Google Ebook,"The Anatomy of Architecture: Ontology and
Metaphor in Batammaliba Architectural Expression," University of
Chicago Press, 1987. Batammaliba architecture exhibited as human
anatomyin West Africa. See worksheet explaining this book below.
Anatomy of Architecture: Ontology and Metaphor in Batammaliba
Architectural Expression," 6/13/2003. One page Handout (pdf) for
Dr. Till Forster's Ethnologisches Seminar, University of Basel outlining
Suzanne PrestonBlier's book.
"African Architecture," University of Pittsburgh Architecture
Dr. James Bartholomay
Kiracofe, Architecture of North Africa slides and images (since 2011),
Mausoleum of Sidi Ahmad al-Tijani," Islamic Arts website, May 25, 2012.
See photographs of the mosque and mausoleum dedicated to Mawlana Ahmad
ibn Mohammad Tijani al-Hassani al-Maghribi in Fez, Morocco.
"Islamic Architecture in Mali," kamit.jp. Takeo Kamiya is a
Japanese architect and he describes Mali dwelling architecture as well as the
mud dried brick great mosque at Djenne.
Holland Cotter, "A
Tribute to Islam, Earthen but Transcendent," NY Times, Arts and Design,
April 18, 2012. A description (see other articles linked in this story) of the
great Djenne, Mali mosque amidst sectarian conflict.
Arub Saqib, "A
Primitive Art," arubsaqib wordpress, November 23, 2013. Ms. Saqib, a
London based sustainable architect born in Colombo, lived in Karachi before
migrating to London, wrote this essay on Djenne's main mosque in Architectural
Journal. See Arub Saqib'swebsite: http://www.arubsaqib.com/
"Historic City of
Meknes," MoroccOver blog, May 2012. Photographs of Meknes in Fez,
Morocco with a discussion at the bottom of the page as to history and
architecture of the city. Meknes was founded in 11th century (1061 CE) by
the Almoravids as a military settlement. Meknes became a capital under
Sultan Moulay Ismaili (1672-1727) founder of the Alawite dynasty. Note
syncretism of Islamic and European architecture in 17th century Maghreb and
civilian and military architecture such as the Casbah.
"Art and Architecture
of the Igbo People," Nairaland Forum. Mostly art but some architecture
noted in posts with many images and photos.
"African History and Culture website," Homestead.com. See links that
lead to architecture resources for Nubia,Egypt, Africa
Architecture," Africa Term Paper Wiki @ 2013. See photographs and
description of South African indigenous architecture especially Khoisan and
Bantu and tabs to Apartheid and European architecture in South Africa.
"Water as a weapon: Qaddafi's last desperate gamble," Forbes,
September 3, 2011. Peter Gleick, CEO of the Pacific Institute and
MacArthur Fellow, highlights Libya's Qaddafi's last desperate act to save his regime
by cutting off water to Tripoli and other cities. In the 199's Qaddafi
had built "The Great Man-Made River Project which used enormous pipelines
to gain water from Saharan acquafers and pipe water throughout Libya (see link
and article below). Gleick also mentions first known water war 5000 years ago
between Umma and Lagash over Tigris-Euphratesirrigation canals. See more
on that irrigation battle: http://ancientmesopotamia.net/ancientbabylon/id46.html
"The Great Man-Made
River Project-Libya," Water Technology website, 2012. See history of
Qaddafi's water pipeline project completed in two phases.
Dr. Mark DeLancey,
"Architecture," DePaul University. Bibliography of African
architecture. See Dr. DeLancey's home page for more links to African
Camp," donsmaps.com, last updated June 25, 2013 by webmaster Don Hitchcock.
This link show diarama, drawings, description of ancient mammoth bone
architecture unearthed in Mezhyrich, Russia (eastern Ukraine). See more
on this architecture, Richard Gray, "Neanderthals Built Homes With Mammoth
Bones," Telegraph, UK, December 18, 2011: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/8963177/Neanderthals-built-homes-with-mammoth-bones.html
Willie Tegel, etc. al,
"Early Neolithic Water Wells and World's Oldest Wood Architecture,"
PLoS ONE 7(12): e51374, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051374,
published December 19, 2012, editor-Michael D. Petraglio, University of Oxford,
UK. Earliest wood architecture during European neolithic era, 6000-4000 BCE
described in this scientific research article. See photographs and more
from "Popular Archaeology," December 19, 2012: http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/december-2012/article/world-s-oldest-wood-architecture-revealed
Shivansh Singh Gautam,
"Prehistoric Architecture," scribd.com. See descriptions and
drawings of architecture at Carnac, Brittanyand Stonehenge.
Nikola Tasic, Dragoslav
Srejovic, Bratislav Stojanovic, "Vinca," Rastko.rs, Internet Library
of Serb Culture, Archaeology, 1990.Description of architecture of Vinca a
major Danubian region neolithic settlement 4500-3500 BCE.
Megalithic Passage Tomb," Knowth.com. 3200 BCE Irish "passage
tombs" which archaeologists estimate to have taken 300 men working 20
years to complete the one acre site.
Paul K. Wason,
"Messages From the Monuments-How Neolithic Monuments Communicate About
Religion and Status," Knowth.com. Paul Wason, John Templeton
Foundation, Radno, PA., uses the Avebury Group of monuments from Wiltshire,
England and Irish Passage Tombs as evidence for his analysis of monumental
architecture and their meanings.
F. Molina, etc. al,
Recent Fieldwork at the Bronze Age Fortified Site of Motilla del Azur (Daimiel,
Spain), Antiquity, Vol. 079, Issue 306, December 2005. Prehistoric
Iberian stone forts on the area of La Mancha in central Spain dating back to
of Malta," Sacred Sites website.
Malta National Museum of Archaeology. The Temple Period 4100-2500 BCE in
A. Bernard Knapp,
"Monumental Architecture-Identity and Memory," from Proceedings of
the Symposium, Bronze Age Architecture Traditions in the Eastern Mediterranean,
Diffusion and Diversity, Gasteig, Munich, May 7-8, 2008, 47-59. Power and
Bronze Age architecture in Crete Malta and Cyprus by Dr. Knapp, Department of
Archaeology, University of Glasgow,
Willy Tegel, etc.al,
"Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood
Architecture," PLOS/one, nd.
Architecture," ancientfortresses.org. Neolithic to early medieval
Linda Alchim, "Iron
and Bronze Architecture," Ancient Fortresses website, last updated July
20, 2012. This site is dedicated to the various types of castle
(1)," Merriam Webster Visual Dictionary Online." Architecture
chapter of online slide share showing Greek, Roman, European architecture with
annotation as to names of architectural parts of buildings. Click on arrow key
to move through the slides.
Development of Gendered Space: The Archaic and Classical Greek Temple,
Inquiry, Vol. 7, 2006. Paper for University of Arkansas Department of
Architecture faculty mentor Dr. Kim Sexton.
Dr. Allen Farber,
"Roman Power/Roman Architecture," Oneonta College Art History website.
See many architectural images and note three "tabs" at top of
page "arth 209" for example for more resources on Greek and Roman architecture
Archaeology," posted by Indianajen.com, Jennifer Carey, December 6, 2013.
Digital Hadrian's Villa architecture and design links.
"Vitruvius," 1st century CE 10 Volumes on architecture, materials,
construction methods, water management, town planning, etc.
Roger D. Hansen,
"Water and Waste Water Systems in Imperial Rome," Water History.
Clicking on tabs at top of this page shows a photograph or drawing of
other cultures waste water systems ("Historic Eras tab) and Technology tab
displays types of water architecture such as qanat, etc..
That Built Ancient Rome," History.com. Note four of the ten deal
Rick Jones and Damian
Robinson, Water, Wealth, and Social Status at Pompeii: The House of
the Vestals in the First Century, American Journal of Archaeology,
Vol. 109, No. 4 (October 2005) pp. 695-710. Short selection seen in
jstor.org. Use of water in Roman private houses has been identified as a
highly visible status symbol.
"Pompeii: The Rediscovered City," March 22, 2013 seen in blog
for Honors course "The Construction of Western Identity in the Ancient
World." Allison Reed cites Jones and Robinson research noted in above
article in this short essay.
"The Ancient Roman Port City of Ostia," suite101.com, last updated
March 22, 2009. Ostia was Rome's chief naval and commercial port in Italy
engaging in the Mediterranean trade network. Ostia was a microcosm of
Roman urban life and as a powerful port city an example of diversity. See
comments on architecture.
"Water Battles at
the Colosseum," Tribunes and Triumphs, 2008. Article explaining the
staged naval battles in the Roman Colosseum.
Rome," PBS Nova, posted February 22, 2000. This website on Roman water
architecture was part of "Secrets of Lost Empires" Nova
program. Resources for this Nova PBS program from Dr. Peter Aicher,
University of Southern Maine.
History," ECHO European Cultural Heritage Online.
"History of Architecture," Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio
State University, published October 11, 2012. Series of lectures on
I-tunes (podcasts) on architectural history---European.
Architecture," Tribunes and Triumphs, @ 2008. A website dedicated to
Viking Denmark website @
2007-2010. Note links to more resources, especially Viking architecture,
on upper right side of this Home page. One can read resources and
information on Viking fortresses, Viking cities, Viking Longhouses, and Viking
Halgren Kilde, "Sacred Power, Sacred
Space: An Introduction to Christian Architecture and Worship," Oxford University Press, 2008. Kilde (University of Minnesota) discusses
how church buildings shape and influence religion in this 248 pp. book using
early Christian, Byzantine examples. See other examples of religious
architecture books on this google.com page. See google book clean version
of Jeanne Halgren Kilde's in pdf: http://www.elcaminosantiago.com/PDF/Book/Sacred_Power_Sacred_Space.pdf
Architecture," History link 101. Romanesque, Byzantine, Gothic architecture
explained in brief summaries with images and pictures.
"Art of the Crusade
Period in Europe," University of Michigan website, last updated December
8, 1997. See Romanesque, Gothic and Islamicarchitecture.
Architect World blog, August 31, 2010. Blogspot designed to highlight
architecture in world history. This thread on castles built in Middle Ages in
Europe and the Middle East.
Helen Gittos, "Liturgy,
Architecture and Sacred Places in Anglo-Saxon England,"Oxford
University Press, 2013. (Google book) Note selections of Helen Gittos's
book available on this link.
Cathedral: Height, Light, and Color," Gale World History in Context
site, originally seen in Science and Its Times, 2001. The medieval Gothic
Cathedral as symbol of power. See audio.
Architecture as Weapon," Sassafras Tree blog, December 4, 2012.
Interesting analysis/point of view of Gothic
cathedrals sprouting like spears replacing Romanesque architecture as protector
of Church wealth whichincreased during the crusades andenemy to
Google Book-Paul Hirst,
Polity, June 24, 2005. Paul Hirst,"Space and Power:
Politics, War and Architecture," examines how space is
configured by power and how space becomes a resource for power using land and
sea as backdrops. See case studiesin Chapter 5, Christians in Spain,
Ottomans in the Balkans, Spain in Mexico, and Europeans
settling the North American frontier.
Elizabethan Architecture," Archit-home blog, March 8, 2011. Short
article on social class and architecture during Elizabethan England era.
See other architecture resources with videos on left side of page. The
Elizabethan architecutre youtube video at end of this slim article does not
"Al-Andalus: The Orient of the West," Islamic Art &
Architecture, April 5, 2012.
From Cities of Light-The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain documentary,
Andalus-Spain," espliego wordpress, October 19, 2012. Photos and
descriptions with links of great architecture of Al-AndalusianSpain.
Alhambra," Great Buildings website. Spanish Moorish style
architecture-14th century. See walking tour of the Alhambra in Saudi
Aramco World, September/October 2013: http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200604/alhambra/default.htm
"Moorish Architecture," Pinterest, 2009. See pinterest photographs
of Moorish architecture in Spain. Moorish architecture has come to be
defined as Berber-Islamic architecture of North Africa, Al-Anadalus and Al-Garb
Al-Andalus. Also may include Islamic architecture of southern Italy such
as The Palazzo dei Normanni in Sicily, 9th century
architecture begun by the Emir of Palermo. See 2: 11 youtube video
(uploadedJune 17, 2010) ofthe Palazzo which became the seat of
Kings: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lajdb3hpCVk and 8:25 slide show
(Youtube uploaded October 14, 2009): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=49keO4r-2wk See
brief history of Saracen and Norman architecture and history below: http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Sicily%20&%20S%20Italy/Montages/Sicily/Palermo/Palermo%20&%20First%20
"Palermo and the
Normans," Paradox place website. Brief history with architectural
photos explaining how the Normans took Palermo in 1072 from the Saracens/Arabs
who had ruled Sicily from 831-1072. Note Saracens allowed to stay in
administrative control, but the Normans savaging the mosques must have created
Sotiris Dimitriadis, "Salonica
in the Age of Ports-Urban and Social Transformation in the Ottoman
Mediterranean," Ottoman History podcast, Episode 94, February 23, 2013.
Salonica/Salonika or modern day Greece change over time as to
architecture of urban space and it's social effects.
"Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles," last updated
November 17, 2013. See many links to all aspects of British Isle buildings,
villages, and towns.
Architecture," Trend Hunter Art and Design, January 18, 2009. Family
in Wales had the Hobbit style home built in 4 months for $4,425 and live in it.
George P. Landow,
"Charles L. Eastlake on Evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholic
Resistance to the Gothic Revival," The Victorian Web. See Gothic
Revival tab at bottom of this short selection. Landow highlights
Evangelica Protestant's resistance to any architecture that reminded them of
"Ossuary Orthen/Buijsenpennock Architects," Arch Daily, December 28,
2009. In the Netherlands land was reclaimed from a cemetery and 12,000
bodies removed and "re-buried" in this ossuary.
Kaplica Czaszek, Poland," Smithsonian Magazine blog, October 31, 2013-Halloween.
From 1776-1804 a Polish Catholic priest at the Kaplica Czaszek chapel in
Poland gathers skulls and thigh bones from 3000 victims of the 30 Years War,
Silesian Wars and cholera outbreaks as a shrine for the dead. He modeled
the chapel of skulls after ossuaries and
catacombs in Rome.
of Poland-An Exhibition: 'A Lost World Revisited,'" Hands House.
17th-18th century wooden synagogues from Polish Lithuania Commonwealth. See
beautiful slide show link on upper left of page. Focus is on Zabludow and
Mike Rose website,
"Synagogues of Poland," Brief page of photographs sampling the
synagogues of Poland. Prewar Poland housed 6000 Jewish synagogues.
See link at bottom of this page to Jewish synagogue photos in Eastern Europe.
"Exploiting the Classical Past: Student Restoration Drawings From
the French and American Academies in Rome," Architronic, 1993.
A comparative of French and American architecture education during late
17th through 19th century.
Board of Jewish
Education, "Synagogue Architecture."
Professor Jeffrey Howe,
"Baroque Architecture-Versailles," A Digital Archive of Architecture,
Boston College, 1997. This page includes Dr. Howe's color slides of Versailles
built 1660-1685 with Louis XVI moving his court to Versailles in 1677.
See other European and American architecture links and tabs at top and
bottom of this page.
Paul Milburn (UK),
"Romanticism in Architecture-an Essay," behance.net, posted January
25, 2011. This essay responds to the following prompt: Account
for the expression of the Romantic in Architecture. In what ways did it
depart from the Classic in terms of style and philosophy?
Romantic Architecture," essential-humanities.net, @ 2008-2013. Romantic
architecture was also called Neogothic.
Neoclassical Architecture," Neoclassic.com website.
Architecture, Neoclassic.com website.
Architecture," Essential-Architecture website. Empire style has been
labeled as second phase of neoclassicism in early 19th century based on Roman
Review of Duncan G.
Stroik, "The Church Building as a Sacred Place: Beauty,
Transcendence and the Eternal," Stroik.com @ 2013. See review of
Notre Dame Professor of Architecture Duncan Stroik's book and scroll down to
read anotheressay by Dr. Stroik, "10 Myths of Contemporary Church
Architecture in European History," Worldcat.org. Thirty five sources
for Women and gender in European architecture.
"Architecture and Power," BBC Radio 4 audio podcast (41:45). Melvyn
Bragg interviews Adrian Tinniswood (architectural historian-see link 2 posts
below), Gavin Stamp (MacKintosh School of Architecture, Glasgow School
ofArt), and Gillian Darley (Architectural historian and biographer of
John Soane-see link below), first broadcast October 31, 2002.Wealth,
status and power exhibited in European architectural history.
Joanna F. Penn,
"John Soane, Architect, Sculptor of Light, Creator of the 'Freemason's
Ark," jfpenn.com blogsite, nd. John Soane, born 1753, became one of
England's great architects. Ms. Penn describes his architecture and
includes 4:02 video of John Soane Museum in London.
"A History of British Architecture," BBC (UK), last updated March 29,
2011. Summary of British architecture with photographs from 1066 to the present.
Adrian Tinniswood has written books on Christopher Wren and Architecture
of Ancient Rome to modern Paris.
"Gender Segregation by Victorian Design," Inequality by (Interior)
Design blog, March 5, 2012. Short article on Victorian home architecture and
Architecture," 38 slideshare posted by bassmanb. Europe.
Dr. Kathleen Cohen,
"19th Century Paris Project," San Jose State University, 2000.
This website designed and built by students in this Art History
course. See tabs, especially, "Architecture."
"Seating Plan for a
French Opera House," Nutrias.org. Note price of 4th "floor"
seats reserved for the poor. Theatre Architecture separated the classes.
Is it the same for sports arenas, etc. where the cheap seats are higher
up which keeps the "poor" customers away from the wealthy in the
boxes or front row seats? Comparative to city design and architecture--keep em
separated....See short article with photos on India and Brazil: http://e-cooper1013-dc.blogspot.com/2012/01/brazil-divide-between
||Figure 5: Andre Victor Edward Devambez (1867-1943) Paris Concert Colonne oil on canvas, Paris, Musee d'Orsay, art02091
"Charles Garnier-Designer of the Paris Opera,"
1851," Victorian Web, last updated April 30, 2011. Links to
England's Crystal Palace architecture. The "Palace" was moved to
south London in 1854 and burned down in 1936. See links to Chinese architecture firms plans to rebuild the Crystal
Palace on it's south London site by 2018 at the end of this Europe section.
"The Ecology of a
Slum," Affordable Housing Institute, February 24, 2009,Pt. 1. Most of this
3 part story of 19th century Victorian England's battle to fight disease and
clean up the filth in their slums. Engineering or architecture? I
would argue both.
The Ecology of a Slum,
The Ecology of a Slum,
History-Industrial Revolution," 26 part slide share by omarnene. See
other slide shares on right of page and scroll down to see transcript of
the slide share.
in Paris 1830-1968: The Defensive Architecture of Insurgencies," The
Funambulistarchitectural narratives website, ed. by Leopold Lambert,
January 8, 2012. See article with photographs exhibiting 138 years of
change over time as insurgents build barricades in the narrow Parisian streets.
"History: The Insurgent Barricade," The Funambulist, January
31, 2012. French barricades.
Architecture-Cruel Designs," The Funambulist, 2012-2013 narratives/essays on
cruel architecture such as Kafka's Penal Colony death machine, The Killing
Steps of the Mayans, The E. Street Penitentiary Panopticon in Philadelphia
designed in the Jeremy Benthan late 19th century style, The Contemporaneous
Castles of the post-2001 era, The Carceral Treadmill in 19th century London
prison, Palestinian architecture, etc.
"Gaudi, the genius
of Catalan Architecture," blogonlyapartments, February 19, 2009.
Spanish and Catalan architect (1852-1926) Antonio Gaudi was a figure of
the Modernist/Art Noveau movement designing architecture in Barcelona. See video clip of
Gaudi's "La Sagrada Familia" design: http://video.about.com/architecture/Profile-of-the-La-Sagrada-Familia.htm
Architects," Don Quijote Spanish school. See links to three great
Spanish architect's biographies, Antonio Gaudi, Ricardo Bofill and Santiago
"De Stijl, Bauhaus and International Modernist architecture," Cornell
University @ 1995. Holland's 1920 De Stijl architecture
styleevolved into the International Style, Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus
School of Design 1919, and Post-Modernistarchitecture.
"Shacking up in Soviet Utopia: Moscow's Avant Garde Worker's Housing,"
The Moscow News, April 2, 2013. In 1920's avante garde architectures
dreamed of building "rabochiye posyolki" or worker's settlements with
a clean modern style. Stalin crushed the avante garde movement and 26
remain in Moscow today.
Architecture of Minsk," Eastern bloc Travel, News, History and Media, comtourist.com,
2012. See photos and short history of Stalinist architecture in Minsk,
"Ludwig Mies van
der Rohe," Architecture about.com. German who replaced Walter
Gropius at the Bauhaus and taught architecture was best when it was less.
See more van der Rohe resources from Great Buildings site: http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe.html See Postmodern reaction
to "Less is More" as "Less is a Bore" in The Stranger Slog
posted by Charles Mudede, March 7, 2013: http://slog.thestranger.com/slog/archives/2013/03/07/less-is-a-bore-a-lesson-in-postmodern-architecture
Corbusier-Architect," Great Buildings website. Swiss architect
champion of the International Style. See his works in this website.
See more Le Corbusier resources from Architecture About.com site: http://architecture.about.com/od/greatarchitects/p/lecorbusier.htm
"Le Corbusier Exhibition at MOMA," New Yorker culture blog, June 18,
2013. Swiss architect Le Corbusier exhibit at Museum of Modern Art
discussed by Alexandra Lange. One can go to the New Yorker's "Find"
search box, type in "architecture" and see many articles. I saw
"Nine Utopian Architectural Projects for a Brave New World,"
gizmodo.com, February 24, 2012 originally seen in Object.com.
Howard Garden City 1902, Frank Lloyd Wright, Walt Disney,Le Corbusier,
Charles Fourier's Phalanstere are some of the examples one can see
annotated in a slide share by clicking on the "drawing."
Rudolf Steiner, "Architecture: An Introductory
Reader,"Rudolf Steiner Press, 2003. An
Austrianarchitect and occult philosopher (1861-1925) who was influenced
by Goethe attempted to tie architecture and the spiritual.
Paris," Great Buildings, Finnish architect Alvar Aalto's 1937
architectural design drew notice at the Parisworld fair.
"Review: Louis Kahn: The Power of Architecture," Icon Eye-Icon
Magazine online, 2013. Hatherley reviews the 2013 Louis Kahn exhibit and says
that the Estonian-American modernist exhibition's aim is to lift Kahn "to
20th century architect's Mount Olympus, alongside Frank Lloyd Wright, Le
Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe." Mr. Hatherley's says the exhibit
fails to accomplish that aim.
"Architecture of War,"
Imperial War Museum, London @ 2013. Exhibit dedicated to researching and
analyzingwar's effects on the urban landscape and environment.
Allison Meier, "The
Ruins, Rubble and Architecture of War in Art," hyperallergic.com, August
9, 2013. The architecture of war is more accurately the ruins it leaves
behinds. This London exhibit at the partially re-opened Imperial War
Museum uses art to depict rubble and the building of war.
Jean-Louis Cohen and
Mirko Zardini, "Architecture in Uniform," The Design Observer Group,
posted May 9, 2011. See summary of articles by Cohen and Zardini and
slideshow of their WW II essays. Cohen discusses WW II Industrial
camoflage architecture while Canadian Mirko Zardini discusses WW II building
for the military.
Roberta Pergher, "Art:
Tool of the Nazi State," History 208, Fall 2007, University of
Michigan. Roberta Pergher's website on Nazi Art as a tool of the state.
This link displays "Order From Stone: Nazi Architecture."
"Hitler's Classical Architect," The Nation, June 10-17, 2013.
Michael Sorkin, The Nation's Architecture critic, questions why Leon
Krier wants to revisit Albert Speer's Nazi architecture.
Peter Eisenman with
Introduction by Eric Wills, "Revisiting the Reich," Ethics, -The
Magazine ofArchitecture,American Institute of Architects, March 2013, posted
April 8, 2013. Peter Eisenman debates Leon Krier as tohis newly
republished book on Nazi Architect Albert Speer in which Krier claims a war
criminal can be a great artist.
See Leon Krier website: http://zakuski.utsa.edu/krier/index.html and extracts of Leon
Krier on "The Suppression of Classical Architecture in Postwar
Germany," 1981, 1983, 1998.
See Krier's selected
works: http://zakuski.utsa.edu/krier/krierpublications.html See review of Leon
Krier's book below.
Michael Z. Wise,
"Hitler's Words Into Stone-Can Architecture Itself be Fascist?" Wall
Street Journal book review of Leon Krier's book on Albert Speer, April 12,
Wise is author of Capital Dilemma: German Search For A New
Architecture of Democracy.
"Jewish Memorial at
Dachau," Scrapbookpages.com @ 1998. Frankfurt architect Hermann Zwi
Guttmann designed this Jewish Holocaust Memorial with Catholic convent in
background as remembrance art.
"USA/USSR: Architecture and War," Grey Room 34, Winter 2009,
pp. 80-103 @ 2009 Grey Room Inc. and Massachusett's Institute of Technology
seen in Columbia University Art History website. Anderson discusses 1945 Russia
and their interest in US architecture technology and wonders why there could not
have been an attempt to collaborate and bring the two nations together after WW
"Troubles in Theory Part III: The Great Divide: Technology vs.
Tradition," The Architectural Review, July 24, 2012. One can access
Pt. 1 and 2 by subscribing free to "The Architectural Review" at
bottom of this article. Anthony Vilders discusses, using past articles
from "The Architectural Review" theoretical divides in Western architecture.
Lebbeus Woods, "War
and Architecture: Three Principles," Lebbeus Woods blog, December
15, 2011. In 1993Lebbeus Woods, architect, traveled to Sarajevo,
Bosnia and witnessed the three year attack on that city. He revisited his
earlier reconstruction article with thoughts on how globalization is causing
the destruction through warfare of many urban areas. He cites three
principles of reconstruction for these war ravaged areas. See Lebbeus Woods
obituary in Architect Record by Mark Lamster, October 13, 2012: http://archrecord.construction.com/news/2012/10/121031-Lebbeus-Woods-1940-2012.asp
Lebbeus Woods, "War
and Architecture (Pamphlet Architecture)," January 1, 1996, 40 pp.
paperback. Pamphlet Architecture begun in 1977 by William Stout and Steven Holl
as an independent vehicle for dialogue among architects.
"Schwarzwohnen-Spatial Politics of Squatting in East Berlin," Open
Security/Open Democracy, October 21, 2013. Alex Vasudevan explains the
East Berlin squatting movement in 1960's-1980's East Berlin due to dilapidated
Socialist architecture seen in housing and apartments.
of the Berlin Wall," berlin.de. See links for more resources on left
side of page in this short description of Berlin wall architecture begun in
Dr. Wendy Pullan,
"Berlin," Conflict in Cities and the Contested State, University of
Cambridge (UK), 2007. Architecture of cities inconflict. See
Dr. Pullan's Home Page from University of Cambridge of other conflicted cities
and contested states such as Brussels,Northern Ireland, Baghdad, Nicosia,
Jerusalem, etc.: http://www.conflictincities.org/Cities.html
Benjamin Maack "A
Vision in Concrete: Photographer Captures Beauty in Communist
Architecture," Spiegel, July 29, 2011. See 17slide Photo
gallery of Socialist/communist architecture by Roman Bezjak, born in Slovenia
but raised in WestGermany who spent five years photographing these
buildings. Note many other links to architecture on this page.
"The Ashes of Communism," communistism.wordpress, January/February
2013. A series of short articles on communist architecture in Romania,
Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria with photographs and a short two minute video. Supported
by the University of Coventry.
Architecture, essential--architecture. Social Realist Architectural style
refuted 20th century modernist architecture.
(University of Salerno), "Jacques Derrida and the Politics of
Architecture," September 2010, pp. 215-226. Jacques Derrida
(1930-2004) was born in French Algeria and was the father of deconstruction of
text, literature, architecture, politics which angered conservatives.
"Architectural Intolerance in Switzerland," Huffington Post-World,
December 3, 2009. Cameron Sinclair, co-founder of Architecture for
Humanity and Open Architecture Network, claims the Swiss are "racist"
for their vote to ban minarets in Switzerland.
Collider," Cern website. Large super collider built by CERN (European
Organization for NuclearResearch) from 1998-2008 as architecture in
Geneva, Switzerland to observe the heavens to test theories of particle and
high-energy physics.and wherethe Higgs Boson particle was observed.
"CERN Revamps Architecture to Better Support Hadron's Big Data," it
business edge blog, September 19,2013. CERN (European Organization
for Nuclear Research)administrator says Google does it better but CERN is
trying to update it's architecture at the Hadron super colliderto better
collect big data from the heavens.
Sport Hall, Belgium: Schaarbeek Architecture," e-architect (UK), April
15, 2013. This e-architect short piece claims Belgium sport hall, even
though located in an upper class neighborhood, is a "unifier" for young
people in that area.
"Design and Collective Identities From Nation States to the Global
Market," ozemail.com, Design and Culture in the Twentieth Century
Project, Australia. This lecture is part of an Australian design school project
examining Canadian, Germanand English design schools and how they reflect
nationalist and collective identities.
Bart Lootsma, "From
Pluralism to Populism-Architectural Criticism in Times of the Internet,"
Serbian Architectural Review, March 2011. Lootsma, University of
Innsbruck Institution of Architectural Theory, History, and Land-mark
Preservation, discusses change over time as to architecture's purpose and
Architecture criticism. He says in his abstract:
has changed from a discipline in service of the larger part of the population
through public housing,public building, public spaces, urban planning and
design to a particular and already in itself disparate niche market of the
real estate business that has more to do with the media industry than with
public tasks. Architectural criticism has become part of this media industry as well."
Vikas Shah interview,
"The Role of Architecture in Humanity's Story," Thought Economics,
June 18, 2012. "ThoughtEconomics" interviews the world's
leading thinkers on various topics. Vikas Shah interviews American and
European architects and
professors of architecture as to the nature of architecture, how it relates to
culture and architecture's future.
Google Book-David Spurr,
"Architecture and Modern Literature,"
University of Michigan Press, 2012, 285 pages. Dr. David Spurr's euro-centric
research on architectural space in early 19th-present literature.
"How Architecture Works: A Humanist's Toolkit," Farrar, Straus
and Giroux, October 2013. See book excerpts, a brief review, author
website. Rybczynski is an award winning architectural writer who uses
mostly European and American examples in this primer.
Zoe Ryan, etc. al,
"Building With Water," Birkhauser, 2010. book reviewed
with photographs of European modern architecturein Design Boom on-line
"Heart of Africa
Biodome to Bring Tropical Rainforest to the UK," Inhabitat, @ 2013.
Seven picture slide share unveiling England Zoo biodome to open in 2014
which will mimic the rainforest habitat of the African Congo.
"Plans to Recreate the Crystal Palace are as Jingoistic as a Gove History
Lesson," The Guardian, July 29, 2013. The Crystal Palace was built
in 1851 London then moved to the suburbs of south London in 1854. It was then
burned down in 1936. Mr. Hatherley is not pleased with Chinese architectural
teams plan to rebuild Crystal Palace on the 1854 site saying "rebuilding
monumentsof the past fails to meet the challenge of building for today's
(England)." See more as to Chinese architecture plans: http://www.thelondoncrystalpalace.com/
Results of When You Ask Architects to Build With Gingerbread," Smithsonian
Magazine blog, December 19, 2013, posted by Jimmy Stamp. Gingerbread introduced
into Europe by 10th century with "gingerbread shaping" being common
by 15th century. See examples of modern gingerbread architecture designs
within the Christmasseason context.
Culture of Peru," Alternative Archaeology. This ancient Peruvian
civilization discovered in 1905 but ignored due to lack of gold or silver was
re-discovered in 1990's. Note architecture of this culture dating back to
Paradise," Lima Easy-Lima, Peru history and cultures. Brief description of
Lima region architecture and culture 2200 BCE. Ceremonial and monumental
"Olmec Architecture," Prezi slide share, November 14, 2010.
"The Olmecs of Tabasco, Mexico and the Smoky Mountains," Examiner,
November 14, 2010. Cultural theory is that the earthen architecture of the
Olmecs became the architecture of the southeastern Indians of the Smokey
mountains of North Carolina.
Alex Milazzo, Zapotec
Architecture slides/photographs seen on photostream, flickr.com, posted
November 4, 2007. Zapotec culture centered in Oaxaca Valley Mexico beginning in
sixth century BCE saw first major cities such asMonte Alban and were
contemporary to Aztecs. Defeated by the Spainards in 1522-1527.
architecture," California State Los Angeles website for Mesoamerican
Art and Architecture history. This page is mainly photographs of Monte Alban
one of two important Zapotec examples of architecture.
Guernsey,"Ritual and Power in Stone: The Performance of Rulership
in Mesoamerican Izapan Style Art," University of Texas Press, 2006 and
January 1, 2010. Centered around Chiapis, Mexico Dr. Guernsey analyzes
Izapan stylecarvings and "Kingly representations." Izapan
culture fills the gap between Olmec and Mayan cultures seeing peaks of power from 600 BCE-100 CE although evidence shows Izapan
settlements as early as 1500 BCE. See, below, a review of Ritual and Power in Stone:
Jeff Kowalski (Northern
Illinois University), "Visualizing Culture, Society, and Ideology in
Mesoamerica," Latin America Research Review, May 5,2009. Dr.
Kowalski reviews Julia Guernsey's, Ritual and Power in Stone along with three other books on Mesoamerican history and culture.
"Early Ceremonial Architecture of Peru: La Galgada," Wayne State
University. See tabs for Aspero, Bibliography and Links.
James Q. Jacobs,
"Early Monumental Architecture on the Peruvian Coast-Evidence of
Socio-Political Organization and the Variation in It's Interpretation,"
jqjacobs.net, 2000. Scroll down page to see links to Chavin architecture and
culture and Andean Web ring an Andean Photo Gallery.
"The Architecture of Power-Timgad vs. Pikillacta," blog, January 30,
2013. Arlind Palluqi comparesTimgad, a Roman city in northern Algeria
built for Roman soldiers (fathers and son) who gained citizenship fighting for
Rome and Pikillacta, Wari empire (Peru), religious and administrative center.
Denevan,"The Aboriginal Cultural Geography of the Llanos De Mojos
of Bolivia,"University of California Press, 1966.
Denevan's classic study of the Arawak Beni region of Bolivia showing that
natives in theAmericas existed in much larger populations and designed
landscape architecturemuch more complex and advancedthan previously
thought. Causeways, fish weirs, bridges are just some of the architecture
cited in the study. This theory can also be read in Charles Mann's first
chapter "1491." http://www.charlesmann.org/Excerpt-2.htm
"Sugestao de Leitura: 1491-New Revelations of the Americas Before
Columbus," Conexao Lisboa-Manaus blog,
October 3, 2011. More information as to advanced landscape architecture
by the Arawak culture in the Beni region of Bolivia and elsewhere.
"Procreative Icons: Abundance and Scarcity in Pre-Columbian Art From
Peru to Argentina,"Curriculum Project for "Southern Cone
Exposure" Fullbright-Hays Seminar Abroad 2004, University of Texas. See
especially section two of this paper entitled, "Abstraction in monumental
Architecture that facilitates state theocracy and super empire building."
Ms. Brubaker also discusses change over time as gender as seen in the arts.
Encyclopedia of Art History. Scroll down to see "Ceremonial Architecture"
in Latin American pre-Columbian cultures.
American," Prehistoric Through Gothic Art Arh 101, South Mountain
Community College, MaricopaCommunity Colleges, scribd.com. Large
slides on ancient Latin American architecture, sculpture, art withsouthwest
North American architecture and art at the end of this slide show.
Ancient Hindu and Latin American Architecture," Swarupa's World blog,
March 2, 2013. Brief comparative drawn between ancient Hinda and Mayan
"Architecture of the Kalinga," Kalinga Territory Home of the Indigenous
People of the Dominica. See links for information on these Caribbean people.
"Anthropology 008: Mayan, Aztec, and Inca Home Page," The
Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Moore's website highlighting three
architectural projects: Project 1-Mayan Architecture, Project 2-Aztec City-Layout
and Architecture, Project 3-Inca Building.
History.com. Note Videos and comments on great Mayan architecture during
it's golden age.
do Civilizations Fall?" Interactive Annenberg Learner Foundation @
2013. Note tabs at top of page forother civilizations and Collapse
and more resources on left of page for Latin American/South American architecture. Failed architecture is surely one
symptom of collapse.
"Aztec Architecture," Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican
Studies, Inc. (FAMSI), California State University in Los Angeles, January 18,
2007. See much of Dr. Aguuilar-Moreno's research linked in this website.
See another version of Pt. 1:
Ph.D., "Aztec Architecture, Pt. 1," FAMSI.
Architecture," Library Think Quest. See short articles with
photographs depicting Cathedrals and Chinese architecture much like this Aztec
architecture entry at bottom of page.
City of the Gods," website on Teotihuacan's temples and pyramids by
Archaeological Research Institute at Arizona State University.
"Andean Architecture-The Power of the Trapezoid," University of
Illinois, Chicago, May 28, 2008.
Photographs of Andean architecture in trapezoid lintel Incan style inAquas
Callientes, Peru site.
Architecture, Pt. 1, mediahex.com. Scroll to bottom of page to see link
to Pt. 2. Summary of the history of Latin American architecture in two
parts arranged chronologically.
LANIC, Latin American Network Information Center, University of Texas, Austin.
See regional and country resources on architecture in Latin America.
Chiquitania," Chiquitania.com @ 2013. Jesuit website detailing the
only wooden and adobe mission churches left in the world built by Jesuit
missionaries and natives 1745-1775 in the large Chiquitania region of Bolivia.
These seven Jesuit mission churches were restored by Hans Roth from
1972-1999. See photographs and decription of the architecture with links
to the individual churches and other tabs.
Mexico," Hacienda Homestyle, by that Painter Lady. See examples of
16th century churches.
Teaching Architectural History in Latin America: The Elusive Unifying
Architectural Discourse, Journal of the Society of Architectural
Historians, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Dec. 2002), pp. 549-558. Seen in jstor from
David Rifkind website, School of Architecture, Florida International
Susana Torre and
Geoffrey Fox, "Architecture and the Construction of Cultural Identity or
Learning from Latin America," mudonline.org, paper for AAT conference
2007. Torre and Fox 17 page paper with photographs outlining Latin
America as a case study for architecture and cultural identity.
del Real, "Building a Continent: The Idea of Latin American
Architecture in the Early Postwar," Paper submitted in partial requirement for Doctor of
Philosophy degree to Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, 2012, 56 pp. Seen in
Nelson, "Latin American Art and Architecture," From the New Book of
Knowledge, seen in Scholastic For Teachers @ 2013. General overview in
Jenna M. McKnight and
Tamar Wilner, "Havana: Bracing For a Boom," Architecture
Record, January 19, 2012. Havana has 2.1 million people and within that urban
setting one can sight Renaissance, Moorish, Baroque to Neoclassical and
Mid-Century Modern architecture. In 1982 UNESCO named Old Havana a World
Carl Yost, "Film
Celebrates an Unsung Icon of Modern Cuban Architecture," Architecture
Record, January 19, 2012. See 5 photo slide share of National Arts School of
Havana, the "unsung icon" Carl Yost describes.
"The Architecture of Power," Carnegie Mellon School of Architecture
website. Vivoni-Farage lecture/discussion ofSpanish Revivals in
Puerto Rico 1900-1950 and Puerto Ricans negotiating between two worlds.
"Learning From Lagos-Contemporary Architects Harvest the Slums for Design
Inspiration," Blouin Art Information blog, June 7, 2012. Trend in
contemporary architecture is the design poor housing to help the poor avoid
slum poverty. See 'Favela Cloud' design motivated by slum outside Rio de
"Pedro Lobo's Favelas: Architecture of Survival," Charlotte
Viewpoint, April 30, 2013. Exhibit of Pedro Lobo's Rio slums (favelas)
with absent humans and flowing color which he claims brings attention to the poverty
and drug lords which Brazil ignores.
"Favela Cloud Imagines the Slums of Rio as Futuristic Architecture,"
The Creators Project, July 11, 2012. Heinzelmann interviews one of the
architects, Kemo Usto, of 'Favela Cloud.'
"Lifestyles of the Rich and Poor in Mexico City," Planetizen, November
28, 2006. Walled Cities built to separate upper and lower classes growing
as Mexico Cities' wealthy class grows while 47% of Mexico Cities population
lives on four dollars a day. Alex Pearlstein claims "the rich live
in surreal but safe mini-cities of gleaming geometic towers."
Economic statistics to support Pearlstein's article from the LA Times
Marla Dickerson, "Mexico's Rich Getting Richer, Study Finds, November 29,
Caitlin Dewey, "A
Video Tour of the 'Tower of David,' Venezuela's Infamous Skyscraper Turned
Slum," Washington Post, August 2, 2013. World's tallest slum
designed in the 1990's as skyscraper, bankrupt and closed and then occupied by
drug dealer turned religious leader for the poor.
"Landscape Morphology in Mexico City," polis, posted December 22,
2012. Annotated photographs shows Mexico City's city planning and
architecture with comment on separation of rich and poor.
"Architect Ricardo Legorreta's Legacy," Architectural Digest, February
2012. Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta is eulogized in this article.
See slide show of his work and portfolio of Legorreta's houses profiled
in Architectural Digest magazine.
Moe Beitiks, "Towering
Fog Garden Harvests Water From Thin Air," inhabitat, October 24, 2011.
In Chile and Peru's Atacama Desert which may be the most arid on earth,
architecture has been designed to draw moisture from fog and supply water to
nearby villages. See Fog Garden exhibit at Nevada Museum of Art: http://www.nevadaart.org/exhibitions/detail?eid=206
Timothy A. Kohler,
"Public Architecture and Power in Pre-Columbian North America," Santa
Fe Institute, March 22, 1998. Dr. Kohler,Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, prepared this
paper for the International Symposium"Power, Monuments, and
Civilization," Nara, Japan, December 1997. Note in Dr. Kohler's introduction he alludes to late 19th century
North American native architecture misconceptions. (This paper posted
with permission of Dr. Timothy A. Kohler, October 25, 2013)
Into the Anasazi Architecture," Cliff Dwellings Museum. Change over
time noted in this Colorado Anasazi Museum article explaining earliest Anasazi
hunter and gather pithouses evolving into pueblo architecture.
Into the Anasazi-Architecture," Cliff Dwellings Museum website, Colorado.
See Pit House architecture and note other resources concerning the
Anasazi on left side of this page.
History-Early First Nations," The Canadian Encyclopedia. See more
Canadian archaeology and architecture resources at the end of this regional
summary of early Canadian first nation building.
Susan K. Nelson,
"The 'What's in a House' Education Program." Ms. Nelson's website
and K-12 lessons on Native American architecture including Tlingit, Iroquois,
Lakota, SW Pueblo, Eskimo, etc. See Susan K. Nelson's Home Page and note
Sun Watch interactive game: http://susankae.com/index.html
Inuit Winter House, University of Calgary publication seen in Arctic,
Vol. 45, No. 2, June 1992, 199-200. Short article on Mackenzie delta
Chiglit (Inuit) native's winter home or iglu. An iglus can be made of any
material, not just snow and ice. The Mackenzie Chiglit use the abundant
driftwood gathered from the riverbanks and delta plain for an
air tight winter home housing one to two families.
Molly Lee and Gregory A.
Reinhardt with foreword by Andrew Tooyak, Jr., " Fairbanks: University
of Alaska Press and"Eskimo
Architecture-Dwelling and Structurein the Early Historic Period,University of Alaska Museum, 2003. Complete E-Book
seen in scribd.com as a document or download. Book isdivided into
regional discussions of Eskimo architecture, ie., Greenland, Central Arctic,
Northwest Arctic and BeringStrait, Southwest Alaska, Bering Sea, Siberia
and Gulf of Alaska dwelling structure.
Momo Shez, "Igloo
Building, Unique Eskimo House Inspiration," Interior Fans, November 4,
2012. How to build an Inuit snow house with photographs.
Houses," Architectural and Engineering Feats and Facts blog, July 4, 2007.
Description of Inuit igloo and the different types. Look to right
of page for many other world civilization's architectural feats and factsarticles.
Ancestral Pueblo Architecture," New Mexico Art Museum. Click
on photos to see more information and discussion questions of Anasazi
architecture and culture.
Arizona Stories The Arizona Collection, Arizona State University and PBS.
See transcript of 7 minute 53 second video on Hohokam culture,
architecture in the American southwest prior to Columbus.
Architecture," Native History Magazine, January 2013. Click on each
photograph to see more examples of native American architecture in slide show
fashion and note Native American Lesson plans tab at top of page.
Dee Finney, "Native
American Housing," Great Dreams. Note many examples of North
American native architecture with photos.
Professor Laura Arnold,
"American Indian Literature and Cultures course-Plains Architecture:
Tipis and Sweat Lodges," Reed College, Portland, Oregon, Summer
1997. See types, symbolism and construction of Plains Indian's tipis and sweat
"Amazing Archaeological Discoveries in Georgia and South Carolina,"
Examiner, October 2, 2013. Pre-Columbian stone architecture found in 7
state region of the American south supports earlier claims, 1873, by pioneer
anthropologist Charles C. Jones,Antiquities
of the Southern Indians, ie.,that
these natives had stone architecture. Jones' research and evidence
had been ignored....teepees and wigwams were the story.
Archaeological Heritage," National Park Service. Description of
"shell works" to form built villages in the Calusa Everglade native
communities housed on the 10,000 islands of the Everglades. Discarded
conch, clamand oyster shells and tools
built up areas for buildings, canals, dividing areas from sacred spaces
Long House website,
University of Oregon. Click on "icons" on NW Native American
image to see more information on NW Long House architecture.
House," Peace 4 Turtle Island website, 2001. The Long House was
built by the Haudenosaunee people or Iroquois 5 Nations. Long House
architecture was also seen in Viking and Asian cultures. See more: http://houseconstructionz.com/?p=1021 Long House Architecture,
They Came...Why They Stayed,"Finnish Heritage Museum, Fairport
Harbor, Ohio, 2010. This article gives context to first Finnish
immigrants to North America who gave Americathe log cabin architecture
style in the mid-17th century.
Anthony DelRosario and
Professor Ann Masson, "Early French Canadian Architectural Types of the
French Colonial Period, December 3, 2008 seen in scribd.com. A discussion
of French Canadian architecture from 1605 settlement to 1803
"Styles in American Architecture," A Digital Archive of American Architecture,
Boston College, 1996, 1997, 1998. Dr. Howe's website shows Architecture
styles from Georgian to International.
Digital Resources, Digital History, @ 2013. Three links for American
"Architecture of Thomas Jefferson," University of Virginia, @1995,
last updated February 26, 2008.
Architecture-Thomas Jefferson," Poplar Forest website. Thomas Jefferson's
most mature piece ofarchitecture, Poplar
Forest, website and resources.
"Plantation Architecture in Alabama," Encyclopedia of Alabama, September
2, 2008, last updated June 20, 2013. Photographs and drawings illustrate
plantation architecture in Alabama with a short summary of slave quarters.
Thomas E. Davidson,
"The Evolution of the Slave Quarter in Tidewater Virginia," Jamestown
and Yorktown Settlement and Victory Center. Short article with photo as
to change over time of slave quarters in tidewater Virginia. Dr.Davidson
is curator and director of that site.
Lauren Elizabeth Knight,
"Hidden Lives: The Interpretation of the Slave Quarter Sites at
Mount Vernon," Paper for Master's of Historical Preservation, University
of Maryland, 2010.
Dr. Alexander O.
Boulton, "Beyond the Big House-The Architecture of Slavery," Stevenson.edu,
August 28-December 23, 2006. Following the route of a journalist in 1857,
Dr. Alexander Boulton photographs and describes slave quarters in the American South.
Architecture," Essential Architecture. History of Theatre
architecture Selection and photographs thanks to American Studies Programat University of Virginia.
"Inside a 1700's
German Farmhouse," Monroega.blogspot, September 23, 2013 posted by Tanya
Breese. Short article and pictures of a German-American farm house and
Skip Davis, "1800's
Prairie Homes," e How, 2013. Skip Davis gives brief descriptions of
three 1800's American Prairie style homes-Prairie Style, American Foursquare or
"Prairie Box," and sod houses.
George Wharton James,
"The Old Franciscan Missions of California," UnTraveled Road website,
2006. See description of Franciscan mission architecture and photographs.
Scott T. Swank,
"" Decorative Arts/Architecture/History, Shaker Life, Art, Architecture-Hands to Work, Hearts to God, Abbeville
Press, 1999. Scott T. Swank, historian and curator of the Shaker
Canterbury Village, New Hampshire, describes Shaker art, architecture and
history. The Shaker classic period was
1815-1860. See Abbeville Press page on this book: http://www.abbeville.com/bookpage.asp?ISBN=0789203588
Explore Thomas Cole
website. An interactive tour of Thomas Cole's 1840 painting, "The
Architect's Dream." Cole, Romantic American painter and part of Hudson
River School of artists, thought of himself as an amateur architect. See
||Figure 6: Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia, Thomas Cole, 1840, "Template: The Dream of the Architect," current location Toledo, Ohio Museum of Art. Cole fashioned himself an amateur architect.
Architecture," Capitol Museum, State of California, 2009. History of
the architecture of Sacramento state capitol building with exemplars of
Richmond, Virginia, Boston, Mass. and Washington DC.
Ross French, "Los
Angeles Aqueduct History Project," University of California, Riverside,
November 19, 2013. UCR digital
photograph project honoring one of the most ambitious water public works architecture
projects in the worldwith 100 year old
photographs, materials, etc. available. See links on right side of this page
"Louis Sullivan's Natural Law Architecture," developing architecture
blog, February 7, 2013. A discussion of Louis Sullivan's (1856-1924)
architectural style, "ornamentation informed by nature," influenced
by Frank Furness, Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, Gothic style, and a Paris visit, then
return to Chicago and the US. See photographs of his
design and comments as to his work by Dan Eisinger.
and Development of New York City," Columbia University. This website
based on photographs of Andrew S. Dolkart and his images of tenement dwellings
in New York City in the 19th century. See other articles with photographs
on left side of this page further describing the immigrant worker experiences.
Philip Choy,"San Francisco Chinatown-A Guide to It's History
and Architecture,” City Lights, 2012,
224 pp. Philp Choy was born and raised in San Francisco's Chinatown and
is a professional architect and American Studies pioneer. This is City
Lights Publishing house website with reviews, descriptions including the
Introduction and one chapter in pdf. of Choy's book.
Bruce W. Davies,
"Canada's Craigdarroch Castle: Where are the Building Plans,"
2013. Mr. Davis is curator of Craigdarroch Castle and gives us details to
it's 19th century architecture and architects.
E. Malcolm Parkinson,
"The Artist at War-Painters, Muralists, Sculptors, Architects Work to
Provide Camouflage for WW I," Prologue Magazine, National Archives, Spring
Architectural Lessons From Frank Lloyd Wright," freshome Design and Architecture
website, September 3-10, 2012. Quotes from Frank Lloyd Wright on
architecture with photos of his designs.
Paul Zucker, The
Role of Architecture in Future Civilization, The Journal of Aesthetics
and Art Criticism," Vol. 3, No. 9/10, 1944, pp. 30-38 seen in jstor.org.
Paul Zucker discussed post WW II architecture and it's change over time
since the 19th century.
"Sacred Space and
Synagogue Architecture," Union for Reformed Judaism in North America
website. See tabs for more resources.
"What is Googie Architecture?" Architecture About.com. American
1950's architecture style featured in fast food restaurants, gas stations
evolved out of Modern architecture movement of 1930's.
Jennifer Eblin, "A
Guide to Novelty Architecture," Yahoo.com, April 10, 2009. Novelty
or pop architecture has it's roots in googie architecture in 1930's as
businesses sought to attract the new "car culture" hitting the
American roads with attractive and unusual designs for gas stations, hotels,
restaurants. Route 66 was famous for this style of roadside design.
Architecture," xroads.virginia.edu. Site maintained by Tiffiney Carney.
Last updated May 11, 2001. See photographs and drawings of Route 66
Architecture," cyclopaedia.net @ 2013. See description and images of
"Written in Stone," NY Times, June 4, 2006. New York stone
quarried in NY state replacedwood after mid 19th century fires.
History," New York City Architecture. Series of articles with photographs
of Harlem architecture over time.
Architecture," Harlem World Magazine, November 14, 2013. Examples,
photographs and short articles on the history of Harlem New York architecture.
Deconstructivism of Frank Gehry," posted by Ola on her blog, March 20,
2010. See Gehry's major works annotated with small photographs and a
definition of deconstructivist architecture. See two video TED Talks with
Frank Gehry in "Video/Documentary" section of this article above, in
second section of this article. Note Niklos Salingaroos argumentagainst Gehry deconstructivist style below.
"Unified Architectural Theory," arch Daily, October, 2013. Series
of articles in which Niklos Salingaroos argues against Frank Gehry's
"deconstructivist" architecture and explains why unifed architecture is
better for human habitat. See Introduction to those articles in arch
daily, August 30, 2013: http://www.archdaily.com/419892/unified-architectural-theory-an-introduction/
Google Book, Andrew M.
Shanken, "194X: Architecture,
Planning, and Consumer Culture on the American HomeFront," University of Minnesota Press, 2009. Dr. Shanken began research for this
book in 1994 studying effects of WW II and post
WW II consumer culture on Architecture and city planning.
Perspectives in the History of Chicago's Public Housing," Roosevelt
University, Chicago Studies on New Deal history. This article with a
study unit discusses the change over time of Chicago public housing from the
1930's through the 1950's especially as to architectural style.
Google Book. Joseph F.
DiMento and Cliff Ellis, "Changing
Lanes: Visions and History of Urban Freeways," MIT Press,
2013. DiMento and Ellis
explain the history of US freeways.
History of the JFK Assassination Site," Smithsonian Magazine blog, November
"Women Shaping Our World: Architecture, Gender and Space," The
Architecture League-Urban Omnibus-TheCulture
of City Making, April 3, 2012. The Brooklyn Museum in preparation for
National Women's Month invitedwomen speakers to discuss "Women
Shaping Our World." The four speakers reviewed in this article by
CaitlinBlanchfield focused on architecture.
Clara Lambert (Asia
Society) interview, "Persian Influences and Women in Architecture,"
Art Aware website, aidaforoutan.blogspot, June 18, 2013. Ms. Lambert
interviewed two Iranian born sisters, Gisue Hariri and Mojgan Hariri, who
migrated to the US in the 1970's, attended Cornell University and formed their
own New York architectural firm in 1986.
"National Shrine of
the Little Flower," Joe Rivera Photography, created October 15, 2009,
modified December 6, 2009. Catholic shrine of the Little Flower with
Father Charles Coughlin's radio tower, Royal Oak, Michigan built in two stages
between 1931-1936. Explanation of architecture and four pages of Joe
Rivera photographs included.
Roberta Green Ahmanson,
"What is Sacred Space?" Biola Magazine, Fall 2011. Biola
University has added a chair for a Visionary in Residence. Roberta Green
Ahmanson, along with her husband, are twenty five of the most influentialEvangelicals in America and Roberta Green Ahmanson is
also Board Chair of New York's Museum of Biblical Art. AsBiola's
2nd visionary in residence she has taken the theme for 2011-2012 of
"Sacred Space." In Biola's magazine sheexplains that
vision. See other articles on this theme on right side of page.
"Why Latter Day
Saints Build Temples," The Church of the Latter Day Saints, last updated
February 21, 2012.
"The Golden Arches
of McModernism," Smithsonian Magazine blogsite, July 24, 2013.
McDonald's golden arches are evident as a symbol of globalization even if
store opens in Vietnam or Vermont.
Arch," Great Buildings. The Gateway Arch, built between 1961-1966,
honoring and remembering settlement of theAmerican
West. 630 foot arch designed by Finnish architect Eero Saarinen honoring
the historical "gateway to theWest." It is interesting to
read the native American point of view as expressed by Daniel Richter, "Facing
East from Indian Country," Harvard University Press, 2001. Richter
introduces his book by comparing the St. Louis Gateway Arch as to White
European and Amerindian points of view. See review of Richter's point of
view by Greg O'Brien (University ofSouthern
Mississippi) in H-AmIndian, September 2002: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=6757
History of Pepsi Cola Pt. 1/The Mad Men Years," Smithsonian Magazine,
September 2013. Pt. 2 to come.
Janet Elizabeth Haws,
"Architecture as Art? Not in my Neocolonial Neighborhood: A
Case for Providing First Amendment Protection to Expressive Residential
Architecture," Brigham Young University Law Review, November 1, 2005.
City denies prospective home owners building approval claiming the home
is not attractiveenough. Janet Haws
discusses that lawsuit.
"Sonic Bloom-A New
Solar Powered Sculpture," Smithsonian Magazine, September 18, 2013.
The Pacific Science Center in Seattle, Washington exhibits architecture
as public art demonstrating solar energy by Dan Corson.
"Architecture, Populism, and an Election Year," AIA Archiblog, posted
by Doug Gordon February 25, 2008. Short article
on American architecture, collapsing infrastructure and election 2008.
See home page for AIAArchiblog website: http://archiblog.info/
"Highways to Boulevards Blog: The Language of Urban Freeways,"
CNU (Congress for the New Urbanism), September 16, 2013.
Kyle West, "Lessons
from Architecture," Blog Critics, December 10, 2008. College student
blogger, Kyle West, and his reaction to his college professor displaying the
infrastructure, architecture and urban planning of Dallas, Texas. Forexample
the 1950-1960's freeways designed to encourage white flight, mall-like mega-Churchs,
etc. Architecture and urban design as segrationist.
Marc Pitzke in New York,
"The US Ramshackle Infrastructure-When Will the Next Bridge
Collapse?" der Spiegel,Germany, August 3, 2007. Germany's der
Spiegel highlights America's crumbling infrastructure. Context is the Minneapolis
I-35 bridge collapse and other architectural/infrastructure problems across the
"Derrida in the Ghetto (via Eisenman and the NYFD)," artfromnewyork
blogspot, August 26, 2005. Lemieux-Ruibal discusses American architech
Emily Anthes, "How
Room Designs Affect Your Work and Mood," mashrabiyamyjourney blog,
February 2010 originally seen in Scientific America, April 22, 2009.
Places," As if People Mattered word press, June 28, 2011. See
articles on dwelling architecture with first being a contrast between Levittown
1939," PBS.org. An analysis and description of Frank Lloyd Wright's
dream of designing affordable homes on a massive scale for the American middle
"1951: American Dream Houses, all in a row," originally
published in The Trentonian, seen in decade by decadesnapshots and links of American history website,
Capital Century. A description of Levittown architecture in 1951.
History of the JFK Assassination Site," Smithsonian Magazine blog,
November 21, 2013, posted by Jimmy Stamp.
Eric Klinenberg and Henk
Ovink, "The Quest For the Best Design For a Post-Sandy World," Mother
Jones, September 17, 2013. America must rebuild infrastructure that can
survive increasedly severe weather.
Change with Landscape Architecture," ASLA (American Society of Landscape
Architects) @2013. See many resources and links for landscape architecture as a
solution to climate change problems.
"Architecture for the Masses," PBS News Hour Arts Beat, December 16,
2008. 2% of home buyers work with an architect which is evidence for the
idea that shelter is a necessity, architecture is a luxury. This PBS
interview,audio podcast and slideshare
discusses the concept of a "neighborhood architect."
Glamour," Joke Architects, July 22, 2012. Two architects formed JOKE
as an architectural observation,research and design website. This article
about New York city as center of international commerce and free market capitalism,
but "hugely fragmented in terms of its social distribution of
capital...rich/poor divide becomes increasedly segregated..."
Kevin Gurley, "The
Segregation Walls That Divide Us," Metro Atlantic-Architecture, Cities,
Transit and Urbanism, May 6, 2013. Gurley explains Florida urban architecture
built to divide the races and rich from the poor
"In Apocalyptic Detroit: Ruins and Segregation (Fragments of
America)," Art from New York blogspot, August 9, 2005.
Lemieux-Ruibal explains the architecture and urban-suburban divide of
Detroit, evident in the Grosse Pointe/Cranbrook educational community-Detroit
Dan Austin and JC
Reindl, "After a Century, Michigan Central Train Station's Last Stop in
Limbo," Detroit Free Press, December 26, 2013. December 26, 1913 the first
train pulled into Detroit's Michigan Central Station. Today, property
owned by billionaire Manuel Maroun, the architectural jewel "is unquestionably
one of the world's eminent examples of urban ruin and spoiled grandeur."
A continuity over time as to urban collapse.
"1968 Inverted: Why the 'Back to the City' Movement is 'White Flight'
in Reverse," Planetizen, July 10, 2013. Nettler wonders if the new,
young white flight back into urban areas like Detroit and Chicago will change
the racial divide and urban design.
Design," University of Minnesota Press. See annotated interactive
selection of books published by the University of Minnesota Press on
architecture and design, mostly North American. See one example ofthese
books below (Diane Harris, "Little
Ursala Lang, "Book
Review of Diane Harris's"Little
White Houses-How the Postwar Home Constructed Race in America," University of Minnesota Press, 2013 seen in "Antipode-A Radical Journey of
Geography blog. Lang reveals Diane Harris's research around the theme of racial
and class politicsof architecture in
post-war America and the 1945-1960 building boom. Harris describes how
the ordinary Americanhouse contributed to defining of middle class
whiteness and an exclusionary housing market in postwar America.Another
example of architecture as segregationist.
Virginia and Lee
McAlester, "Great American Houses
and Their Architectural Styles," Abbeville Press, 1984, 1994. Some
consider this book a classic in American house architecture. See new edition
of this book at Virginia McAlester website: http://virginiamcalester.com/books.html
Terrance G. Lichtenwald
and Frank S. Perri, "Smuggling Tunnels: The Need for a Transnational
Analysis," Homeland Security, Spring 2011. The two security authors
look at Canadian, Israeli and South Korean methods to combat smuggling tunnels
and excavation. Tunnels as architecture.
Chris Sweeney, "18
Strangest Military Bases," (slide show), Popular Mechanics. Almost
all of these bases are US and stationedglobally.
Station Design Incorporates Inuit Knowledge," CBC News North, Canada, June
17, 2013. Canadian Research base using Inuit environment knowledge in their
b. 1934," scribd.com. Profile of Metis native architect Douglas Cardinal
born in Red Deer, Alberta, Canada, famous for his design of the Museum of
Eleanor J. Bader,
"Witnessing the Projects: Audrey Petty's 'High Rise Stories,'"
Truth out, October 5, 2013. Ms. Bader reviews Audrey Petty's (editor)
"High Rise Stories-Voices from
Chicago Public Housing,"McSweeney
Books, 2013,280 pages. The sociology of America's public housing
architecture as told by those who live in the projects.
"Bauhaus on the Beach," NY Times Homes and Fashion, September 5, 2013.
Venice Beach, California home. See slide show of architecture to
left of page. Remember, "architecture for the rich, shelter for the
Architect for the poor
Auburn University's Dr. Samuel Mockbee (1944-2001) website developed by Mockbee
family and Auburn University @ 2009-2013. Samuel Mockbee believed
everyone deserved shelter for the soul and spent much of his career trying to help
the poor in the deepAmerican South, especially poor, hard scrabble
Alabama. His architectural philosophy was inspired by modernist poet and author
Samuel Mockbee," Citizen architect film website. More on Samuel
Mockbee who developedthe Rural Studio architect course and philosophy at
Auburn University after giving up his career as a professional architect.
Joanna B. Campbell,
"A Shelter for the Soul," Sojourners Magazine-Faith in Action For
Social Justice, December 2007. Citizen architecture
meets real-world challenges in rural southeast North Carolina. Note Ms.
Campbell cites Samuel Mockbee.
in Literature and Architecture: Frank Furness, Louis Sullivanand
Frank Lloyd Wright, Cambridge
Publishing, February 2013. Ms. Uechi writes how transcendental
famous architects to place the philosophy into physical space via architecture.
Tallest Water Slide is More Than 134 Feet Tall," Smithsonian Magazine
blog, November 20, 2013. Kansas City, Missouri will replace Brazil with the
world's tallest water slide beginning May 2014. The name of the slide is
"Verruckt" which means "insane" in German.
East," DeAnza College, Cupertino, California, nd. Annotated Slide show
with large colorful slides, drawings, maps and photographs of Mesopotamia
Bronze Age architecture(3300-1200 BCE) and
Iron Age (1200-600 BCE).
Karl W. Butzer and
Leslie G. Freeman, editors, "Early
Hydraulic Civilizations in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology,” University of Chicago Press, 1976, made available to the internet. Engineering
and architecture in early Egypt to control water.
Fortress Yields New Finds of Battle," Popular Archaeology, September 12,
2013. Egyptian fortress dig in what is now Israel defines Egyptian
Francois R. Valla and
Hamoudi Khalaily, "The First Sedentary Peoples in Israel, Mallaha (Eynan)
1996," Bulletin du Centre de recherche francais
a Jerusalem, January 1997, pp. 77-82. Article explaining "dig"
at Natufian site of Mallaha and the
architecture discovered within that dig.
"The Mud Structure
Project in Kermanshah, Iran," Sinba Design, posted July 22, 2012. Iranian
architect Poua Khazaeli Parsa is attempting to revive, what he feels, is the
lost spirit of architecture by building mud structure buildings in Kermanshah.
See one minute thirty one second video. The project began in 2007 and wasto
be featured in Paris, France. See more on that development: http://www.architectureindevelopment.org/project.php?id=251
"Mud Structure for
Humanity-Tehran Rai Studio," Arch Daily, @ Mahsa Masoudi, posted April 8,
2012 by Alison Furuto. More photographs and information on Kermanshah, Iran mud
"A Cradle of
Prehistoric Cultures," Pasargad Tours. Kermanshah region in Western
"Iranian Architecture," Iran Review, October 2012. Greater
Iranian architecture has existed since at least 5000 BCE. Firouzeh
Mirvazavi describes elements of Iranian architecture in this summary article.
"Effects of Climate on the form and elevation of buildings in Iran,"
Caroun.com, research, nd. Note Architecture tab at this page.
Medhi Haghighat bin and
Mojtaba Ansari (Tarbiat Modares University, Iran) and Clemens Steenbergen (TU
Delft, Netherlands), "Sustainability of Isfahan's Landscape Design During
Safavid Period," Energy, Environment, Ecosystems, Development and
Landscape Architecture Conference paper, pp. 228-233, 2009 seen in WSEAS.US
website (World Science andEngineering
Academy and Society). Discussion of Isfahan's Persian gardens and
Persians/Iranians' love of plants, trees
of Paradise," Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. See
description of the famous "maidan," or the geometric piazza (center
court) produced by Shah Abbas I from 1598 onwards which some claim is one
ofthe most ambitious and novel schemes of town planning in Islamic
Professor Kim S. Sexton,
"Isfahan-Half the World," University of Washington Silk Road website,
2002. Dr. Sexton, Department of Architecture, University of Arkansas,
describes the architecture of Isfahan under Seljuq and Safavid dynasties.
Charles C. Mann,
"Gobekli Tepe," National Geographic, June 2011. Charles C. Mann
argues that first monumental architecture in Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, was designed
for religious worship.
"Gobekli tepe: The World's First Temple," Smithsonian
Magazine, November 2008. Predating Stonehenge by 6000 years, Gobekli Tepe
could be human's first architectural wonder.
"Monuments and Memory: Architecture and visual culture in Ancient
Anatolian History," Chapter 28 in Philogical and Historical Topics
journal, 26 pp. Download seen in academia.edu (2 mb). See extensive references.
"Greco Buddhist Art
and Architecture," Real Magick resources @ 2000-2013. Resources for
Greco Buddhist art and architecture.
Empire," Colorado State University, Property management and collection
school. See tabs for Afghanistan history over time and examples of art,
sculpture and architecture.
"Gandharan Art and
Architecture," Fine Art Painting Tips, posted by Jacob Devies, February 5,
2010. See short video clip (4:46) on Gandhara Art, Archaeology.
(Warka)-Structural Organization of an ancient near-eastern capital,"
DAI-Deutsches Archaologisches Institut. Research and description of urban
development of the metropolis of legendary King Gilgamesh.
Marvels of Ancient Mesopotamia," Homepage of James F. MacDonnell, S.J.
(1929-2005), Fairfield University, this site no longer updated.
Code-Rules for Contractors," Distressed Homeowner blog. Note specific
penalties and punishments for shoddy architecture and building.
Architecture," History For Kids. See pictures and photographs of ancient
Babylonian Architecture," Archaeolink.com. Resources for Mesopotamian
and Babylonian architecture.
American Museum of Natural History. See interactive website for a walk
through the ancient trade city of Petra, Joradan to see ruins and architecture.
Ian Reynolds, The
History and Architecture of Petra, History of the Ancient World, posted
April, 2013 originally seen in JCCC Honors Journal, Vol. 3:1 (2012). See
26 minute 31 second HD Video, "The Ancient City of Petra, Jordan."
An Open Door to the Arab World, last revised June 18, 2009. See Arab
Architecturebooks on rightside of
"Top Ten Sites from
the Bible," Bible Architecture. Images, photographs of ancient
cities of the Bible. One example of this site:
Jericho and Catal Huyuk were
earliest neolithic cities.At Jericho defensive walls predominated with no
streets or ground level doors or windowswhich might allow access to
predators and invaders. Residents entered theirhomes from rooftops and
pulled ladders up behind them. (Jerry Bentley and Herbert Ziegler,Traditions
andEncounters,5th ed., McGraw Hill, 2011, p. 21.)
"Jesus Was Son of
an Architect Book Claims," The Telegraph (UK), April 2, 2010. Review
of book, "The Jesus Discovery" which claims Jesus was the son of a middle-class, highly educated architect.
Joseph as a carpenter has distorted the Bible's meaning. http://biblewalks.com/Sites/DesertWater.html "Desert
Water," Bible Walks, last updated February 15, 2013. Water and wells
in the arid Judean desert withphotographs of water architecture near
Al Altan, "Focus on
Catal Huyuk-Catal Huyuk Architecture," Focus, @1998-2007. Short
article describing Catal Huyuk, Turkey architecture.
Reveals Possible Second Temple Period Priestly Mansion," Phys.org news,
September 17, 2013. Jerusalem dig finds 1st century buildings in
"elite" section of town.
Board of Jewish
Education, "Synagogue Architecture." See brief page on history
and key elements of Jewish synagogue architecture.
Architects," Jewish Virtual Library @ 2013 The American-Israeli Cooperative
Enterprise. Source: Encyclopedia Judaica, 2008. Short article on
Jewish architecture in earliest times to modern times.
"Baha'i Architecture of Israel," Arch 499 Non Western Architecture,
University of Idaho webpage.
Architecture and Urban Planning," Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Website
dedicated to resources and study of Negev desert architecture.
Kathleen Kuiper, ed.,
"Islamic Art, Literature, and Culture," The Islamic World, Britannica
Education Publishing, 2010. Islamic architecture referenced throughout
this scribd.com book document. See specifically "Early Architecture,"
pp. 136-157 and "Sinan," pp. 204-208, great Ottoman architect.
Umayyad," Arch Net. See 40 slides of Umayyad architecture
(661-750 CE) after short description of Umayyad architecture building history.
Syrian Umayyad architecture is described as "formative years for
"Islamic Architecture-Abbasid Period," Islamic Arts and Architecture,
March 12, 2011. Islamic architecture moved from Umayyad Syria (661-750
CE) to Abbasid Iraq, 750-1250 CE. See other resourcesfor Islamic architecture throughout this website, for
example to right of page, "Baku-Arabesque in Stone," by Marina Alin, October 6, 2013 as
to stone carving architecture dating back 40,000 years in Azerbaijan and
"Bara Gumbad Complex, Delhi," architectural photographs of the Sayyid
and Lodi dynasties' architecture, 1489-1517 CE.
Sites and architecture in Palestine," Druze history and Culture.com.
the Maronite Church, by Maronite Patriarchate of Antioch appearing in
Vol. 17 of Sacred Architecture @ 2013. See pdf of this issue, 2010: http://www.sacredarchitecture.org/images/uploads/volumesPDFs/Issue_17_2010.pdf
Sarah Brooks (James
Madison University), "The Byzantine State Under Justinian I (Justinian the
Great), "The Metropolitan Museum of Art-Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History,
October 2001, revised April 2009. See slideshow and brief article on art and
architecture under Justinian.
Revival Architecture," Buffalo 2001. Website maintained by Chuck
Architecture website. See links on left side of page for much
Dr. Saphic Omer,
"Color and Light in Islamic Architecture," Muslim Tribune, posted June
10, 2011. Professor Saphic Omer is associate professor of architecture at
International Islamic University Malaysia.
Review of T. E.
Lawrence, "Crusader Castles," Folio Society @ 2013. T. E. Lawrence
(Lawrence of Arabia) traveled 1,000 miles, walking, bicycling, and on
horseback, visited 36 crusader castles researching his 1910 Jesus College,
Oxford undergraduate thesis entitled,
"The Influence of the Crusades on European Military Architecture to the
End of the Twelfth Century.He traveled through Britain, France, Syria and
Palestine and enjoyed the arduous journey and immersion inArab culture.
Lawrence's thesis was controversial in that he claimed Crusader castles
of the 12th century owed more to western architecture than to anything the
Franks found in the East and that Western military architecture absorbed little
or nothing from the Orient before the 12th century. One wonders why this
archaeologist and architect turned soldier was chosen by the British government
andarmy for the "espionage assignment" in WW I Arabia.
Reading this review, we know.See reviews for in Good Reads: Crusader
Tours," Saudi Aramco World, September/October 2013. Use your mouse
to move around each image which allows you to feel as if you are actually in
the site. See 25 image virtual tour of the Alhambra, Moorish style
architecture, Spain 14th century:http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200604/alhambra/default.htm Suleymaniye Mosque,
Istanbul: http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200605/suleymaniye/default.htm Dome of
the Rock or Al-Haram Al-Sharif and Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem: http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200901/al-haram/tour.htm
"Movable Palaces," Architecture, Design, January 18, 2012 seen in
Islamic Art and Architecture. The Ottoman Tent palace architecture.
David Schlosser, Reading
List for Islamic History, Purdue University. Scroll down to see
bibliography under "Urbanism" for sources on Islamic architecture and
of the month," Salaam, UK, March 2, 2013. See Introduction to Salaam's
theme of the month which is Islamic Art. Click on
"Architecture" link on left side of page to see photographs and
article on Islamic architecture.
"Revealing the Pyramids of the Future," World Architecture News, August
19, 2008. Modern zigguratsand pyramids built in Dubai and United
Jonathan M. Bloom,
"The Minaret Symbol of Faith and Power," Saudi Aramco World,
March/April 2002. Look to right of page and see "Virtual Walking
Tours:" Alhambra, Suleymaniye Mosque, Dome of the Rock, and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
"History of Islamic Architecture," slide share with thirty slides.
"Islamic Art, Architecture
and Culture," Archnet syllabi. Scroll down page to see Urban
Planning and Other Resources for more syllabi.
"Evolution of the Architecture of Sufi Complexes in Bukhara," 1999
seen in Archnet.
Architecture," Islamic-Architecture website. Note tabs on left side
of page for more resources as to architects, etc..
Turkish Culture Foundation, 2011. See many other examples of Turkish
architecture on left side of page and scroll down to bottom of Harem article to
see two other pages of Harem architecture images.
"Harem in History
and Imagination," Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT. See
program of speakers and scroll down to see brief abstracts and biography of the
Heghnar Waten Paugh (UC
Davis art historian), "Learning From Taksim Square: Architecture,
State Power, and Public Space in Istanbul," SAH (Society of Art
Historians) Blog, June 11, 2013, posted by Kostis Kourelis.
"Marsh Arabs and
Water Loss," Ted Case Studies, January 11, 1997. After the first
Gulf War the Saddam Hussein government's policies of draining the southern Iraq
marshes continued aimed at weakening the Shia Marsh Arab's culture and economy.
Major Eric Russell and
Brandt Smith, 4-1 Armored, "Mudhif Houses Capture Spirit of Iraqi
Culture," US Army website analysis and description of southern IraqMarsh Arab's mudhif architecture.
With Basalt," Umm El-Jimal Project, @ 2007-2013. In areas what are
now Syria and Jordan inhabitants built homes/dwellings up to three stories high
with basalt rock. See slide share and description of this architecture.
"Dheish Refugee Camp," Campus in Camps, January 2013. Alessandro
Petti describes refugee camps as "temporary architecture" and
discusses their habitat using the Dheish Palestinian refugee camp as an example.
Par Mona Khechen,
"Architecture and War: From Baghdad to Kabul," Les carnats de
l'lfpro, September 25, 2012.
"Chaldean Architectural Influences Throughout Iraq," Chaldean.org,
May 6, 2012. Bedre Konya exhibits frustrationwith Western media's crumbling images of Baghdad and
it's war ravaged architecture. She discusses Chaldeaninfluences
throughout Baghdad and Iraq in this short article.
"Can Baghdad Be Beautiful Again?" CNN.com, March 20, 2012. See
8 photo slide share of modern Baghdad architecture.
"Destroyed Bamiyan Buddha Statues Not to be Rebuilt," The Hindu,
updated June 6, 2013. UNESCO says Bamiyan Valley Afghanistan two Buddha
statues blown up by the Taliban will not be rebuilt.
"Afghanistan's Buddhas Can Be Rebuilt, But Should They?" Time World,
March 2, 2011. The question of rebuilding architectual history.
Website for award
winning film by Christian Frei, "Valley of the Giant Buddhas,"
Bamiyan Valley, Afghanistan. See synopsis of film site: http://www.giant-buddhas.com/en/synopsis/
"Weaponized Architecture: The Impossiblity of Innocence," a mobile
book published by d.pr-Barcelona, May 2012. Lambert claims architecture
is a political weapon especially as exhibited in Palestinian disobedience to
Israeli colonial legislation on Palestinian legal territory.
"Landscapes of Desire," Artists Against Apartheid, May 4, 2009 and
November 3, 2010 tags showing samples of Halaka's resistance art depicting
Palestinian buildings and homes destroyed during and after the
1948Israeliattacks into Palestinian
territory during that war. Broken architecture or as referenced by
Leopold Lambert, above,
"weaponized architecture" is Halaka's focus. Would it not be
comparative to the World Trade Center in New York 9/11 remembrance theme or Israeli
remembrance architecture as seen in Yehiam Memorial link below?
"Landscapes of Desire," Arab British Centre exhibit, May 2011.
John Halaka is a Palestinian-American born in Egyptwho teaches art at San Diego State University.
His most recent exhibits surrounding the themes of remembranceand
dissent points out Palestinian's homes and buildings destroyed by Israel in the
1948 struggle, thus theLandscapes of Desire theme. He uses his art
as a method of resistance and remembrance. See Dearborn, Michigan Arab
American Museum (December 2013) on John Halaka's exhibit and click on see
exhibit of photographs "here" tab: http://arabamericanmuseum.org/JohnHalaka_LandscapesofDesire
James Verini, "Gaza
Tunnels," National Geographic, December 2012. See photographs of Gaza
tunnels, their architecture/design, purpose, and current tensions in the
Zack Gold, "Tunnel
Vision," Carnegie Endowment, October 22, 2013. Egypt attempts to
close tunnels into Gaza but finds difficulty in doing so. Current history
as to tunnels between Egypt and Gaza.
Israel," e-architect, January 2009. Short annotated photo sample of
Yehiam Memorial building constructed as remembrance art for the 1948 Israeli
Haganah convoy which was wiped out moving supplies to the Yehiam Kibbutz in
1948. See context of this remembrance architecture in the Jewish Virtual
Library's short paragraph, "Battle for the Roads, March-May 1948," @ 2013: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/roads.html
Architecture," NSW Board of Jewish Education, 2012. Short history
and explanation of Jewish synagogue architecture. See tabs at top of page
for more resources.
"The Architecture of the Kibbutz," Yad Yaari, February 23, 2009.
Ziva Sternhell reviews two books on Jewish settlement and architecture of
the kibbutz built in the values of socialism and nationalism between the two
world wars. One kibbutz built in Israel the other in the Soviet Union.
"Architecture For the Rich, Mere Shelter for the Poor," Center for
Study of the Built Environment (CSBE), February 7, 2008. CSBE is located
in Jordan and al-Asad's short article mentions worker's housing architecture as
modeled by Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Europe and Hassan Fathy's
1940's "New Gourna" in Egypt.
Center for Study of the Built Environment (CSBE), Jordan. Moustadam in
Arabic means "sustainablity" and this article explains Jordan's lack
of resources and poor architecture. See articles on that theme at the end
of this introduction.
Google Book. Hasan
Fathy, "Architecture for the Poor," University of Chicago Press,
2010. Fathy, in a classic sustainable design plan, used mud brick
architecture learned in Nubia to build New Gourma near Luxor, Egypt. Fathy
taught the villagers to use mud brick architecture to build the village.
Michael Badu, "The
Mosque: Religion, Politics, & Architecture in the 21st Century,"
The Funambulist, March 6, 2012. British architect, Michael Badu, is
asked to be a guest writer by Funambulist editor Leopold Lambert and discuss
hiswork building mosques.
"Zaha Hadid Unveils Design for Qatar 2022 World Cup Stadium," de
zeen, November 18, 2013. Qatar footballstadium
located in southern Qatar, at the port city of Al Wakrah is modeled after the
curved form of a dhow.
See Zaha Hadid
architectural website, November 2013 and more information on 2022 Qatar Al
Design Museum, biography of Zaha Hadid Iraqi born (1950) architect posted June
29-November 25, 2007. See other buildings designed by Zaha Hadid and note other
architectural topics on right side of page. See an analysis of Ms.
Hadid's architecture metaphors: "Zaha Hadid: Reading Her Biography
Through Her Metaphors in Design," Trans Materials Asia, September 20, 2006
History, Politics, Practice," Ottoman History podcast, Episode 110,
June 8, 2013. Two part audio podcast analyzing Turkish protest to protect
Gezi Park's architecture and publi space. Bigger theme revolves around urban
transformation and current
Turkish politics explained in historical context.
"Architecture-Civil Architecture: The Indus Pyramid,"
Anthropology 3145 wiki. See text, photographs and video of ancient Indus
Architecture History," Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, London. Explanation
of the history of Mandir architecture. Mandirs were originally built as shelters
to protect the early Vedic age ceremonial sacrificial fire pits from the
Cave Architecture," Real History. Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta ancient
cave architecture, art and dwellings.
Jeffry Hays, "Hindu
Temples, Architecture and Temple Customs," Facts and Details, 2009, last
updated March 2011. Look to left of page for more links to Hindu architecture
"Interior of the
Chaitya Hall, Karle, India-Asia/India," Prehistoric Through Gothic Art
Arh101, South Mountain Community College, Maricopa Community Colleges.
Large photographs/slide share of India, China, Korea, and Japanesearchitecture, sculpture and art.
Michael D. Gunther,
"Monuments of India," Art and Archaeology website, @ 2002. Website
with links to annotated photographs/slides of temple monuments in India.
"To What Extent does the Architecture along the Silk Road relate to Indian
antecedents?" Astudent paper for Introduction to the Art and
Archaeology of South and Southeast Asia course, academia.edu.
Caves-Ancient Temples Carved From Rock," kuriositas.com, November 5, 2010.
Beautiful photographs with photographer credits beneath each slide of the
Ajanta Cave temples, India. "Ajanta fully displays the Gupta idiom.
A horseshoe-shaped cliff of 29 caves, occupied twice, 1st century BCE and
again in the 5th and 6th centuries CE rediscovered in the
19th century and its continuing restoration in the late 20th century draws
attention to one of the grandest displays of Buddhist architecture/art in
Asia." (Robert E. Fisher,Buddhist
Art and Architecture,London:
Thames & Hudson world of art, 1993, p. 56)
"The History of Buddhist Architecture in Sri Lanka," presented at
International Symposium on Design and Developmeay of Buddhist Architecture,
1998, pp. 85-96. See links to drawings and small image photographs at end
Interesting Details of Cave Temple Architecture," The Hindu, October 27,
2010. Cave templearchitecture in Tamil Nadu dating back to the
Pandyas-Pallavas reign beginning in 571-630 CE which set the foundation for
medieval southern Indian architecture. Two types of temples found with
one type built by layman the other with royal patronage and interesting
uncovering of musical inscriptions engraved on some temples.
"The Great Stupa at Sanchi," rogershepherd.com, Solution 12/98.
Built in 1st century BCE in India this Buddhist architecture housed
stupas, temples and monasteries at Sanchi, India. Scroll to bottom of page
and see more links to Shepherd articles such as: http://rogershepherd.com/WIW/solution12/mountain.html
Architecture," Archit-home blog, March 8, 2011. See article introduced
by definition of Sthapatya-Shastra or Indian phrase for science of architecture
and civil construction. Architecture was a science and an art. See two
videos at the end of this article on ancient India's architecture.
Vinay Lal, (Assistant
Professor of History, UCLA), "Architecture of South Asia," @ 2008
(last update). Note culture, history, etc. tabs and links to this
Architecture," Discover Bhutan. Note traditional Bhutanese fortress
architecture called Dzong.
"Inside the Chola Temple," The Hindu, June 4, 2012. Srinivasan
highlights conference on Chola temple architecture featuring the Brihadeeshwara
temple. See more on Chola architecture from Indiapicks.com: http://indiapicks.com/annapurna/M_Chola.htm
Sites-Chola Temple-Brhadisvara," Archaeological Survey of India, 2011.
See other world heritage sites in India on this website. Look to
lower left for "video" to view short clips of various Indian
architectural heritage sites like the Taj Mahal.
Temple," Indian Mirror. See tab for "other temples" and
short 2:05 video. Kailash temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
James K. Lochtefeld,
"Ellora Hindu Monumental Architecture-picture pages," Carthage
College, Kenosha, Wisconsin, page last updated August 29, 2011. See
beautiful photographs of Ellora, India's most stunning monument, the Kailasanatha
temple, Cave 16, dedicated to Lord Shiva. See tabs to other Hindu
Dr. Deepanjana D. Klein
and Dr. Arno Klein, "Ellora Caves." The Kleins and their daughter
digitized 7000 photographs they took of the Buddhist, Hindu and Jain caves in
Ellora, India and produced this wonderful website. See more from Artstor:
December 4, 2008 and updated 2012: http://www.artstor.org/news/n-html/an-081204-ellora.shtmlhttp://www.artstor.org/what-is-artstor/w-html/col-ellora.shtml
James K. Lochtefeld,
"Khajuraho Temple," Carthage College, Wisconsin, last updated January
12, 2006. Large photo of Nagara architecture style of northern India
(Khajuraho temple) with annotations.
temples," India Picks. Annotated drawings and photographs of Orissa
temples 11th century architecture.
Temple," Hampi.in. Vittala is a form of lord Vishnu and Hampi, India
has temple architecture dedicated to Vittala including the stone chariot temple
from 15th century southern India.
Hampi," Archaeology, @ 2013. Slide show of medieval southern Indian
city/temple complex of Hampi or Vijayanagara, 1300-1500's CE.
"The Ultimate Site
for Indian Temples," Temple Net, @1996. Site developed by K.
Towers in India," India Marks. See annotated photographs of the nine
tallest Gopurams in India the tallest in 2008 at 243 feet. Goruprams are
towers built at temple entrances dating back to Dravidian architecture in
Indian Saga. See various types of Indian architecture with one small
photograph for each type such as Hindu, Buddhist, Fort.
Dr. Vinay Mohan Das,
"The Sacred in Indian System of Architecture: A Case Example of
'Mayamatam,'" Issue 3, Monsoon, 2011, Spandrel. Dr. Das is a faculty
member in the Department of Architecture, Maulana Azad National Institute of
Technology, Bhopal, India.
Architecture," Culturopedia @ 2012-2015. Besides short summary on
Jain architecture see other tabs for all types of Indian architecture.
Architecture Under Ashoka," India Net Zone, last updated December 2, 2010.
See other articles on Indian architecture from India Net Zone at end of
this Ashoka article.
B. Annapurna Sastri,
"Indian Architecture," India Picks website. See tabs at top of
page for Indus Valley, Buddhist,Jain, Rajput, Muslim, Mughal
architecture with pictures. See example selection for Mughal
M. J. Raju, "The
Impregnable Fortress," Navhindtimes (India) September 4, 2011. Mr.
Raju discusses the Hindu impregnable fortress of Kumbalgarh in Rajasthan.
Mahal," PBS Treasures of the World series.
"Who Designed the
Taj Mahal?" PBS series Treasures of the World. See links at bottom
of page for moreinformation on architecture of the Taj Mahal.
History," Taj Mahal blog. See photographs, drawings and statistics
about the Taj Mahal built in Mughal architectural style in Agra, India.
Natasha von Geldern,
"India Snapshot: Mughal Architecture of Agra," Wandering Kiwi
blog, October 9, 2012. Natasha von Geldern photographs and comments on Agra's
"Mughal Architecture," Galenfrysinger.com. See magnificent
photographs of Mughalarchitecture especially the Red Fort and continue to
see other tabs of Indian architecture in this website.
Pathway to Enlightenment," PBS Treasures of the World series.
In 1814 the British excavated the Borobudur Buddhist temple site on the
island of Java finding a thousand statues. Borobudur may be the largest Buddhist
ceremonial site in the world.
"Bhaktapur-Travel Pictures from Nepal," Guenther Eichhorn website.
See annotated photos of Bhaktapur temples in Nepal.
Centuries of Buddhist Art and Culture," Special Edition The UNESCO Courier,
June 1956. See articles on Buddhist architecture in South Asia and East
"16 Impressive Examples of Bamboo Scaffolding," O Object. Note
most examples from India.
Architecture," Bamboo Grove. Short article on strengths and
weaknesses of bamboo architecture.
"The Vernacular Architecture
of Rajasthan," Archinomy, 1992. Description/essay on the
"colorful" architecture of Rajasthan, India.
"Indian History and
Architecture," Cultural India website.
Through the Ages," Indoarch.org.
Boloji.com @ 1999-2013, site accessed September 1, 2013. Many articles on
all aspects of Indian architecture. See example of the articles:
Ashish Nangia, "The Indus Valley Civilization: Images From
Antiquity," December 21, 2000. See especially ancient Indus Valley
city states architecture and town planning: http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=892
Water Architecture in India," India Architecture, Bonjour India,
September 8, 2013. Effects of South Asian monsoons on Indian
"Monsoon House," April 28, 2012, originally published in Domus 957/April
2012. Description of amango wood country house built as a
"fortress against tropical storms" or monsoons.
"Stepwells of India," docstoc.com, posted September 20, 2011.
Nick Glass and George
Webster, "Ancient Air Conditioning Cools Building Sustainably," CNN,
March 8, 2012. Jaipur, India is home of the Pearl Academy of Fashion
which combines modern exterior styling with ancient Mughal Rajasthani
architecture designed to keep temperatures down without artificial cooling
systems. Award winning architect Manit Rastogi
explains the use of baoli (Hindi word) or stepwells which are bodies of water
encased by descending set of steps. Rastogi says, "When water
evaporates in heat it...brings down the temperature of the space around it.
Note 2 minute 26 second video accompanying this article and slide show of the
the step wells.
A. Srivathsan, "Power
Symbols of a New Era," The Hindu, March 27, 2010. Srivathsan
analyzes post Independence architecture built by the Indian state as seen in
the three Legislative Assemblies.
Hindu" articles on architecture in world history.
of Sikh Architecture," The Tribune of India, February 20, 1999. The
Tribune of India published in Chandigarh, India 1999 article on Sikh
Balvinder Singh Matharu,
"Our Historical Heritage Crumbling in India's Museums," sikhchic.com,
April 8, 2011. Mr. Matharu's short blog post as to his frustration with
no care for the Anglo-Sikh War Memorialbuilding.See
comments on this angst at the end of the post.
"The Art of South
and Southeast Asia-A Resource for Educators," The Metropolitan Museum of
Art, 2001. Art and Architecture resources for teachers woven around the history
and religions of South and Southeast Asia.
Art and Architecture-Early History," Infoplease.com. See especially
links to "torana" architecture or "arched portals or
Architecture," Khmer View @ 2012. First part of comprehensive article
discusses Angkor religious architecture. See periodization of Khmer
"Angkor Thom," Sacred Destinations, last updated May 28, 2009. Cambodian sacred
Buddhist city of 11-12thcentury with the
famous Bayon Temple at it's center. See more information on Angkor Thom
below. An importantregional
feature was the cult of the god-king, known in India, developed to ever more
sophisticated levels especially in Cambodia, Java and Champa. The great ruler
Jayavarman VII captured both the physical likeness and wisdom of a human king
and the omnipotence and serenity of the bodhisattva. (Robert E. Fisher,
Buddhist Art and
Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson world of art, 1993, p. 171)
using Jayavarman VII Bayon Buddhist temple architecture, jayavarmanvii.com. Cambodia.
Pre-Angkorian Temple Ruins: Index, Canby publications, Cambodia.
UNESCO World Heritage Center, @ 1999-2013. Description of Cambodia's
Heritage site at Angkor. See tabs for other sites and description of
history and architecture of these world historical treasures.
"Angkor Thom, Gate
of Victory (East Gate), Southeast causeway, Naga Balustrade, Section from Deva
Side," Southeast Asia Digitial Library, photograph. See serpent
heads and understand each wall or side of the royal city of Angkor Thom is 1.86
miles long holding within 2225 acres.
The moat is 328 feet wide. "The serpents as water symbols
linked heaven and earth. This illusion of passing from one world
toanother was also repeated with arched entrance gates, the passage
through which indicated transit between the twoworlds. Heaven's
blessings then flowed outward from the temple, the centre of the universe or
world of the gods,through the arched gate and across the serpent-railed
bridge (over moat) to the benefit of humankind."(Robert E. Fisher,Buddhist
Art and Architecture,London: Thames & Hudson world of art,
1993, p. 170)
"Southeast Asia Art
and Architecture," The Columbia Encyclopedia, March 2013. Short
summaries of regional art and architecture including more articles at the end
of this page.
"The Influence of
Hinduism and Buddhism on Religious Architecture in Southeast Asia,"
Youtube video, 6 minutes.
Buddha," ESCATI, June 10, 2012. Architecture to house Wat Phra Kaew
or the Emerald Buddha designed and built in 1782 by King Rama. See
article with photographs of the structure.
Architecture," Great Buildings website.
"Southeast Asia and
Oceania Architecture," Barnes and Noble website showing books on this
Space and Hmong Identity: Long Chang and Tasoulla Hadjiyanni,"
University of Minnesota, October 5, 2013. See videos from this
Architecture," Vietnam Country, July 12, 2010. See text, photos and
ten minute video clip, "Vietnam's Charm."
Heritage Sites in Vietnam/Hoi An-Ancient Town," galatourist.com. Hoi
An once a bustling south Vietnamese trade port architectural sites lost
economic power as port filled with silt.
Tunnels of Cu Chi, Vietnam," Amusing Planet, June 11, 2012. See
drawing of a tunnel system used against American troops during Vietnam War and
photographs of tunnel architecture.
Dr. Kamarul Syahri Bin
Kamal and Dr. Lilawati Bte Ab Wahab, "Architectural Design of Traditional
Malay House, Building Conservation blog, March 5, 2007. Article
describing regional varieties of Malay home dwelling architecture.
About Malaysia website. See descriptions of Malaysian architecture over
time with links to village exhibits.
Siri Norlizaiha Harun
& Rusamah Abdul Jalil, "Morphological History of Malaysian Urban
Design," Kota-city blog, Department ofTown
and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying,
University Technology Mara, Perak,Malaysia, June 2012. A history of
old towns, "forts," during the Malay Sultanate in Malaka 15th
century. Geography,settlement formations and natural resources have
attracted many architectural influences to the Malay peninsulaover time.
Ho Kah Chun, Dr. Ahmad
Sanusi Hasan, Dr. Norizal M. Noordin, School of Housing, Building and Planning,
Science University of Malaysia, Penang, "An Influence of Colonial
Architecture to BuildingStyle and Motifs
in Colonial Cities in Malaysia," Vintage Malaya, Paper presented at 8th
International Conference of the Asian Planning School Association, September 11-14, 2005.
Report-Architectural Heritage Building Analysis, Site: Pre-war shop lots
at Jahan Raya Timur (Malaysia," Taylor'sUniversity School of Architecture, Buildings and Design, Architecture,
Culture & History 2 (Arc 1323). 15 slide ppt. by Choo Ai Lin, Chin
Pui Man, Cheang Eileen and Lim Zhi Hong, posted by Eileen December 6, 2013.
"Architecture, Power, and Nationality (A Research on Youth Response to the
Expression of Unity and Diversity in the works of Architecture," Indonesia
University of Education, seen in academia.edu.
"Environmental Order and Spatial Behaviour Contribution to Social
Capital," Department ofArchitecture Education, University of
Pendikikan, Indonesia. As social capital decreases, crime, violence,
migration, etc. increases. One symptom is architectural breakdowns as to
environmental order and space.
Abidin Kusno, "The Appearances of Memory: Mnemonic Practices of
Architecture and Urban Form in Indonesia," Durham: Duke
University Press, 2010. Abidin Kusono's second book this focusing on
Jakarta's built environment after Suharto.
photodharma.net. Photographs taken and retrieved by Anandajoti Bhikkhu,
text adapted from Wikipedia (retrieved March 9, 2012). Architecture of Candi
Sari temple grounds near Prambanan, Java. Look at tabs at top ofpage for other regions in southeast asia and
"Sasak People in
Sade Village," Jember Traveler, January 28, 2013. Travel blogger describes
his visit to Indonesian island Sasak village with pictures of their traditional
||Figure 9: Rice Barn. The rice barn (lumbung) is a distinctive feature of Sasak architecture. The structure is raised on piles in typical Austronesian fashion and sports an unusual 'bonnet'-shaped roof, thatched with alang-alang grasses. The four foundation posts support a pair of transverse beams on top of which rests a cantilevered roof frame with bamboo rafters. The only opening is a small rectangular hatch, high up in the gable end, into which the harvested rice is placed. Large wooden discs (jelepreng), are set onto the top of the foundation posts to prevent rodents from getting at the rice store. firstname.lastname@example.org 2005 thegilis.com
"Architecture From the Jomon Era," Art History Worlds. See
photographs of paleolithic Japanese architecture with annotations.
Culture," Website. See tab to "Jomon Architecture" in
neolithic period. University of South Florida.
"Banpo Architecture," Art History Worlds. See photographs of
neolithic architecture at Bampo Village just east of Xian, China from Banpo
Neolithic Village Museum.
Village Museum," China Planner. Neolithic village of Banpo just east
of Xian, China existed from 4500-3750 BCE. See short tourist planning article
with photograph describing this village.
Chinese Architecture," chinastyle.cn. See tab at top of page for
"Feng-shui" for article onspirituality and Chinese home design
and tabs for more Chinese temples and architecture at bottom of page.
Gavin Jon Mowatt,
"Ancient Chinese Design and its Influence on Modern Chinese Architecture-an
interview with Hu Leike at Prince Gongs Palace," People's Daily online
(English edition), June 12, 2009.
"Xi'an/Chang'an," University of Washington (Seattle Silk Road Project),
last updated December 27, 2001. The world's greatest city during the first
millenium CE. See photographs of it's famous architecture andexplanation
of Chang'an's history.
Architecture," Essential-Architecture. See two photographs of
Chinese Islamic mosques atXi'an and Niujie. First mosque built in
Xi'an during the Tang dynasty-8th century.
Architecture: A Case Study in Sinification," wordpress blog, posted
November 20, 2009. This academic blog is dedicated to studying the process of
sinification or the "making Chinese" something that was not Chinese
originally such as Islamic mosques. Mosques of the Hui and Uyghur
minority peoples are the focus. See other blogs such as China Meets
Islam: A Journey in the Study of Religion.
Vernacular Dwellings," Top China Travel, Concise page describing Siheyuan
and Tulou domestic architecture.
(Tulou), Fujian Province," Cultural Affairs Bureau, do Instituto Cultural,
Macau. Community housing built by the Hakka
people of central China as they migrated south. This architecture is
unique in that these three to five story
earthen houses (tulous) display no social stratification and could house up to
80 families usually consisting
of one large clan. See Wikipedia description of this architecture: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujian_Tulou
Institute for East Asian
Architecture and Urbanisn-IEAAU website. Note links tab on left side of
page for more resources.
Architecture," Oriental Architecture website which describes itself as a
photographic survey of Asian architecture which houses 17,500 photographs of
848 sites in 21 countries. See Index site: http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/index.php
Dr. Ronald Knapp,
Chinese Architecture website, New Paltz State University of New York. Dr.
Knapp, University of Pittsburgh, website last updated July 10, 2010.
Great site which includes Japanese, Taiwanese, etc. architecture links.
Ammani Atul, Kabilan
Kaushik, Navaneeth Vatsalya, "Chinese Architecture," archinomy.com.
Descriptive discussion on Chinese imperial architecture with drawings and
photographs. See tab at top of page for more "Case Studies."
Architecture: Concrete Music," China Daily-Ministry of Culture, 2003.
See photographs and links for further exploration of ancient Chinese
architecture from China government PR site.
Andrew I-kang Li,
"The Yingzao fashi Project," Department of Architecture The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, @ 1995, 1997. This course, project uses computer
models to teach 12th century Chinese wood frame architecture. The project is
based on the earliest known Chinese manual on woodframe architecture written in
John Walsh, "Nguyen
An," suite101.com. Vietnamese boy taken as captive tribute by Ming
Chinese becomeseunuch and architect in first half of 15th century China.
Directs building of Forbidden City. Frugal, hard working and
incorruptible, Nguyen An dies penniless.
Sally K. Church,
Zheng He: An Investigation Into the Plausibility of 450-FT Treasure
Ships, Monumenta Series, Journal of Oriental Studies, Vol. LIII, 2005.
Architecture or engineering or both? Sally K. Church scours primary
source documentation from the era (15th century) to find if there were Chinese
ships 447 feet long and 183 feet wide or did those
dimensions come from a popular novel of the time?
China-Architecture and Landscape Architecture/Gardens," Smithsonian Encyclopedia,
1999, revised October 11, 2000. See annotated bibliography of Chinese
"East Asia in
Geographic Perspective," Asia for Educators, Columbia University. See
standard 10 for architecture and scroll down to view "Case Study"
Korea and two Feng-shui and architecture links.
Patricia Buckley Ebrey,
"House Architecture," University of Washington. Chinese house
design with this page discussing elements such as orientation,
Feng-shui or geomancy involved with Chinese dwellings. See other pages
for how Chinese homes variedas to wealth and region. See
"Contents" and "Site Map" on Home page of this vast website
formore resources on Chinese house, home, temple architecture: http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/index.htm
"The Poetics of
Feng Shui in Architecture," Build llc, June 2013. Seattle,
Washington architectural firm explains their point of view as to Feng Shui and
Buddhist Cave Temples in China," Digital Silk Road website. See Bezeklik
(Bazaklik) cave temples' images.
"Rebirth for Cave Buddhas-Echoes of the Past: Chinese Buddhist Cave
Art in New York," NY Times, September 13, 2012. NY Times article on
Chinese Cave Buddhist art with links to Yungang and Longmen cavesand
Xiangtangshan (University of Chicago) cave temples.
"Yin Yu Tang-A
Chinese Home," Peabody Museum interactive website. Huang merchant
family who had lived in Yin Yu Tangfor 200
years during the late Qing dynasty (1644-1911) has home re-erected at the
Peabody Museum. The home is an
example of Huizhou architecture. This site originally seen in "Chinese
architecture.info," Essential Architecture. See tabs at top of this page for other Chinese regional architecture: http://www.chinese-architecture.info/A-HIST.htm
"Great Hall of the
People," Turkcebilgi.com, English section. Designed in 1959 by architect
Zhang Bo the Great Hall of the People was one of the buildings planned by Mao
Ze dong. This slim article with links is copied from Wikipedia.org.
Designing Life Tomorrow," Hong Kong Art exhibit January 31-March 31,
2013, Asia Society. Six design artists displaying lighting, architecture,
jewelry, art. See 54 second time lapse video, "Time Lapse of William
Lim's Bamboo Wind Pavilion, Asia Society, published April 17, 2013 which was
part of this exhibit:
slide share of Lim's Bamboo Wind Pavilion from CL 3 Architect's website,
January 2013. One can more easily see the bamboo, solar panels, LED lighting and tension cables
utilized in Lim's urban design: http://cl3.com/art/bamboo-wind-pavilion/
KK Rebecca Lai,
"William Lim," HK (Hong Kong) Magazine, July 5, 2012. William Lim
explains his architecturalphilosophy which is based on a social
obligation to improve urban environments.
Architecture Prize Winner Wang shu, Chinese Architect," People's Daily
Online (English edition), November 23, 2012. See slide share of Wang shu
Mobius-like Chinese Bridge," Phaidon (UK), November 11, 2013. Northern Europeans
design pedestrian bridge in Changsa, China copying an ancient Chinese knot
popular in historic folk art.
Stone.biz, @ 1996 Haein Stone Company. Website dedicated to the Buddhist
Stone Cave Hermitage or Seokguram built in mid-eighth century by Silla King.
See images, photographs and other links on the right side of this page
for Korean stone architecture.
Francis Tae-Young Chung,
"Creating a New Space: Gendered Space and Worship in Korean Church
Architecture,"Udini ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009.
Architecture: Potala Palace," architecture revived blog, October 1, 2013.
Article with photographs one can enlarge on Lhasa, Tibet's Potala Palace.
Tour," The Trekker's Society. See Gyantse, Tibet temples plus others
with brief descriptions and note other sites with architecture photographs on
right side of page.
Temples," Tibet Trip. See brief descriptions and history of Tibet's
Jokhang and Ramoche Temples with photographs.
Monica Cellio, "The
Construction of a Yurt," pbm.com, 1995. Monica Cellio, using drawings
and annotations, shows you how to build a Mongolian yurt. Webmaster Greg
Lindahl at pbm.com.
Mongolia," MDNews-Mongolia Daily Economic Update, August 11, 2010 post.
Summary of Mongolian cultures beginning with the Xiongnu and details on
Mongol culture's architecture. Note traces of wood architecture and
houses and some city development within some of the "empires."
Architecture," Blue Mongolia Tours. Note description of ger or yurt
"homes" and some evidence of cities, wood architecture and Buddhist
Architecture," steppe Magazine. See more categories on right
side of page and two articles (2013) "Living Shrines of Uyghur China"
and "Trespassing Modernities-Post-Stalinist Soviet Architecture."
history," mongolian-yurt.com, 2008. Also called a 'ger.'
"Ise Shrine," Sacred Places, Sweet Briar College, Virginia Art
Department. In ancient times there were no buildings, shrines, in that
Japanese Shinto believers worshiped in forests and used ropes to climb
mountains. The Isi Shinto Shrine
was first built in 4 BCE to honor goddess Amaterasu-omikami. Isi, Japan
evolved into a shrine city with 125 shrines built near forests and
two mountain areas. Note other sacred places architecture to the right of
this page and see more on Isi
Shrine and other Shinto shrines:
"Medieval Shinto," Encyclopedia of Shinto, Kokugakuin University,
July 24, 2006.
Professor John Nelson,
"Teaching Comparative Religion Through Art and Architecture," Sacred
Spaces in Shinto, ORIAS (Office of Resourcesfor
International and Area Studies), University of California, Berkeley.
Guru P. Lukalapu,
"San Ju Gendo Temple," Temples of Japan, 2013. See San Ju Gendo
temple built/established in 1164 by powerful warrior politician
Taira-no-Kiyomori in the "wa yo" Japanese architectural style.
David and Michiko Young,
"The Art of Japanese Architecture," Tokoyo: Tuttle Publishing, 2007. (ebook)
East Asia in Geographic
Perspective, Asian Topics in World History, Columbia University, faculty
advisor Dr. Ronald G. Knapp. See number 3 China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam
Architecture," mda-development.com, 2002. See summary of Japanese
architecture, comparisons to Chinese architecture and other links on left side
of page for more information on Japanese architecture.
Teahouse Project website. In 1500's Japan "rustic huts" (soan)
were built as places where teamasters and their guests gathered to share
whisked green tea (matcha) as part of artistic gatherings called chanoyu.
These "huts" had an appearance of a mossy forest environment.
Forty Cornell University students in 2003 joined together with advisors
and teachers to build a soan.
Tri Noensie, "Zen
Buddhism and Architecture in Medieval Japan Version 2," prezi.com, May 1,
2010. Slide share on temples, tea rooms, gardens during Kamakura
(1185-1333) and Muromachi (1333-1573) periods. See another prezi version at: http://prezi.com/j1cw6r6epphu/zen-buddhism-and-architecture-in-medieval-japan/
digplanet wiki. Japanese residential architecture used in mansions of the
military, temple guest halls, and Zen abbot's quarters of the Azuchi-momoyama
(1568-1600) and Edo periods (1600-1868). Shoin-zukuri style architecture
forms the basis for today's traditional Japanese house.
Folk House Museum,Nihon Minkaen, Japan, 2013. See website for Minkaen
city museum dedicated to "folk dwellings" (minka) built in 17th-19th
century Japan. Twenty-five have been restored.
Architecture," readtiger.com, wikipedia links. Obaku Zen arrived in
Japan in the mid-seventeenth century later than other Zen schools. It's
shrine architectural style is based on Chinese Ming and Qing. Scroll down
page to see other external links.
Architecture-Buildings," e-Architecture.co.uk. See key example of
contemporary Japanese architecture with eight pages of "selections"
with links to hundreds of individual project pages. Some traditional
Japanese resources included.
Alexandra A. Seno,
"Architecture," Wall Street Journal online, February 12, 2010. A
profile of Japanese architect Shigeru Ban who intrigued the architecture world
in 1995 by creating paper tube buildings to provide fast shelter for earthquake
victimsand has insisted on quality and a
small manageable architectural team as opposed to big building projects
andhuge corporate staffs.
Architecture," Encyclopedia of Shinto, Kokugakuin University @ 2002-2006.
Note elements of Shinto shrine architecture highlighted on this page.
Click on that architectural "element" to see the entire
The Architectural and Imaginary Spaces of Anime Models, World Academy
of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 72, 2012. Kussain Marsden
discusses Japanese animation, architectural ideas within that genre and kami
spirits. Note a mention of Catholic architecture in Japan within these
The Art of Asia," Minneapolis Institute of Arts website.
Slide share posted by chengbesa, July 25, 2011. See 25 slides and first
ones of Nipa hut (bahay kubo) which is the icon of Philippino culture
exhibiting the value of "Bayanihan" or spirit of communal living or
working together. The
bamboo bahay kubo saw a change over time to bahay na bato or stone and brick homes.
See more below.
"From Bahay Kubo to Bahay na Bato to....," aenet.org. Robert
Gardner, citing historical primary source eyewitnesses, laments the loss of
traditional Philippino architecture. Scroll to bottom of this page to see more
Jayson Braza Portem,
"Architecture of the Philippines," The Freeman Architect.
Description of Philippino architecture with emphasis on Spanish imprint.
In Search of Ancient Communities, McDougal Littell Web Quest, Houghton Mifflin
Co. @ 1995-2005. See other lessons for Rapa Rui (Easter Island),
Stonehenge, and Caves of Lascaux.
"Life in Ancient
Mesopotamia-Clues From the Past-Visit a Mesopotamian House:
Architecture," The Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago.
Lesson plan surrounding a house in Ur, ancient Mesopotamia.
"Ancient River Civilizations," 64 slide ppt. including slides
of these river valley's architecture.
"The Art of South
and Southeast Asia-A Resource for Educators," The Metropolitan Museum of
Art, 2001. Art and Architecture esources woven around the history and religions
of South and Southeast Asia.
cities as cultural documents," monkeytree.org. Lesson modules such
as Jing migration and how the Jing and other empires decided to build capital
cities, two lessons on Chang'an the Tang capital city and other lessons.
Ted Mitchell, "Silk
Road: Examining Foreign Influences Assignment," Ancient China
Curriculum, Alan Shawn Feinstein Middle School, Coventry, Rhode Island. Assignment
based on architecture (see Sikhara tower architecture and Buddhist pagoda),
art, agriculture, commoditiesbrought into China via the Silk Road trade
route. Incorporates maps in the project. See another version of this Silk
Road assignment: http://www.mitchellteachers.org/ChinaTour/SilkRoadProject/silk_road-main.html
Patricia Buckley Ebrey,
"Virtual Sourcebook for Chinese Civilization," University of Washington.
See many lessons for high school and college.
"Roman Art and Architecture 500 BCE-400 CE," Closeup Teaching Unit
World History For Us All, San Diego State University. Ms. Wohlman teaches
gifted and talented sixth grade students in Long Beach, California. See powerpoint and background resources.
"Monument to the Stars," The Story of India with Michael Wood, PBS, 2008.
This lesson asks students to form architecture teams responding to a
project from a local Indian college, The University of Aryabhatta, asking for a
monument design for it's namesake, Aryabhatta 5th century CE renowned Indian
scientist and mathematician.
Architecture, free online course via coursera.org. See other free courses
from this website.
What is Architecture?" Oxford Art Online. Note other
lessons dealing with architecture left of this page.
Action," Discovery Education. Students will learn how ratios and
Art and Culture,
Edsitement lesson plans. 156 shown, some architecture centered.
"Lessons For Students in Architecture," Rotterdam: 101 Publishing, 2001. Google
EBook. Notso much "lesson
plans" but casestudies discussingspatial design and
architecture from Dr. Hertzberger's Delft
University, Netherlands lectures from 1973 on.
"Can Buildings Make
You Sick?" NOVA Education lesson activity, PBS program 1995.
Places," National Park Service. Lesson plans, images, readings on
American public buildings and architecture. Last updated June 13, 2011.
See Home: http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/index.htm
Jackie Craven, "8
Free Teaching Architecture Lesson Plans," Architecture About.com, @ 2013.
Rhonda L. Deeg
(University of Wisconsin, Madison, Using Architectural History to Raise Community
Awareness,Wisconsin History Society. One can replace this Spring
Green, Wisconsin city with any other city to teach this lesson.
"Charleston Architecture Study," Teaching American History in South
Carolina, Grade Level 8th, 2009. This lesson easily adapted to high
school and college and to your home city.
Mississippi, Mississippi History Now Lesson Plan, 4th grade lesson plan.
See one of the sources used in this lesson. Students will understand what
"vernacular architecture" means: http://mshistorynow.mdah.state.ms.us/articles/327/architecture-in-mississippi-from-prehistoric-to-1900 "Architecture in
Mississippi From Prehistoric to 1900," Mississippi History Now website.
Historical Google Maps Mashups," posted on diigo.com by Mark Gleeson,
October 1, 2013. Using google maps one can pin your city and town and see what
it looked like 50 to 100 years ago. Architecture comparative lesson-past
and present? Change over time activity?
"Building a New
Town," National Geographic Education xpeditions Lesson plan, grades 6-8.
"Lesson Plan for Thomas Cole's 1840 painting The Architect's Dream,"
November 20, 2007. This lesson designed for students 6-8 yrs. of age.
Candace O'Shea in an art student at the University of Toledo.
"Tracing the Roots of
Modern Cities," Discovery Education Lesson module, Grades 6-8. This
lesson can easily be adapted for more advanced grades and students.
"Instinct," Curriki, Open Architecture Network, Lesson 1 (see other
lessons on left side of page). This site was built to support Architecture for
Humanity's Portable Classroom Challenge which invites studentsto
investigate their school and view it as architecture and design and to critique
that design through sustainable points of view. See
Lesson 3 by Jennifer Begonia, "Sustainable Building" as another
Collections for Architecture and Engineering Concepts," Architecture
About.com, Teacher Aids k-12.
Architecture Lesson Ideas," Pininterest.com.
"Vertical Living: Exploring Identity, Social Class and Global Change
Through the Highrise," NY Times Learning Network, October 29, 2013.
Highrise architecture Lesson Plan with a supplemental comparative with
Quizzes," proprofs.com. See 3 quizzes on this page, "Planning,"
Architecture Theory," and an Accounting Review quiz. Each quiz
contains interactive 50 multiple choice questions which when completed will
show your score and reward you with a "certificate." A Rough draft lesson as
to sustainable architecture as a solution to the trash, greed, consumption seen
in your local community and then a comparative of two societies, the US and
India. First, students study
the issue of trash in their own community and discuss problems and thecommunities'
attitude toward trash/pollution, consumption. Based
on their own research and discussion of their own community issues the students
can now use the sources below to compare and contrastproblems of trash,
greed and consumption in the US and India. Lastly,
can the problem in their own local community, the US and India be addressed
through sustainable architecture? by John
Maunu Trashing India and the
United States Comparative: http://www.sikhchic.com/current_events/india_today_behind_the_haze_of_wealth_greed
Sean Paul Kelley,
"India Today: Behind the Haze of Wealth and Greed," sikh chic,
December 18, 2009. Stinging critique of modern India, it's waste, trash,
lacking infrastructure and a society that does not care. POV.
Della I. Hansmann,
"American Trash," University of Minnesota Library blog, lost between
the letters, August 12, 2007. Author cites environmentalist Wendell Berry's
disgust with trash dumped though out rural America which is symbolic of our
entire society. Berryblames this trashing of America on greed,
laziness, passive self-indulgence in a consumption society. See
architecture posts from Della Hansmann's blog: http://lostbetweentheletters.wordpress.com/category/architecture/ And Della I. Hansmann's
Architecture/Housing Master's Thesis (2008) University of Minnesota: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/hans2463/architecture/Pre-Holiday%20Draft.pdf A solution to the
problem: Two sources-Recycled sustainable art and architecture?
"A Towering Waste:
The Tallest Abandoned Buildings in the World that were once the height of
architectural achievement before left to fall into ruin," Daily Mail (UK),
June 14, 2013. Not only is this Daily Mail headline an example of
wordiness "trash" but, evidence that trashing the environment can be
done by all, including the rich.
draft Comparative Lesson idea comparing European "explorers" and
their Victorian racist ideas of native architecture abilities:
by John Maunu A continuity over timeof explorers believing Native Peoples (The Other)
unable to build astonishing architecture and crediting others:
1. Thor Heyerdahl
believed the Polynesian peoples were not able to build the Stone structures
found in some Pacific islands. He credited South American Indians who had
migrated there in two waves.
Expeditions and Archaeology of the Pacific Peoples, Great Dreams, 2002.
Leiataua Ahching, "The Peter Ahching Theory on Polynesian Origins and Thor
Heyerdahl Theory," University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2003.
1914-2002," Kon-Tiki Museum, Thor Heyerdahl Research Foundation.
2. Great Zimbabwe and
European archaeologists and anthropologist's conclusions as to origin of it's
architecture. Comparativeto Shona people and Great
Zimbabwe stone architecture which Europeans could not believe were built by "savage"
Zimbabwe," Architectural Guidance Blog, August 4, 2008. Omkar from
Puna, India, an architecturalstudent posts article on Great Zimbabwe
"Great Zimbabwe," World Archaeology, May 3, 2009. See section on
historical misinterpretations in this short selection of Faulkner's article.
wikipedia.org. Note section on historical interpretations as to the
architecture and who built Great Zimbabwe massive (for it's time) stone
structure. Lesson idea surrounds
Victorian racism and disbelief that the Other in Polynesia and Africa could
build such advanced architectural structures and note their "stretch"
in giving credit to other "more civilized" cultures. This comparative
could be used to emphasis "The WHY" as to these histories which are
included in the links provided. Note
another example of this "history:"
"Amazing Archaeological Discoveries in Georgia and South Carolina,"
Examiner, October 2, 2013. Evidence going back to pioneer anthropologist
Charles C. Jones, 1873 Antiquities of the
Southern Indians,as to native
stone architecture in 7 state region of the American south had been ignored and
it was teepees andwigwams for the native culture in the history books.
Lesson posted with
permission of Susan Brittle.
World History Year End Review Project by Susan Brittle
Fairfax County Schools,
Virgina (maunu note this project states 5 eras-I would combine periods
1-2 as one era for our Revised AP World eras which has 6 eras-Period one (earliest times-10,000/8000 BCE-600 BCE),
Period two 600 BCE-600 CE, Period three 600 CE-1450, Period four 1450-1750,
Period five 1750-1900, Period six 1900-Present. World
view museum project/Year long project/all eras: From
the five eras we study this year you must choose 5 works of art for each
period. It can be a painting, artwork, statuary, architecture, or an item
of material culture etc. - anything you would find in a museum. You
must create a presentation either in Powerpoint, Youtube, or any other
electronic media in which you are comfortable that you will present to the
class. You will present an image of the object, or an image that represents a
style or form you are trying to convey and explain why you would have this in
your personal museum. You
must explain why this object or work of art is important and representative of
Coit Tower murals in San Francisco were painted as part of the Works Progress
Administration and were extremely controversial at the time. Artists such as
Diego Rivera, who oversaw the project, were known communist sympathizers and
the tenor of the WPA and the Recovery Act seemed, to some Americans, as a
thinly veiled attempt by the Roosevelt administration to forward a socialist
agenda for the United States. In
this mural one can see Marx's Communist Manifesto being removed from the
shelves by one of the subjects. There are also works by other Soviet authors,
such as Maxim Gorky. The headlines also reflect the events of the time, such as
a longshoreman's strike along the San Francisco docks. This too was
controversial as unions were often seen as toeholds for socialist
sympathizers. At the time the exhibition opened many of San Francisco's
city fathers felt it was too controversial and wanted it destroyed. This
is an important painting to understand in a contemporary light as many
comparisons to the current economic climate are being made to the Great
Depression of the 1930's. A further comparison can be made to the controversy
the American people are currently facing with President Obama's attempt to
institute a comprehensive health care system which many are accusing the
administration of communist sympathies. You must explain why it is important that people
today who come to see your museum need to see this as representative of that
period and how this item is relevant today. Included
is an example of one exhibit for the modern era-"Unemployed and
||Figure 11: by Bernard Zakheim was one of the most controversial San Francisco Coit Tower murals produced as part of the Public Works Arts Project (PWAP).
Museum Up to
25 points each 20-24
points each 15-20
points each Up to
15 points each Visual
or representation is clear,visible, and demonstrates a thorough
understanding of the timeframe and topic. Image/clip
or representation is clear, visible and adequately identifies the timeframe and
or representation is unclear to time frame and topic or is obscured. Image/clip
or representation is irrelevant to topic and makes little connection to time
Quality Text is
minimal, does not obscure image and is relevant to timeframe and topic, and
demonstrates a thorough understand. Text is
minimal, does not obscure image and is relevant to timeframe and
textual which obscure image but is relevant to timeframe and topic. All
text, little relevance to image.Presentation Thoroughly
explains why image/clip or representation is relevant to the time frame
discussed and make linkages to events surrounding its creation. Explains
why image/clip or representation is relevant to the time frame discussed. Attempts
to explain how image/clip or representation is relevant to the time frame
not understand the relevance of the image or clip to the timeframe. World
a unique and coherent link to current society with image/item and explains the
relevance of that work both for contemporary and historic viewers. Creates
a link to current society with image/item and explains the relevance of that
work either historically or contemporarily. Attempts
to link item/image to current society. Unable
to link item/image to current society or attach any historical or
contemporary relevance to work.
Faculty of Architecture,
Design and Urbanism," Buenos Aires. Graduate course descriptions.
Amir H. Ameri,
"History of Architecture 1," University of Colorado, Denver, Spring
2011. History of architecture course syllabus from earliest times through
the Renaissance 16th century.
"Architecture of the Ancient World," University of Washington, Fall
2012. Note links for images, resources, etc.
Professor Anne Marshall,
"Non-Western Architecture," University of Idaho Department of
Architecture, Spring 2002 syllabus. Native American, Islamic Middle East
and Asian architecture is focus of this course.
Syllabus for Arch 223,
Non-Western History, University of Maryland. Broad overview of world
Architecture and Culture," Architecture and Design university course
syllabi, Archnet.org. Scroll down page to see Urban Planning syllabus and
"Other Resources" for syllabus. See example of Dr. CarelBertam's
(University of Texas at Austin) syllabus, "The Architecture of Power:
Palaces and Palatial Spaces in Islam: http://archnet.org/courses/bertram.html
Professor Nasser Rabbat,
"Religious Architecture and Islamic Culture," MIT Department of
Architecture course syllabus. Seen in ArchNet.org.
Omur Harmansah syllabi
for Archaeology and Architecture courses, Brown University, 2005, 2006.
See more information on Omur Harmansah: http://proteus.brown.edu/harmansah/Home
MIT Open Courseware,
Architecture courses. Scroll down to MIT Architecture classes/courses and
their syllabi and resources.
David Rifkind, School of
Architecture, Florida International University course syllabi.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, "Arch 300 Architectural History and Theory
(online)," Spring2012 syllabus Pt. 1-3.
Phyllis J. Henderson,
"Survey of Architectural History on-line course, University of Florida,
Dr. Henry Smith,
"Meiji Culture: Space, City, Image," Colloquium in Modern
Japanese History, Columbia University, syllabus, Spring 1994.
"Asian Art," Spring 2002, University of Pittsburg syllabus.
and Urban Design," 2004 class description, University of Washington course
students to Quanzhou, Fujan Province China to develop proposals and plans to
develop two areasin Quanzhou. One area is a poor village, the other
Dr. Manuel Aguilar,
"Colonial Art of Mexico: Tequitqui, Baroque and Churrigueresque,"
California State at Los Angeles, syllabus with links to Introduction, author,
resources for course.
Art and Architectural
History Program at University of California, Santa Barbara.
Franklin Toker, History
of Western Architecture, University of Pittsburgh course website and syllabus.
syllabus for Art History, "Urbanization and Architecture in the Roman
Empire: Rome, Ostia and Pompeii, George Mason University, spring 2013.
"Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture," University of Pittsburgh
course syllabus. Seebibliography and "figures" (upper
left of page). Clicking on figures shows slides for each class session.
"Town Planning in Post-Suburban America," University of Virginia, Spring 1995. Seen in H-Net. You will see
H-Net page, see "Urban Planning and Architecture" tab, click on that
which will take you to "Town Planning in Post-Suburban America" link.
Click on that and see collaborative course led by Michael Stern and Catholic
University of America colleague, Dr. Neil Payton dealing withurban design through a team andinteractive
learning module based on students designing a "town" outside Owen
Mills,Maryland. See updated coursedescription (July 14, 2010): http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/stern/
"Gender, Space, Architecture," course syllabi, MIT seen in
University of Maryland Architecture and Design courses with links to syllabus
and course content summaries, 2012. See link to course websites on right side
World History Syllabus," My Bookezzz.com. A number of architecture
and world history syllabi.
Vernacular Architecture Forum, last updated August 5, 2012.
"Building Performance Analytics," Department of Architecture and Planning,
Catholic University of America, Washington DC, Fall of 2013 Undergraduate
Courses for MA in Zero
Carbon Architecture and Retrofit Design, Birmingham City University (UK), 2013.
Architecture courses, office of registrar 2013-2014. See short course
description and books for each course if you click on guest tab.
Blogs and websites:
Built Environment," SCAD The University for Creative Careers, Architectural
History department blog, May 2, 2013.
Design Observer website
about design and architecture. See article in this edition by Gabrielle
Esperdy, "Metadata and the Digital Future of Architectural History,"
September 23, 2013.
Lego Architecture and
Lego Bricks website.
Center for the Study of
the Built Environment website centered in Jordan.
Architecture of Peace
Architecture," World Architecture website and resources.
The Barn Journal. Website
dedicated to US barn architecture.
International Architecture websites," Global Site Plans, June 2012.
Royal Institute of
British Architects, RIBA home page.
Swedish Museum of
Cultural Heritage," Surface and Edge, British Columbia, Canada 3D Scanning
Services. Website developed to advertise 3D Scanning technology for site
and artifact preservation without disturbing the heritage architecture.
See 3D laser scan of castle example.
Conflict in Cities and
the Contested State website, University of Cambridge (UK), 2007. See
examples of conflicted cities and contested states and effect on architecture.
Examples displayed are Northern Ireland, Berlin, Nicosia, Baghdad, etc.
See goals of this website and role of architecture in healing urban
"Home Made Rural
Housing," World Architecture website.
website-euro-centric. See samples of articles: http://www.militaryarchitecture.com/index.php/tag/History.html?Itemid=0
MIT open course ware website.
Courses" website free online information, links, resources for
Architecture," REAL? Virtual, Columbia University interactive website on
Architecture over time. This page is titled "Ancient
Architecture" but note tabs on left for all eras of Architectural history.
and Sculpture," A World History of Art website.
Architecture," World Architecture community website @ 2008-2013.
Examples of architecture in world literature and narration of space.
Eric Chaim Kline Bookseller, klinebooks.com. Website list of global books
with architectural titles. See region tabs on left side of page.
C-Lab and Architecture
and Design website. C-Lab is Columbia University's Laboratory for Architectural Broadcasting and is published by Archis
Foundation in the Netherlands.
Architectural Narratives website edited by Leopold Lambert, French.
JOKE Architects website
formed by two architects as a medium to share architectural observations,
research and design.
Bob Borson, "The
Best Architectural Websites/The Top Architectural websites in the World,"
Life of an Architect blogsite, August 27, 2012. Dallas architect suggests
his top 25 architecture websites. See comments at the bottom of this page
for other interesting architectural resources.
Princeton School of
David Rifkind (School of
Architecture Florida International University) Library of articles.
"Famous Historic Buildings: Historic Places and Sites of the
World." Mr. Gatepain is an architectural historian. See his
website dedicated to English church architecture beginning in 1839 desiring to
build andrestore English churches in the medieval style.
World Stadiums website. Stadiums in world history website.
NY Times Topics, July 3, 2013. NY Times Topics page displaying articles
Annalee Newitz, "A
Chronicle of Architecture From the Lost Civilization of Areth," io9.com
website-We Come From the Future, June 22, 2011. Futuristic website
article by Annalee Newitz on the imaginary future society of Areth and it's
architecture, most photos from the American soutwest made to look like these
buildings float in the clouds. See another architecture article from
io9.com futuristic website:
"These Examples of Surrealist Architecture will Make You Feel Dizzy,"
io9.com, July 13, 2013.
Architecture Aris 3, Carnegie Mellon website with six links to professors
lectures, etc. on Architecture. Note first one, "The Architecture of
Architect Daily website.
Website showing profiles
of modern World architects, their studios and work, World-architects.
Architecture and Design
Museum, Los Angelos, California website.
Architecture and Design
Museum, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Architecture," Environmental Design Library, University of California, Berkeley,
@ 2012. Bibliographic guide for researching architecture history website.
Deep Focus architecture
blog, University of Texas, Austin School of Architecture blog site.
Professor Louis Nelson,
"Little Mountain Albemarie County, Virginia, Spring 2013 blog documenting
of Little Mountain architectural restoration by University of Virginia ARH 5604
class-"Field Methods in Historical Preservation." See links to
Professor Nelson's syllabus.
Els Slots, "World
Heritage Site." Ms. Slots' (Netherlands) website is dedicated to the world
heritage sites around the worldwhich she
has visited and photographed.
Documents available as
downloads from Archnet.org Digital Library. Example Atilio Petruccioli,
ed., "Water and Architecture Environmental Design: Journal of the
Islamic Environment Design Research Centre 2, 1985 seen in Archnet.org.
See "chapters" at bottom of this page to download chapters of
many architectural resources.
Antiquity Journal (UK).
Archaeology online journal.
Academy of Neuroscience
for Architecture website. See "Resources" tab upper right on
American Society of
Landscape Architects (ASLA) website.
website. Article seen is "Tropical Sustainable Architecture,"
January 29, 2011.
Super/Collider website, London, UK. This section of super/collider
website shows annotated photographs of modern architectural works many
futuristic and green.
Green Home Building
website with many resources and links on sustainable architecture. Green
Home Building website begun 2001.
The Earth Institute,
Columbia University Urban Design Lab for sustainable development. See
links for more resources on left of page.
Center for Sustainable
Systems, University of Michigan @ 2013. Note tabs for Teacher resources,
Delood Creative design
art and architecture website developed in 2011 in Greece.
website, 2012. This page shows the many critiques/reviews of architecture
books. One has to subscribe to enjoy.
on Islamic architecture and art.
Journal website home page.
Trinity College, Dublin
Department of Art and Architecture website.
My Urbanist website.
Author, Chuck Wolfe, is from Seattle but includes humans living
comfortably in urban environments globally.Urban
landscape design and architecture. See his biography: http://www.myurbanist.com/archives/author/admin
website, New Zeeland, edited by Peter Cresswell.
Art Lies Journal website
on contemporary art and architecture.
Blouin Art Info
blogsite. See "Architecture" tab at top of page.
Wild" TV program website, National Geographic TV. Program where
builders build structures outdoorsfor farmers, hunters, people yearning
for the natural life. See short video clips.
John Maunu is Digital
Resources editor for World History Connected, College Board AP World History
consultant,co-Moderator of the College Board World History Teacher
Community, 41 year AP History instructor Grosse Ile High, Michigan, also
teaching AP World History workshops at Cranbrook private school, West
Bloomfield, Michigan, veteran Reader and Table Leader (10 years) at AP World
History Reading, and AP Summer Institute workshop leader nationally. John
can be reached at email@example.com.