"A man's return from the sea is like his rising from the
grave and the Port is like the place of congregation on the Day of Judgement:
there is questioning, and settlement of accounts, and weighing, and
counting." --Ibn Al-Mujawir, Ta'rikh al-mustabsir [http://www.al-bab.com/bys/articles/mackintoshsmith10.htm]
The port city is a space
where different cultures meet, mix, and conduct business. Nearly as old as humanity and still
vibrant, such spaces constitute a worthy example of a "continuity over time" in
world history. The following
annotated list of digital resources for port cities in world history crosses
disciplines and themes such as archaeology, gender, architecture, port city
prostitution, crime, intellectual and scientific sharing, piracy, art, and film. It includes references to lesson
module resources, and is divided into Global and regional sections with each
section furtherdivided with digital resources nestled into time periods.
discussion of resources is intended to help further illuminate the place of
port cities in maritime and world history and bring it into the classroom.
history maps,Ancient History Encyclopedia.
Map," Latvian History word press, December (2009). See Hanseatic
League map indicating port cities involved in the medievaland late
Renaissance trade alliance.
World Ports Source.
Interactive satellite images, maps of 4,764 ports in 196 countries, from
World Sea Ports of
the world, Maps of the World. Modern important world sea ports.
Esri, Marina Koren,
"Interactive-50 Largest Ports in the World,"Smithsonian,May
7, 2013. Note 17 slide interactive map(s) displaying giant container ports and
how they stitch together the modern world economy linking six continents and
countless supply chains. Article and map.
Those interested in
the historiography of port cities will find it fascinating. Cicero's
perspective on the sea and maritime trade was that it was a distraction for
Roman citizens, a view leavened by his appreciation of the allure and economic
power of ports. This view is closely examined in Candice Rice, "Maritime
Archaeology and Ancient Trade in the Mediterranean," in Damian Robinson
and Andrew Wilson, eds., Oxford Centre
for Maritime Archaeology Monographs, Oxford University Press,2011), 81-92,
a source uploaded to Academia by Rice at: https://www.academia.edu/373607/Ceramic_Assemblages_and_Ports
on the history of port cities is that embodied in Malte Fuhrmann's thesis on
European nationalism and cosmopolitanism mixing withinthe culture of
Ottoman port cities, from the late 19th century o WW I. He focuses on how
various European elites communicatedand interacted in these port cities. Fuhrmann's description of the
cosmopolitan/nationalist tug and pull between European elites in Ottoman port
cities as the Great War loomed is a useful case study in the cultural
interaction and mixing occurring in port cities over time. See Malte Fuhrmann, "Cosmopolitan
Imperialists and the Ottoman Port Cites: Conflicting logics in the
urbansocial fabric," Cahiers
de la Mediterrane, Volume 7 (2002), 149-163. See http://cdlm.revues.org/128.
A third perspective
is embodied in the theory of hydrarchy or maritimeradicalism developed at
sea by sailors, pirates, and port city dock workers and what happens when these
maringlaized historical actors influence maritime urban centers. The historiography
of that approach can be seen in the second section of the
annotateddisplay of port city links below, particularly in the section on
"Global Resources" in the 1750-1900 period, and especially in Paul
Gilroy's essay, "Offshore Humanism: HumanRights and
Hydrarchy," and also in Niklas Frykman, Clare Anderson and Marcus
Rediker's, "Mutiny and Maritime Radicalism inthe Age of
Revolution-Introduction," which describe how such forces operate in times
of crisis and revolt. Frykman, Anderson and Rediker's employ the case
study of the American Revolution and Boston to add to our understanding of the
place of port cities in world history.
8000 BCE-600 BCE:
Marc Jason Gilbert,
"Paper Trails: Port Cities in the Classical Era of World
History,"World History Connected,Vol. 3, No. 2,February
(2006). Dr. Gilbert displayed and described with great images and maps
the ancient seaports of Lothal, Xel Ha,Ostia/Portus, Carthage and Hepu.
"Assyria to Iberia,"Aramco World,March/April (2015).
See map of late Bronze, early Iron Age Mediterranean trade network and
article about archaeological treasures found throughout the sea ports of the
region such as bronze works, gold, and jewels.
Ports-Ancient Antiques. Website with many resources on ancient port
cities, ships, maps. See tabs at top of page for more digital resources.
Mediterranean Ports website and wiki. Founded in 1995 by group of port cities
that were founded during Greek antiquity. First home site was Agatha in
southern France, then in 2002 moved to Larnaca, Cyprus.
Friederike Bubenheimer-Erhart, Simone Muhl and B. Marin-Aguillera,"
Introduction to "The Mediterranean Mirror: Cultural Contacts in the
Mediterranean Sea between 1200 and 750 BCE," International Post-doc and
Young Researcher Conference, Heidelberg, October 6-8, 2012 published by Verlag
des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum, Mainz, in 2015. Uploaded to Academia by
B. Marin Aguillera. Introduction to book on ancient Mediterranean trade
and cultural contacts which gives context to port cities in the region. See
abstracts to papers presented at this 2012 conference:
Mediterranean Trade in the Bronze Age (Shipwrecks, texts, and buried
cities), Our Shared Past in the Mediterranean, A World History Curriculum
Project for educators, Ali Vurak Ak Center for Islamic Studies, (2014), Ms.
Susan Douglass creative leader. See Home Page for this project: http://mediterraneansharedpast.org/home. Click on
"Browse Modules" to see five (5) other lessons.
"Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians," paper presented at Al Akhawayan
University in Ifrane, Morocco, June 28, 2005. People of the Sea 1200 BCE
migrations/invasions destroyed Phoenician trade competitors in
theMediterranean trade network, but left Phoenician ports and maritime
cities untouched. This historical happening paved the way for Phoenician
port building throughout the Mediterranean basin and Phoenician dominance until
Greek and Roman development.
"Ports in the Ancient and Medieval Empires, Draft Entry for the Forthcoming ,"Encyclopedia of Empire," uploaded to Academia by Jonathan Hyslop.
Cities," Academia. Note many monographs on Port Cities over time
from global scholars.
"Ancient Trade Routes," Ancient Trenches website. Note
descriptions of ancient world trade sites, trade goods with maps and images and
other chapters on upper right side of this page.
Review of Rila Mukherjee, ed.,"Vanguards of Globalization: Port
Cities from Classical to Modern Times, Primus Books, (2014). SeeThe
Hindu,Book Reviews, August 11, (2014). Compilation of papers
presented at July 2011 conference at University of Hyderabad totaling 17
articles which covered Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean trade networks and their
Sea Links Project,
Oxford University. Project dedicated to studying earliest maritime
connections around Indian Ocean utilizing archaeology, genetics, linguistics,
paleoenvironmental studies to understand cultural and biological factors
involved in earliest Indian Ocean settlements, port cities and maritime
600 BCE-600 CE:
Arthur de Graauw,
"Ancient Ports and Harbours-The Catalogue," Vol. 1, 4th ed., January 2014,
uploaded to Academia by Arthur de Graauw. Beginnings of a database of
3000 ancient ports and shelters cited in 66 ancient author's works between 500
BCE-500 CE including a few modern authors.
600 CE-1450 CE:
Encounter in the Medieval World," History Blue Print, California
history-social science Projects, University of California, Davis. See
lesson modules for Sicily, Quanzhou, Calicut,Majorca, and Cairo.
Nick Bartel and
ORIAS, "The Travels of Ibn Battuta: A Virtual Tour with the 14th
Century Traveler," University of California at Berkeley and ORIAS, (2012).
Mention of port cities with maps surround Battuta's travels through North
Africa into theMiddle East.
Schottenhammer, University of Salzburg, Austria, World History full professor,
Review of Francis Gipouloux, "The Asian Mediterranean: Port
Cities and Trade Networks in China, Japan and Southeast Asia, 13th-21
century," Cheltenham and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar
Publishing, 2011. seen in China Perspectives Online, February (2014). Dr.
Schottenhammer reviews Gipouloux's comparative research of European
Mediterranean and Baltic Sea Hanseatic League port cities and trade networks
with Asian Sea's port cities and trade networks.
Silk Road Spice and
Incense Routes, Silk Routes.net. See port cities of incense and spice
routes and last section on Maritime Silk Road ports.
System," Byzantine Emporia blog by Ben, December 26, 2014. Concise summary
of Indian Ocean monsoon driven trade and port cities.
Krishnakumar, "Research Paper-Arab Influence and Its Impact on Indian and
East African Coastlines," School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi,
May (2014), uploaded to Academia by Vaisali Krishnakumar. Ms. Krishnakumar
focused on cultural and economic aspects of Arab navigation and trade
(11th-17th centuries) on the East African and Indian coast with
particularattention to port cities. She drew an architectural
comparative between Lamu on the Swahili coast and Kuttichira on
"Chinese Port Cities Jointly Apply for UNESCO World Heritage Status,China
Travel News, December, 2011. Seven Chinese port cities on maritime Silk
The seven cities
served as important export ports from which silk and porcelain products started
to be shipped to regions as far as east Africa more than 2,000 years ago. URL
for map below:
The Period 1450-1750:
The Indian Ocean:
Cradle of Civilization, NEH (2002) Summer Institute Home Page. Note
tabs for resources at top, many dealt with Port Cities.See examples of
those modules below. See section specific to Port Cities:
University of California, Irving, "Trading Marriage: Women and Men
in the Indian Ocean," NEH (2002) Summer Institute, University of
"Port Cities: The Western Indian Ocean," NEH (2002) Summer
Institute, University of Pennsylvania,Photographs and slim bibliography
for each port city in this course module which includedDar es Salaam,
Zanzibar, Mombasa, Lamu, Aden, Jiddah, Muscat, Kuwait, Karachi, Bombay, Surat,
Ocean World," College Board, (2006). Lesson modules on Indian Ocean
architecture, trade networks with much on port cities.
University of Warwich, UK, "The Making of a Global Commodity: Indian
Cottons and European Trade, 1450-1850," World HistoryStudies and
World History Education: The Proceedings of the First Congress of the
Asian Association of World Historians,The
Asian Association of World Historians, (2010). Dr. Riello traced the
history of cotton as a global commodity.
"Seascapes, Littoral Cultures, and Trans-Oceanic Exchanges," Library
of Congress, Washington DC conference, February 12-15, 2002. Webdoc
History Cooperative, American History Association, (2005). Papers from that
conference include port cities and global oceanic exchange from1450-20th
century, most 16th-18th centuries. Paper pages open a bit slow, be patient.
"Port Towns and
Urban Cultures," WHA (World History Association) program with abstracts
for 2014 conference in Barcelona.
"Port Towns and
Urban Cultures," Conference Report: WHA Barcelona Symposium, 26-28
March, 2014. See resources images and lectures from this conference.
Dr. Michael E.
Brooks,"Book Review-Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili
Coast, India, and Portugal in the Early Modern Era," by Michael
N. Pearson, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1998, History Mike
blog, June 30, 2008.
Isabel Dos Guimaraes
Sa, "Portuguese Colonial Charity: The Misericordias of Goa, Bahia
and Macao," Chapter Twelve, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, (2011),Reinterpreting
Indian Ocean Worlds: Essays in Honor of Kirti N. Chaudhuri,Stefan C. A. Halikowski, ed.
Description of Portuguese Port City colonial administration using the Misericordias
system of relief and financial support for Catholics in port cities.
Colgate University, "Imperial Ports-Draft Entry for the forthcoming
Encyclopedia of Empire," downloaded to Academia by Jonathan Hyslop.
History," Academia. See many monographs on maritime history from
this research portal.
Michigan State University website and discussion community.
Spanish port cities
and their global maritime history, Maritime Heritage Project, accessed June 3, 2015.
"Colonial Cities as a Frame of Historical Analysis," uploaded to
Academia by Katrina Gulliver. Eleven page comparative paper on European
colonial (Port) cities across empires over time beginning in 16th-17th
Virginia Commonwealth University, Review of Douglas Catterwall and Jodi
Campbell, eds., "Women inPort: Gendering Communities,
Economies, and Social Networks in Atlantic Port Cities, 1500-1800,"
Leiden: Brill, (2014). See H-World, H-Net Reviews, June (2014). See Brill
as to this book:
Oxford Bibliographies in Atlantic History, ed. Trevor Burnard," uploaded
to Academia by Mark Hanna. Annotated bibliography of smuggling, port
cities, customs beginning in 16th-17th century Atlantic trade network.
University of Exeter, "Maritime History as Global History? The
Methodological Challenges and a Future Research Agenda," in M. Fusaro and
A. Polonia, eds., (2011), 267-282. Uploaded to Academia by
Maria Fusaro. Maritime History and world and global histories must deal with
port cities. SeeDr. Fusaro's and Dr. Pearson's,Maritime
History as Global History,below, thoughts on this maritime
Michael N. Pearson, Emeritus Professor, University of New South Wales,
"Notes on World History and Maritime History, "The Asian Review of
World History,Vol. 3, No. 1, (January 2015), 137-151.
"Fluid States: Modernity and the Self in the Literature of Port
Cities," PhD dissertation for Department of English, Arizona University, (2012).
Jack Skeffington examined Anglo Saxon poem, "The Seafarer,"
"Moby Dick," "Lord Jim," "Ulysses," and "The
Alexandria Quartet" as context and back drop for port cities as space to
grapple and contend with the crisis of modernity. See "The Seafarer"
Gilroy-Offshore Humanism: Human Rights and Hydrarchy," originally
published for Port City by Arnolfini, (2007), edited by Tom Trevor, Tom Trevor
website, April 6, 2014. European colonialism, the seas and port cities. See
another perspective as to hydrarchy and revolution 1760's-1840's below:
Clare Anderson, and Marcus Rediker, "Mutiny and Maritime Radicalism in the
Age of Revolution: An Introduction, "International Review of
Social History, 58, (2013), 1-14. Introduction to series of
essays concerning radical maritime communities such as sailors, pirates, port
city dock workers and their participation in revolutions from 1760's-1840's.
See example of hydrarchy, below, via images and essays and as setting and causation
for American Revolution whereby the Sons of Libertyare a moderating force
against the radicalism of sailor and port city dock worker "mobs."
See Google book:
"A Pirate's Progress-How the Maritime Rogue became a multicultural
hero,"Lingua franca,1998. Osborne questioned the pirate
as revolutionary "hero" posited by the hydrarchy historians.
Slide share series of essays, ISSUU. Introduction by Anna Collins and Mia
Jankowicz with essays by MarcusRediker and Iain Chamber.
Peter Linebaugh and
Marcus Rediker," A Motley Crew in the American Revolution," Brooks
College Prep, essay. British American portcity workers and sailors bring
their "radicalism" (hydrarchy) to the forefront in the form of 1760's
riots which set the stage for a more moderate, middle class revolution aimed at
British colonial regulations of east coast ports.
Seaports-Ship's Store: Books, Publications and Prints," Maritime
Heritage Project. Annotated listing of resources on world seaports.
The Period 1900-Present:
Chronakis, University of Illinois at Chicago, Course Outline, "The
Mediterranean City: Conflict and Coexistence in the long twentieth
century," H1978K, (Fall 2013). See historiography assignment and
readings as to 20th century Mediterranean port cities.
Studies, OECD Port-Cities Programme project directed by Olaf Merk. See
port city case study papers from OECD, Shanghai to Helsinki, Finland.
Murdoch Business School, Western Australia, "The Environmental Impact of
Ports: An Australian Case Study," Paper presented to XIV
EconomicHistory Congress, Helsinki, Finland, August, 2006.
Rodrigue, Dr. Brian Slack, and Dr. Theo Nottenboom, "Port Terminals-Ports
and Port Sites, Chapter 4, "The Geography of Transport
Systems,"Global Studies and Geography, Hofstra University, New
York. This detailed description of port cities modern needsand design is based
on research by ean-Paul Rodrigue. Click on Contents tab at top of this page to
see more from his work.
at a Container Terminal Becomes a Mesmerizing Mechanical Ballet," Aeon,
8:00 Video, accessed November 26, 2015. Director Jorge Wagner and Producer Dirk
Manthey visual depiction of technology at port container terminal.
Stories-Port Cities,"National GeographicEducation. World port cities seen
in interactive 'geostory' slide show.
Maruschke, review of Alice Mah,Port Cities and Global Legacies, Urban
Identity, Waterfront Work, and Radicalism," Basinstoke:
Palgrave Macmillan, (2014) in H-Soz-Kult 19.06, (2015), uploaded to
Academia by Megan Maruschke.
Google book. Richard
Marshall, ed.,"Waterfronts in Post-Industrial Cities,"London
and New York: Spons Press, 2001. Waterfront development in
post-industrial port cities.
A. Remesar, ed.,"Waterfronts
of Art, 1, Art for Social Facilitation,"(2005). First 96
pages, sections 1 and 2, of this book composed of papers presented at
Waterfronts and Art, Barcelona conference 1999.
Cities,"National GeographicEducation. Interactive site to examine largest port cities in
GeographicEducation. Resources and explanation of different types of ports.
with global port information.
World Port Source
website. Public information on US and world port cities, cargo
containers, cruise lines.
"What are Different Types of Ports for Ships?"Marine Insight,
April 26, 2013. Very general summary of differing types of ports in our
"Production View: Allan Sekula's Fish Story and Thawing of
Postmodernism," Art Review, Tate
Papers, Issue 18, October 23, 2012. Allan Sekula took 6 years to
photograph world port cities and publish those photos. His work was a look at
how globalization effected traditional, historical port cities. Bill Roberts
reviews the artist vision of Sekula. See slim description of Sekula's
photographic artFish Storyand in Witte de With, Contemporary
Art site, (2011) at http://www.wdw.nl/event/allan-sekula-fish-story/
in Shipping and Impact on Port Cities," 1:38:09 Lecture, Dr. Martin
Stopford, President, Clarkson Research Services Ltd., MND auditorium,
Singapore, February 19, 2014, published on YouTube March 25, 2014.
"Plan the City
with the Port Guide of Good Practices," AIVP, Worldwide Network of Port
Cities, June 30, (2015). See articles on building port cities best
practices. See AIVP Home page: http://www.aivp.org/en/
Conference Papers for Cities and Ports, AIVP, November 3-6, 2014, Durban, South
Africa. Papers available for download from this Port cities conference.
"Port Cities as Areas of Transitions-Comparative Ethnographic
Research," Transcript-verlag, modern port cities.
of Global Port Cites, Synthesis Report," OECD, Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development Report, (2010). A Report on global port cities in
the 21stcentury. See OECD website: http://www.oecd.org/
Nautilus,Maritime Journal about Literature,
History and Culture of the Sea.
"The Port City in Multidisciplinary Analysis," seen in Research Gate,
January (2011). Download available. Cesar Ducret analyzed modern
research on port cites.
and Gabriella Esposito De Vita, "Port Cities, Peoples and Cultures:
Waterfront Regeneration and 'Glocal' Identity," Conference Paper for
XI Forum Internazionale di Studi, Heritage, Architecture Landesign, June, 2013,
to Research Gate by
Stefania Ragozino, March, 2015. Case studies as to port cities
redesigning water front areas. Download paper and scroll down page to read it
after listing of conference presenters and papers.
"Growing Vulnerability: Seaports and Terror Attacks," Yale
Global Online, March 5, 2004. Short analysis of global ports and
Labadie-Ouedraogo, et.al, "Port Cities and Nature," Sustainable
Cities Collective, The Nature of Cities, February 18, 2013. Best
practices discussed as to port cities and biodiversity with examples from Brest,
Marseille and Montreal.
coming in 2015, "Plague of Species." Under construction simulation
with port cities as beachheads against biological invasions. Under development
by Kathryn Turner, Invasion Biologist, University of British Columbia and
Elizabeth Steward, Design and Development PERQ corporation and game designer.
Arctic Port System Study," US Army Corps of Engineers (March, 2013).
As conditions change in Arctic and Alaska environmentally, Alaskan and
Arctic ports are described within that changing climate and ice formations.
"Arctic Shipping Good For Invasive Species, Bad
for the Rest of Nature,"Smithsonian, Science, May 29, 2014.
Two marine biologists explained relationship of Arctic shipping, port
cities and invasive species.
"Melting Arctic Ice Thrills Port Cities,"The Korea Times,
first posted October 6, (2014) posted here in July 2015. Thawing Arctic
seen as boon for Korean port cities engulfed in sluggish economy. Comparative
between Geiling article and Hyun-Kyung as to Arctic shipping.
"Chart/Maps of Russia's Fortification of the Arctic, (2015),"Business
Insider,March 17, 2015. See port cities and fortifications
being built up in Russian arctic in anticipation of melting and easier access
to resources. Also, note more resources, infographic, maps on Russia and US in
"The Arctic Where the US and Russia Could Square Off,"The
Atlantic, March 28, 2014.
8000 BCE-600 BCE:
" Most Ancient Port Found in Egypt,"Discovery,April
12, 2013. Archaeologists and historians have found, what couldbe,
the most ancient port city in world history at Wadi el-Jarf in Egypt. See
slide share and brief article on that discovery.
"Sunken Ancient Egyptian Port City Reveals Some of its
Secrets,"Planet Save,April 8, 2013.
Thonis-Heracleion excavation by Oxford University team revealed cultural
and economic hints as to importance of this ancient port city. See slim article
from Archaeology, Egyptian ancient port city, March 25, 2013 on
Ancient sunken Egyptian Port city, 46:00 YouTube video, 2014.
"Beyond Egypt's Frontiers: A Late Old Kingdom Fort in South
Sinai,"Minerva,Vol. 16, No. 3, (May/June 2005), 24-26.
Uploaded to Academia by Gregory Mumford. A fort as a port?
2700-2200 BCE south Sinai fort built 200 meters from Old Kingdom Egypt
shoreline safeguarded expedition ships, but more importantly guarded miners
quarrying copper and turquoise from Bedouin raiders.Copper and turquoise
shipped to Pharaoh's court under protection of this fortress port.
"Ugarit,"Ancient History Encyclopedia, March 22, 2012.
Ugarit was key port city and trading center during Egyptian and Hittite
empires, 16-11th century BCE. Note "texts" found at this site
in northern Levant.
John P. Cooper,
"No Easy Option: Nile Versus Red Sea in Ancient and Medieval
North-South Navigation," In W.V. Harris and K. Iara (eds.),Maritime
Technology in the Ancient Economy: Ship Design and Navigation (Journal
of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 84 (2011), 189-210. John Cooper
examines the argument that Red Sea port navigation was more difficult than Nile
River port navigation in ancient and medieval times.
Forstner-Muller, "Avaris, its Harbours and the Peru Nefer Problem,"
Egyptian Archaeology, uploaded to Academia by I. Forstner-Muller. Avaris
was harbour, naval port city and capitol city of Hyksos rulers of Egypt.
See Egyptian Archaeology article on that important site.
"Ancient Egyptian Overseas Trade," Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, nd. Note
ancient Egyptian problems with naval trade into the Mediterranean and cataracts
of the Nile. See other links and articles on this page such as Asiatic
sea trade with Egypt seen below:
"Asiatic Traders in Ancient Egypt," Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, nd.
Short article with image showing Asiatic merchants with smaller ships able to
sail up the Nile and dock at Nile political and port city of Thebes, 1402-1364
"Wenamen's Journey," Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, last updated April, 2004.
Papyrus story, probably fictitious, of 11th centuryBCE ship voyage by
Wenamen, priest of Amen temple, Karnak, to purchase timber for a "solar
vessel." Note small mapon upper right of page detailing eastern
Mediterranean ports. Egypt had defeated invading Sea Peoples by 11th century
BCE but, were in decline unable to defend possessions and ports in the east.
This tale gave hints to that loss of power.
Alison Crowther, Richard Helm, Dorian Q. Fuller, "East Africa and
Madagascar in the Indian Ocean World," Journal of World
Prehistory(2013), 213-281, and published online on November 28, 2013,
Springer Science, NY. Monographcombining biological transfer of
plants and animals and archaeology along the ancient Swahili coast beginning in
2000 BCE. Note map of Swahili coast ports and maritime islands.
600 BCE-600 CE:
Port City of
"The Ancient Port of Adulis," Shabait.com, Eritrea Ministry of
Information, December 7, 2012. The ancient port city of Adulis part of the
Axumite Empire, now Eritrea, harbored Greek and Phoenician ships as early as
the 7th century BCE.
"Before the Somali Threat: Piracy in the Ancient Indian
Ocean,"The Journal of the Hakluyt Society, July, 2014.
Note numerous references and maps to port cities plied by Greek, Roman
and other traders and Somali pirate coves and harbors.
Egypt," Ancient Vine website (2015). See recreation images of
Alexandria port city dating back to 331 BCE. Note problems with developing
harbors, ports, and shipping shelters along the ancient Nile River, Magby
Torah, "A Geomorphological Map of the Ancient Branches of the Nile
Delta," uploaded to Academia by Magby Torah.
of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant
of the First Century," Paul Halsall Primary Sources, Fordham University
from W. H. Schoff, tr.& ed.,"The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea:
Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First
Century,"London, Bombay and Calcutta, 1912. Note references to
Port cities. See short video clip on Somali Maritime Enterprise on Erythraean
Maritime Enterprise-Ancient Seafarers of the Erythraean Sea," 3:57 YouTube
"Review Article-Recent Research on Trade in the Red Sea and the Indian
Ocean (1st c.-7th c.)," download to Academia by Alexis D'Hautcourt,
accessed July 8, (2015). D'Hautcourt reviewed three books, D.
Peacock,L. Blue, eds.,The Ancient Red Sea Port of Adulis, Eritrea:
Results of the Eritro-British Expedition (2004)-2205,Oxbow
Books/Oxford, 2007); D. Peacock, D. Williams, eds.,"Food for the
Gods. New Light on the Ancient Incense Trade,"Oxbow
Books/Oxford, (2006); and R.T.J. Cappers,"Roman Food prints at Berenike.
Archaeobotanical Evidence of Subsistenceand Trade in the Eastern
Desert of Egypt," Cotsen Institute of Archaeology; University of
California, Los Angeles; Monograph 55/Los Angeles, 2006.
Report, "Berenike: Roman Trade in the Red Sea Coast of Egypt,"
June, 1995 report of archaeological evidence found at Berenike in 1995
Expedition seen Linguistics Department, Arts and Sciences, University of
Pennsylvania. Berenike as chief port in this trade is highlighted.
Ross I. Thomas,
"Port Communities and the Erythraean Sea Trade," Studies in Ancient
Egypt and Sudan, 18, (2012), 169-199, The British Museum. Ross Thomas
cited Greco-Roman accounts of the people and port cities of 3rd century BCE-5th
century CE Egypt and Sudan in this article.
History of Carthage
blogsite. See 2 short video clips of Carthage port reconstruction and
scroll down to see post on Carthage reconstructed with maps of that Phoenician
port city in North Africa.
K. Kris Hirst,
"Kilwa Kisiwani: Medieval Trade Center of East Africa,"
Archaeology.about.com.Most important maritime city and trade port of the
35 Swahili coastal trade communities in medieval Indian Ocean
tradenetwork. See more sourceson Kilwa and Swahili port cities
below this article. See example below:
K. Kris Hirst,
"Swahili Towns-Medieval Trading Communities of the East African
Coast," Archaeology.about.com. Architecture and lay out of Swahili
port cities and maritime centers.
Basil Davidson, 7:21
youtube video, "Swahili Cities of East Africa," uploaded to youtube
January 12, 2008).
"The Indian Ocean Trade: A Classroom Simulation," NEH Summer
Institute Project, 1993, Boston University African Studies Program. Short
introductionto African Swahili port cities and Asian trade 1000 CE-1500
CE and simulation.
Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World," Exhibitions and resources, New York
Public Library and The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, ((2011)).
African diaspora history usually brings to mind the 16th century Atlantic
world trade network and slave trade. Beginning a 1000 years earlier was
the east African voluntary and forced migrations into the Indian Ocean world.
Note mention of east African and Indian Ocean port cities involved with
this diaspora throughout the exhibition and resources.
Department of Anthropology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville,
"Modeling the Swahili Past: The Archaeology of Mikindani in southern
coastal Tanzania, Azana: Archaeological Review in Africa," (2012),
1-12. Uploaded to Academia by Matt
Pawlowicz. Dr. Pawlowicz argued that Swahili port cities such as
Mikindani focused more onhinterland trade within Africa than on Indian
S. D. Goitein,
"The Unity of the Mediterranean in the 'Middle' Middle Ages,"Studia
Islamica, No. 12, 1960, 29-42, JSTOR. Scroll down to see entire
monographwhich detailed North African and Levantine trade and port cities
mostly in 11th-12th century which used primarysources, letters and deeds
for example, found in the Cairo Geniza. Uploaded January (2015) to Spanish
medievalist professor, Roger Louis Martinez's website: http://www.rogerlouismartinez.com/
Henry Trotter, Yale
University, "Dockside Prostitution in South African Ports," History Compass, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (2008), 673-690,
uploaded to Academia by Henry Trotter, accessed September 14, 2015. First
brothel organized in 1650 Cape of Good Hope. Dr. Trotter's monograph focused on
the female prostitute as a gender study within port cities of South Africa.
Dr. Michael E.
Brooks, review, Michael N. Pearson, "Port Cities and Intruders:
The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the early modern world,"
Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1998. See History Mike
blog, June ((2008)). Historian and journalist Michael Brooks reviews Dr.
Pearson, University of New South Wales, emeritus professor'sanalysis of
global significance of Portuguese involvement in history of Swahili port cities
before 1700 and relationship of those coastal port cities and Africa's
interior. Pearson took a World System's approach in his book.
Universite Paris, Sorbonne, "Slave Trade and Slavery on the Swahili Coast,
1500-1700," Downloaded to Academia by Thomas Vernet. Dr. Vernet
claimed historiography of Swahili port cities, coastal communities as slave
trade centers focused on post 1770 periods. This monograph highlights
Swahili ports, the coastal community's slave trade network beginning in early
16th century, and is focused on French and Omani trade.
Amira El Semellawy,
"Alexandria a Port City-Ph.D proposal: Cosmopolitan Alexandria and
its Eclectic Influences onBuildings and Urban Spaces, 1830-1930,"
downloaded by Amira El Semellawy to Academia.
Somalia (Djibouti)," International Harbors and Sea Ports of the
World, Maritime Heritage Project. History of Djibouti and Somalia as a
coastal trade region with 19th century European primary sources.
Western Washington University, faculty, "Endowing Property and Edifying
Power in a Red Sea Port: 'Waqf,' Arab migrant entrepreneurs, and
urbanauthority in Massawa, 1860's-1880,"International
Journal of African History, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2009. Uploaded toAcademia
by Jonathan Miran. Miran wove the Islamic inheritance practice of
"waqf" around the tapestry of Massawaport city politics and
economics. What is now Eritrea, Massawa was and still is, a port city on
the African shores of the southernRed Sea. See Jonathan Miran
encyclopedia entry on Eritrea including map of Red Sea ports, such as Massawa
"Eritrea,"Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 3, Leiden:
Brill, 2015. Summary of Muslim and Christian struggles in Eritrea
including large map of Red Sea ports, including Massawa referenced in Miran's
"Ujiji: Urban Frontier in the Era of Long Distance Commerce, East
and Central Africa, c. 1830-1890, paper uploaded to Academia by Philip Gooding,
accessed July 5, 2015. Dr. Gooding described and analyzed encounters
between African Swahili coastal traders with interior indigenous people via
case study of an "inland port" or urban center onnortheast
shore of Lake Tanganyika.
"Ujiji, c. 1860-1890, The Rise and Decline of a Swahil Frontier
Town," paper in conjunction with above cited work, "Ujiji:
Urban Frontier in the Era of Long Distance Commerce, East and Central
Africa, c. 1830-1890." Uploaded to Academia by Philip Gooding. Accessed
July 5, 2015. Goodingdiscussed the decline of the inland port town of
Ujiji on northeast Lake Tanganyika and its trade exchanges with Swahili coast
"Durban as a Portal of Globalization, Mines, Railways, Docks and
Steamships in the Empire of Otto Siedle's Natal Direct Line, 1879-1927,"
uploaded to Academia by Jonathan Hyslop. Dr. Hyslop described minor
British settler colony of Natal transformation, change over time to most
important harbor of a powerful, industrialized South African state.
Department of History, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,
"Smugglers in Johannesburg, Durban and Louren Marques, 1890's-1920's,"
Working Paper, uploaded to Academia by Andrew Macdonald. Portcity
Hidalgo and Fatima Zohra Mohamed-Cherif, "The Evolution of the Port System
of Northwest Africa: Maritime Traffics, Port Modernization and Colonial
Extraction, 1880-1929," Power point slides for conference presentation,
uploaded to Academia by Daniel Castillo Hidalgo, accessed August 19, 2015.
Marc Jason Gilbert,
"Paper Trails: Exploring World History Through Documents and
Images-The End of the African Slave Trade-East Africa,"World
History Connected,Vol. 1, Issue 1, (November, 2002).
Manumission document, 1911, and brief history of Bogamayo and Kilwa as
slave port cities.
Colgate University, "Navigating Empire: Ports, Ships, and Global
History," Keynote Lecture for Social History, Society Conference,
Portsmouth, April 1, 2015. Dr. Hyslop discussed early 20th century
British steamship and maritime global trade around the port city of Durban,
Frannie A. Leautier,
Michael Schafer, and Wei Shen, "Part II, A Port City in the new maritime
Silk Road: The Case of Bagamoyo," Uongozi Blog, November 17, 2015.
China's new maritime silk road and east Africa. See Pt. 1 of this
article on right side of page.
guide, "Sea Change Comes to Bagamoyo,"Aramco World,
March/April, 2015). Aramco World lesson plan for article on East African
sea port which was a leading trade center from 1300-1800's CE. Tanzanian
government is planning to rebuild the port facility. See article by Amanda
Leigh Lichtenstein below.
Lichtenstein, "Sea Change Comes to Bagamoyo,"Aramco World,March/April
2015. Tanzanian governmentplans 30 year rebuild of 800 year old sea
port on East African coast.
"How Chinese, Lebanese, Indians Dominate Our Economy,"Vanguard,
Nigeria, August 22, 2015. Nigerian journalist claimed that Chinese, Lebanese,
Indian and South African container ships allowed open access to Nigerian major
ports which threaten Nigerian security and sovereignty.
"Kenyan Port is Hub for Illicit Ivory Trade,"Wall Street
Journal, November 18, (2015).
"Pearl Harbor Before Dec. 7, 1941 and Native Americans after Dec. 7,
1941," American Indian Warrior Association. Native perspective as to
Pearl Harbor history prior to December 7, Japanese attack. Second half of
this article concerned Native American's struggle to fight in WW II.
"How Russian is
Kauai's Fort Elizabeth," Russian History blog, February 28, 2012. A
discussion of Russian forts protecting Russian ports in Hawaii and their
extension of these forts protecting ports into Alaska and California.
Islands," International Harbors & Seaports of the World,"
Melissa A. McLeod,
etc. al, "Protective Effect of Maritime Quarantine in South Pacific
Jurisdictions, 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic,"Emerging Infectious Diseases (March
2008). Policies by South Pacific island port cities allowed many to
beprotected from influenza global pandemic.
War Bird Information Exchange list serve, posted May 7, 2014. George
Spangler "article" on secret Pacific naval facility, port, Ulithi,
with maps and photographs from 1944 through March 1945 as invasion fleet begins
sail to Japan at end of WW II.
Project: Port Moresby, New Guinea, (2012)," YouTube video (15:26)
posted August 23, 2012 as to Port Moresby's violence against women. 80% of that
violence occurred in market stores where many poor women attempt to sell
Colourful History, Infamous Scribbler's Blog, September 22, 2007). Slim post on
Port Moresby history especially during WW II.
8000 BCE-600 BCE:
Harappa.com. Text written by Anil Mulchandani and Photography by Dinesh
Shukla. Ancient Indus port cityof Lothal as envisaged by The
Archaeological Survey of India. 15 slides with text described Lothal in the
state of Gujarat, India.
Lothal," Vedanta-ced blog, February 14, 2010 posts on port city of
600 BCE-600 CE:
Lesson 3-Winds of
Trade, The Story of India, PBS with Michael Woods. See two part lesson
module with student as Roman merchant writing letter about spice trade ports
from Kerala, India to Egypt and note 2:06 video clip on ancient Kerala port
city, Muziris, "the first Emporia to India."
"Arikamedu: Ancient Port City of India," downloaded to Academia
by Suesh Pillai. Monograph. Arikamedu was at it's peak as a port
city from 100 BCE-100 CE trading with Rome and other Indian Ocean ports.
Arikamedu was known as the "world's bead center." SueshPillai
is an interdisciplinary artist. Monograph contained 9 chapters and appendix.
Last chapter (9), "Arikamedu Beads,"and appendix not
included in this download. See article with links on Arikamedu bead trade,
"Excavations at Arikamedu,"The Bead Site, American Museum of
Natural History, nd.: at http://www.thebeadsite.com/uni-ark.html
World Quest Study
Guide, Indian Ocean History website, Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center, updated
March ((2011)). Note description ofand see review of that website:
major ancient port cities throughout the Indian Ocean trade network.
See Indian Ocean in World History website:
Jews in India,Jewish
Virtual Library.See section on Cochin Jews of south India who settled
in port city of Cranganore not far from Cochin (today the port city of Kochi)
after 70 CE and became active traders throughout the Indian Oceanregion.
of Ancient Kalinga and its Ports," Kalinga Calling blog, May 1, ((2011)).
Slim blog post as to 2nd century CE-7th century CE Kalinga (Orissa,
India) as a major South Asian port.
Patit Paban Mishra,
Delhi University, "India-Southeast Asia Relations: An
Overview,"Teaching South Asia-an Internet Journal of
Pedagogy, Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 2001. Posted in South Dakota State
University course, "Project South Asia." An Overview of "Indianization,"
as Indians migrated throughout IndianOcean, specifically, to Southeast
Asia. Note port city connections in that diaspora.
booklet: Teaching About the Indian Ocean, Professional Development
booklet, AP College Board,(2006-2007). Training booklet with Lesson
Plans, geography, handouts, historical background including port cities.
Google Book. Roxani
Eleni Margariti, Emory University, "Aden and the Indian Ocean Trade:
150 Years in the Life of a MedievalArabian Port,"(Islamic
Civilization and Muslim Networks), Chapel Hill, North Carolina:
University of North Carolina Press, (2007), 342 pages. One reviewer
saw Dr. Margariti's work as an excellent description of city as a port.
Margariti, Emory University, "Mercantile Networks, Port Cities, and
'Pirate' states: Conflict and Competition in the IndianOcean World
of Trade before the Sixteenth Century,"Journal of the Economic
and Social History of the Orient,51, 2008), 542-577, monograph downloaded to
Academia by Roxani Margariti.
"Teaching the Indian Ocean as World History,"World History
Connected, Vol. 11, No. 1, February (2014).
"Trade and Development of Port Towns in Kerala," BA degree
dissertation for University of Kerala College of Architecture and Engineering,
Sila Tripati and L.
N. Raut, "Monsoon Wind and Maritime Trade: a case study of
historical evidence from Orissa, India," Current Science, Vol. 90,
No. 6, March 25, 2006, 864-871. Discussion of monsoons and its effects on Indian
portcities with specific evidence from port city of Orissa.
Krishnakumar, Research paper, "Conservation of Kuttichira, Kozhikode,
India: A Mappila Muslim Settlement," May 31, 2014, uploaded to
Academia by Vaisali Krishnakumar. Paper discussed how 16th and 17th century
Arab traders in Calicut, specifically the port town of Zamorins led to a
linking betweentwo cultures, Arabs and Nairs of Kerala. This port
city relationship evolved into Mappila Muslims or Koyas who still livein
southwest quarter of oldest part of Calicut.
"Calicut: Indian Ocean Trade System," Prezi slide share, April
25, 2015. History of port city of Calicut as key maritime center in
Indian Ocean Trade.
12:21 Video, Ottoman
naval battle of Diu vs. Portuguese, YouTube. 1509 Naval battle fought off
Indian Arabian Sea port cityof Diu. Portuguese victory allowed them to
sail down African and Indian coastlines taking and controlling port cities
andaccess to Spice Trade routes.
Lanka: Maritime Archaeology & History of Sri Lanka,"Maritime
Asia,last modified October 23,(2012. See
maritime archaeology studies off port cities and harbors in Sri Lanka,
Andrew de la Garza,
University of Louisiana, Lafayette, "Command of the Coast: The
Mughal Navy and Regional Strategy,"World History Connected,Vol.
12, Issue 1 (February, 2015). Special Forum on
Military History in World History. See description of 17th century Mughal
"navy" and, especially," account of Mughal 1665 naval invasion
of the port city of Chittagong.
Chicago Press slim description of Bhavani Raman, "Document Raj-Writing and
Scribes in Early Colonial South India," (2012). Interesting research
into British East India Company bureaucracy in Madras, power of paper,
corruption andBritish training of Indian scribes and clerks in that
corrupt paper world which continues in India today. Power of
recordkeeping and bureaucracy in Port City and Colonial history. See
review of Dr. Raman's work below.
Manteua, University of Illinois, review of Bhavani Raman,"Document
Raj-Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India,"
University of Chicago Press, 2012).
Nile Green, UCLA
professor South Asian and Islamic History, "Maritime Worlds and Global
History: Comparing the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean through Barcelona
and Bombay,"Compass, Vol. 11, Issue 7 (2013), John Wiley
& Sons Ltd. downloaded to Academia by Nile Green. Comparative looks at the
two port cities from 1850-1920.
Marcus Vink Review
of Anjana Singh, "Fort Cochin in Kerala, 1750-1830: The Social
Conditions of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu," TANAP Monographs on
the history of Asian-European interactions, no. 13, Leiden and Boston: Brill, (2010), seen inJournal
of Portuguese History,Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer (2011), 99-103.
Anjana Singh, Ph.D from University of Leiden, Netherlands, had researched
Dutch East India Company (VOC) files and records at Leiden University to
prepare a monograph on life in the costal port city fortress of Cochin. See
Journal of Portuguese History eJournal:
Vandana Baweja, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of
Florida, "Modern India," (Spring 2013). See Week 2 Colonial Port
Cities resources, Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. Also, other resources can be
applied to maritime port cities throughout this syllabus.
Cities," Envisioning the Indian City, Conference on the Otherness of Port
Cities, September 13, 2013. This ETIC, Envisioning the Indian City,
Project was a collaboration between Liverpool University, UK and Jadavpur
University, India. See summaries of presentations and images of Indian port
cities and note ETIC links with more resources to right of this page.
"Trade, complementarities and religious tolerance: evidence from
India," Stanford Graduate School of Business research paper, January 27, 2010
seen in Haas School of Business website, University of California, Berkeley.
Paper abstract described thesis question as can historical patterns of
inter-ethnic trade have lasting effects on religious tolerance? Two
centuries after the decline of Muslim overseas trade, this paper finds that
medieval ports, despite being poorer and more ethnically diverse, were 25
percentage points less likely to experience a Hindu-Muslim riot, both
throughout India (1850-1950), and in one state, Gujarat (2002).
1900 to Present:
"Dominant Naval Presence in the Indian Ocean," Nautical Notes blog,
November 5, (2012). Retired Rear Admiral of the Pakistani Navy
"musings" on Indian Ocean ports and strategic importance. See other
"posts" on right side of this page, especially, "Gwadar" a
Pakistani container port.
Joshua L. Harris,
"US Military Presence in Diego Garcia: National Interests vs. Human
Rights," American University, ICE, Inventory of Conflict and Environment
Cases, No. 120, (December, 2002). TED, Trade and Environment Database Cases,
and ICE case studies highlight environmental degradation and human rights in
military base, port occupation. See more TED and ICE case studies at the bottom
of this page. This case is focused on US and use of Indian Ocean naval
base/port of Diego Garcia. Diego Garcia is a shared base with the British.
A Secret US Naval Base, 9:25 YouTube video, posted June 9, 2013.
Part of a series on US naval bases.
"International Relations in an Emerging Multilateral World-The Indian Ocean
in pictures," Tamil Nation, 1998--(2007)). Links, maps, digital
resources for Indian Ocean trade history from Tamil perspective.
N. Sathiya Moorthy,
"India, Sri Lanka, and the Indian Ocean,"The Sunday Leader,English
language Sri LankanSunday newspaper, November 29, 2015. News article from
Sri Lankan perspective as to Indian Ocean strategic value to India, US, China
and Sri Lanka's role.
Ocean Littoral: Cartography and Port Cities," University of
Pennsylvania modules. A look at the IndianOcean through 12 port
Ocean Lucrative Shores,"Nikkei Asian Review, December 3, 2015.
See map image of Indian Ocean nations and their (2014) populations and
GDP. Background information for port cities in the region.
600 BCE-600 CE:
National University of Singapore, Department of Architectural Studies,
monograph, "Melaka-A Cosmopolitan City in Southeast Asia,"Revista
de Culturaby, 40 (2011) downloaded byJohannes Widodo to Academia.
1st century through 16th century Melaka as a rich and cosmopolitan trade
port. See discussion of Zheng He 1405-1433 and Chinese maritime trade.
600 CE-1450 CE:
Lim Tse Siang,
"14th Century Singapore: The Temasek Paradigm," Thesis for MA,
Department of History, National University of Singapore, (2012).
"Temasek" is old Javanese word for "sea town" and is
used in this thesis paper for early port of Singapore prior to European
colonization. Lim Tse Siang used archaeological evidence to support 14th
century Singapore as a rich and powerful trade port.
Mark Staniforth, Jun
Kimura, Le Thi Lien, "Defeating the fleet of Kublai Khan: The Bach
Dang River and Van Don Naval Battlefields Research Project,"Archaeologia
Post medievale, 18 (2014), 29-44. Modern digital archaeological techniques
explained in researching Kublai Khan's 1274 attempts to expand hegemony into
Japan, Vietnam, Java by controlling river mouths and ports. This report focused
on North Vietnam's Bach Dang River and ancient port of Van Don battles.
Jane A. Peterson,
"In New Textbook the Story of Singapore Begins 500 Years
Earlier,"NY Times,May 12, 2014. American professor in
Singapore, historian John Miksic, encouraged revisionist Singapore history
beginning 500 years prior to English colonial enterprisein Malay
peninsula in early 19th century. Note reference to "Singapore: A
700-Year History referenced below. See similar article inThe
Economist,November 29, 2013:
Tan Tai Yong,
"Flashback Tan Tai Yong," Asia One,The Strait Times,
Singapore, August 12, 2014. Reflections by authorsof
"Singapore: A 700-Year History-From Early Emporium to Global
City," by Tan Tai Yong, Kwa Chong Guan and Derek Heng.
Islam," International World History Project. Note importance of port
cities and Muslim merchants.
National University of Singapore, "Morphogenesis and Hybridity of
Southeast Asian Coastal Cities," Chapter 5 in Rahil Ismail, etc., eds., Southeast Asian Culture and Heritage in a
Globalizing World,Ashgate (January,
2009). Urban and architectural development of port cities along coastal areas
of South China Sea, Java Sea, and Malacca Strait.
monograph, "Zheng He's Visits and the Shaping of Cosmopolitan Cities in
Southeast Asia: Melaka Case-Facts and Fiction," presented in
Conference, New Dimensions in Humanities Education, panel, organized by
NIE/HSSE, Singapore, November 18-19, 2008. Chinese admiral Zheng He's
effect on shaping port cities in Southeast Asia, 1405-1433.
(Malacca) Indian Ocean World, 1300-1800," Hartwick Library guides, last
updated September 5, 2012. Slim list of books, periodicals on Melaka port
"'The Sea Common to All:' Maritime Frontiers, Port Cities, and
Chinese Traders in the Southeast Asian Age of Commerce, ca.,
1400-1750,"Journal of World History, Vol. 21, No. 2 (2010), 219-247.
Dennis O'Flynn and
Arturo Giraldez, University of the Pacific, "The Origin of World Trade in
1571,"Journal of WorldHistory, Vol. 6, No. 2 ( Fall
1995), 201-221. Classic monograph as to Manilla, Philippines port as
beginningof true global trade linking all four world continents and
importance of Spanish and Chinese silver trade.
Bobby C. Orilaneda,
"Maritime Trade in Southeast Asia During Early Colonial Period,"
Underwater Archaeology Section, National Museum of the Philippines and Oxford
Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Oxford, nd. Accessed July
19, 2015. Mr. Orilaneda was PhD. student at the time of this monograph
being published. Manila, Philippines as first global port and research on that
trade and ship wrecks referenced in this slim monograph.
Anuphangphat and Komatra Chuengsatiansup, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
Society and Health Institute, "Krom Luang Wongsa and the House of
Snidvongs: Knowledge Transition and the Transformation of Medicine in
Early Modern Siam," monograph downloaded to Academia by Komatra
Chuengsatiansup. The early modern maritime trade center of Ayutthaya was
known to Western merchants as the "Venice of the East." This
monograph detailed European transmission of medical knowledge and medicine into
"The Archaeology of Early Modern Southeast Asia,"The Oxford
Handbook of Historical Archaeology(October, 2014). This 12 page
summary developed Miriam Stark's thesis as to 15th century collapse of empires
and creation of multi-ethnic diasporic communities which developed in port
cities. Ms. Stark has put forth the archaeological evidence to support
Paulo Jorge de Sousa
Pinto, "Ten Remarks on the Chinese Presence in Melaka and Manila,
16th-17th centuries," Paper presented at the International Conference on
'Portugal and SE Asia: 500 Years of History,' organized by the Department
of Portuguese of the University of Macau (Macao, October 30-November 1, 2012.
Download to Academia by Paulo Pinto.
Su Lin Lewis,
"Print and Colonial Port Cultures of the Indian Ocean Littoral:
Penang and Rangoon,"Moussons, No. 17 (January (2011), 127-144
uploaded to Academia by Dr. Su Lin Lewis.
"Charles Dyce in Indonesia, 1845: The Journey Through Riau to
Batavia, Kuripan and Buitenzorg,"in "Sketching the Straits:
A compilation of the lecture series on the Charles Dyce collection,"
ed. Irene Lim ( Singapore: NUS Museum, National
University of Singapore, 2004, 63-67).Downloaded to Academia by Dr.
Widodo. Johannes Widodo described the historical context behind the seven watercolor
port city drawings by Charles Dyce, a Scot merchant and artist (1816-1853).
ed., "Challenges for Recovery: Natural Disaster's Impact and
Economic on Aids, Governance, Infrastructure," 7th Indonesian Regional
Science Association International Conference, (2005), 152 pages uploaded to
Academiaby Erlangga Landiyant. December (2004) tsunami and
earthquake effects on coastal and port cities. Papers from that
conference. See especially Erlangga Landiyant, Airlangga University,
Economics, Chapter 7, "Economic Growth of Indonesian Port
Cities,"p. 135 ff.
"A Tale of Two
Cities,"The Economist, Indonesia, April 13, 2015.
Indonesian port city of Surabaya has been overshadowed by Jakarta, yet
recent political and economic issues in Jakarta are seen by Surabaya as
opportunity to move out of the shadows.
Runckel, "Ports in Vietnam-Stunting Amid Economic Development,"Business
in Asia (2006). Mr. Runckel, former seniorUS ambassador, now
business consultant with vast experience in Asia, described Vietnam's hard work
to maintain portsbut claimed their smaller ports and harbors cannot
handle the new larger ships and cargoes.
Fran'ois Gipouloux, "The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities and
Trading Networks in China, Japan and South Asia,13th-21st Centuries,"
Edward Elgar Publishing, January 1, 2011. Massive monograph "which synthesizes east
and west maritime worlds." See review below.
Schottenhammer, China Focus, University of Salzburg, Austria, Review of
Fran'ois Gipouloux,"The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities
and Trading Networks in China, Japan and South Asia, 13th-21st Centuries,"
Edward Elgar Publishing, January1, 2011, seen inChina
Perspectives,Revues.org, February (2014).
Song China Maritime
Trade, Asia For Educators website. Song China
maritime trade exceeds overland trade in 12th through 15th
centuries. Note references to port/coastal cities.
"Chinese Trade in the Indian Ocean," Asia Society. In 1402 Zhu Di
became Chinese emperor. Wishing to authenticate his rule and increase the
Chinese tribute system he ordered the building of a grand fleet headed by Zheng
He. Jean Johnson described this trade network expansion to Africa and the
Red Sea, its key ports, outlining each voyage upto Zhu Di's death and end
of the Grand Fleet.
"The Voyages of Zheng He."9th-10th grade worksheet pdf with
five questions about map of Indian Ocean ports used by Chineseadmiral
Zheng He. Seen in Mr. White's Global History website, Auburndale High
School, Polk County Florida.
"The Admiral Zheng he,"Aramco World (July/August 2005).
Note listing of Indian Ocean port cities that Zheng hevisited and
Dr. Alan J. Singer
Course Pack article, "Zheng He Voyages Across the Indian Ocean
1405-1433," Hofstra University. Note small map of Indian Ocean port cities
visited by Zheng He at very end of this two page summary.
Ethan Segal Review
of Peter D. Shapinsky, "Lords of the Sea: Pirates, Violence, and
Commerce in Late Medieval Japan," Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese
Studies Publications, University of Michigan, 2014. Note Ethan Segal's
mention of Japanese Sea Lords/Pirates control of coastal cities, ports as
virtual sea daimyos.
Beyond Ricci-Rare books from the Jesuitica Collection at Boston College, 2015.
See brief description of the importance of Guangzhou from Zheng He to the
Portuguese and note maps on left side of page of Canton/Guangzhou.
Selection of Cartographic Images," Library of Congress-Alcove 9. Macau was
oldest permanent European settlement, port city in Asia established by the
Portuguese in 1557 and returned to China in 1999. See small selection of
cartographic images of this port city.
Marc Jason Gilbert,
"Paper Trails: Deshima Island: A Stepping Stone between
Civilizations,"World History Connected, Vol. 3, No. 3 (July (2006).Deshima
(Dejima) was a small, artificial island in Nagasaki, 150 feet by 500 feet. From
1641 to1845, it was the sole conduit of trade between Europe and Japan. Article
traces cultural encounters and exchanges at the site, including the transfer of
azaleas to Europe and ideas about electricity to Japan.
Kate Lim, Graduate
Student, University of Philippines, Diliman, Review of Haneda Masashi, ed.,
"Asian Port Cities 1600-1800: Local and Foreign Cultural
Interactions," Singapore: NUS Press and Kyoto: Kyoto University
Press, 2009.European and Asian port city trade examined through 10
Google EBook, En-Sai
Tai, "Treaty Ports in China: A Study in Diplomacy,"
University Printing Office, Columbia University, 1918. See review of En-Sai
Tai's 1918 work below.
Stanley K. Hornbeck,
Review of En-Sai Tai, "Treaty Ports in China: A Study in
Diplomacy," New York: Columbia University Press, 1918 seen in
"The American Journal of International Law," Vol. 12, No. 3 (July
University of Bristol, "Migration
Chinabound: Crossing Borders in Treaty Port China," Migration
module, Institute ofHistorical Research (Fall (2006). Article on
British residents living and attempting to maintain their
"Britishness" in China. Note tabs at top of page and many other
resources, globally, for British migration, some include port cities.
Cultures Project (2015). Project Home Page. See many port and
maritime city related lessons, primarysources, themes. Note example of
"Rise and Fall
of the Canton Trade Network-China in the World (1700-1860's)," MIT Visual
Cultures Project. See essay by Peter C. Perdue and curriculum by Lynn
Parisi. Three key port cities referenced. See Menu: http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/vis_menu_02b.html
Opium War: Treaty Ports and Compradors," Historical Collections
Exhibit, Harvard Business School Library. See other "chapters" to
this Treat Port/Canton system exhibit on left side of page.
"Russell and Company in Shanghai, 1843-1891: US Trade and Diplomacy
in Treaty Port China," Paper presented to "A Tale of Ten Cities:
Sino-American Exchange in the Treaty Port era, 1840-1950-An
Interdisciplinary Colloquium," Hong Kong University, May 23-24, 2011.
Note introduction reference to John K. Fairbanks book reviewed below.
E. Elena Songster
Review of John K. Fairbanks,"Trade and Diplomacy on the China
Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854,"Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1953 seen in University of California, San
Diego ModernChinese history blog site, January 29, 2010.
"Russell and Company in Shanghai, 1843-1891: US Trade and Diplomacy
in Treaty Port China," Rough draft Paper presentedto "A Tale of
Ten Cities: Sino-American Exchange in the Treaty Port Era, 1840-1950-An
Interdisciplinary Colloquium,"Hong Kong University, May 23-24, 2011.
"A Chronicle of
the China Trade-The Records of Augustine Heard & Co., 1840-1877,"
Historical Collections Exhibit, Harvard Business School. Note mention of
China Treaty ports throughout records.
Bickers, University of Bristol, "Chinabound: Crossing Borders in
Treaty Port China," UK,History in Focus, (Autumn 2006). Slim article on
British in China's treaty ports, post-First World War China.
Chaturvedy, "Reviving the Maritime Silk Route,"The Hindu,
April 11, 2014. Indian journalist on current Chinese interest in reviving
the MSR, Maritime Silk Route, to increase China's geopolitical power in the
Indian Ocean region by controlling port cities throughout the Indian Ocean.
"Hong Kong and Singapore Ports: Challenges, Opportunities and Global
Competitiveness,"Working Paper, Hong Kong Centre for Maritime and
Transportation Law, City University of Hong Kong, March, 2011.
Gregory Bracken, ed.,"Aspects of Urbanization in
China-Shanghai, Hong Kong, Guangzhou,"International Institute
for Asian Studies, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012.
Chapters surrounding three themes; Global, Cultural and Architectural and
descriptions of evolution of Chinese port cities into expanding urban areas due
to internal migration in modern China.
Dong-Wook Song, and Cesar Ducruet, "A Tale of Asia's World Ports:
The Spatial Evolution in Global Hub Port Cities,"Geoform,
Vol. 39, Issue 1 (2008), 372-385 downloaded to Research Gate by Cesar Ducruet,
May 13, (2015). This study viewed modern model port city hubs, Singapore and
Hong Kong, from an Asian perspective.
Olaf Merk and Jing
Li, "The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: The Case of Hong
Kong-China," OECD Regional Development Working Paper, (2013). Port
city of Hong Kong as case study is ninth in a series of OECD Port-Cities
Program work papers directed by Olaf Merk. See all OECD working papers:
8000 BCE- 600 BCE:
(Jaffa)," Bible Places website. Jaffa, now Tel Aviv, is one of the oldest
ports in world history. See other Biblical sites on left of page and more
resources on Jaffa as port city at end of this annotated photographic article.
"The History and Excavation of Ugarit," Exegetiskteologi blog,
January 21, 2008. Northern Syrian Bronze age portand maritime city which
was link between Cyprus and Mesopotamian copper trade. As copper fell in
value, so did Ugarit.
Joshua J. Mark,
Marist College, New York, Professor of Philosophy, "Tyre,"Ancient
History Encyclopedia, September 2, 2009. Summary of maritime center
and port city of Tyre, Levant trading powerhouse with golden age from 10th
century BCE to 8th century BCE.
600 BCE-600 CE:
Annalena Stefano De
Luca, "The Harbor of the City of Magdala-Taricheae on the Shores of the
Sea of Galilee from Hellenistic to the Byzantine Times. New Discoveries
and Preliminary Results," Istanbul, 30.05-01.06, 2011. Chapter in
Sabina Ladstatter, Felix Pirson, and Thomas Schmidt, eds.,"Ports and
Port Cities in the eastern Mediterranean region from ancient times to
the Byzantine period. New Discoveries and current research
approaches,"Byzas, 19, (2014). Recent
archaeologicaldiscoveries analyzed by Annalena Stefano De Luca at harbor
and port of Magdala-Taricheae.
Lawrence G. Potter,
"The Persian Gulf in History, Book-Fi," New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, (2009). Seen in Scribd.com.
"The Lost City of Qalhat," Kerala.ca, Sultanate of Oman, accessed May
30, (2015). Article on Omani port city developed in 2nd century
originally seen in "Times of Oman."
"After Being Stricken by Drought, Istanbul Yields a Treasure Trove in
Ancient Harbor,"New York Times, January 23,2012. Drought lowered
sea level off Istanbul allowing archaeologists to explore and find 2nd century
BCE harbor townof Bathonea.
Dardanelles," The History Network, Audio Podcasts, April 19, 2015. Podcast
describing Dardanelles as conduit of trade preserved in primary sources since
Colorado, Boulder, "Ancient Mediterranean Port City May Have Been Holy
Land Way Station," ScienceDaily,July 27, 2000.
Excavations of submerged Aperlae, in present day Turkey, unveiled evidence (5
churches) that this ancient port may have been a 4th-6th century Roman way
station for Mediterranean people traveling to the Holy Land.
"Who Were the
Ancient Arab Sea Traders?" Nabataea.net (2002), CanBooks. Ancient Arab Sea
traders, their product, port cities and trade routes. See many more linked
articles on Nabataean trade, ports, Indian Ocean trade network at bottom of
and Bandar Kong, Pt. 1," YouTube video (7:41) of Iranian ports, uploaded
January 4, (2009). "Bandar" means port in Arabic.
and Bandar Kong, Pt. 2, YouTube video (9:01) of Iranian ports, uploaded January
"How Christianity Became an Urban Movement and Conquered Rome,"
Movements, December 18, 2006. Port Cities tended to have Christian
congregations sooner than inland cities. Slim article on spread of
Reverend Dr. Mark D.
Roberts, "Ancient Ephesus and the New Testament,"Patheos,(2011).
Ephesus was key port city in transmission of Christianity. Today,
it is not a port city, but in the time of Jesus it was a key port on Turkey's
central west coast.
Arabia-Aden, Dubai, Kuwait," International Harbors and Seaports of the
World, Maritime Heritage. Description of Saudi Arabia port cities.
Google Book. Roxani
Eleni Margariti, "Aden and the Indian Ocean Trade: 150 Years in
the Life of a Medieval Arabian Port," University of North Carolina
M. Weiskopf review
of David Whitehouse, "Siraf: History, Topography and
Environment," British Institute of Persian Studies, Archaeological
Monograph Series 1, Oxford/Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books, 2009 as reviewed in Bryn Mawr ClassicalReview, (2010). David Whitehouse used
evidence from 1966-1973 archaeological dig to describe the Sassanian and
Islamicport city of Siraf on Iranian coast of Persian Gulf with special
interest to global context of that trade which stretched to Indian and Chinese
ports. Siraf was powerful port city and gate to the Indian Ocean trade from
800-1050 CE. See more tabs at bottom of page.
Pashazanous, University of Tehran, M. Montazer Zohouri Islamic, Islamic Azad
University, Tehran, and Talia Ahmadi, "Sea Trade Between Iran and China in
the Persian Gulf based on Excavations of Siraf City,"Indian
Journal ofEconomics and Development,Vol. 2, Issue 2 (February 2014), 6-13. Late Sassanid portcity of
Siraf described with archaeological and numismatic evidence.
University of Arizona Graduate Student, "Women's Fashions in Transition:
Ottoman Borderlands and the Anglo-Ottoman Exchange of
Costumes,"Journal of World History,Vol. 22, No. 2 (2011)
uploaded to Academia by Onur Inal. Note Onur Inal's remarks on Ottoman
Port Cities as Borderlands.
University of Delaware, Review of Willem Floor, "The Persian Gulf:
A Political and Economic History of Five Port Cities 1500-1730,"
Washington DC: Mage Publishers, (2006), downloaded to Academia.edu by Rudi
J. E. Peterson,
"Chapter 6, Muscat as a Port City," in Lawrence G. Potter, ed.,"The
Gulf in Modern Times: Peoples, Ports and History," New
York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 153-172. Muscat as major port opening into
the Indian Ocean from 15th through 19th century.
Port Sultan Qaboos," Oman Port Services Corporation (S.A.O.G.).
Resources as to history and importance of Oman ports. See tabs to
other Oman port pages on left of page.
Borges, "The Iberian Union and the Portuguese Overseas Empire, 1600-1625:
Ormuz and the Persian Gulf in the Global Politics of the Hispanic
Monarchy,"eJournal of Portuguese History,Vol. 12, No. 2
(December 2014). Ormuz and Persian Gulf revisionist monograph concerning
Habsburg Spain controlof former Portuguese colonies during the Ormus
conflict 1600-1625 with comparison to other fortress port townsof Macao
and Bahia. Traditional historiography had ignored the controlling
influence of Madrid, Spain and theirHabsburg rulers over Portuguese
colonial possessions. See more on Portuguese in Ormuz and 1622 defeat by
combined English and Persian siege below:
"The Portuguese in the Arab Peninsula and in the Persian Gulf,"
Portugal web. See history of Portugal colonial control over Persian Gulf
area and port cities and specifics as to 1622 loss of Ormuz to Anglo-Persian
"Mediterranean Port Cities: Cosmopolitanism reconsidered," Work
Paper presented at Berlin Seminar November 13-16, 2002. Dr. Driessen was
professor at Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology & Mediterranean
Studies Programme, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. He was
encouraging discussion on importance of port cities in world history by using
Izmir (ancient Smyrna) as a case study and then comparing Izmir to Alexandria
and Trieste as to cosmopolitanism and community in those three port cities.
Pelin Kihtir Ozturk,
"Urban Transformation of Ottoman Port Cities in the Nineteenth
Century: Change form Ottoman Beirut to French Mandatory Beirut,"
Thesis submitted to Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical
University for Master of Science in Middle East Studies (September, 2006).
Beirut as a port city case study in this change over time.
Malte Fuhrmann and
Vangelis Kechriotis, "Editorial-The Late Ottoman Port-Cities and their
Inhabitants: Subjectivity, Urbanity and Conflicting Orders,"Mediterranean
History Review, Vol. 24, No. 2 (December 2009), 71-78. Review of historiography
and research of Ottoman Port Cities, 1830-1918 in Memory of Faruk Tabak.
University of Haifa, Israel, "Professional Characteristics of the Jewish
Guild in the Muslim World: Thessaloniki Dockers at the End of the Ottoman
Era,"Mediterranean Historical Review,Vol. 26, No. 2 (December,
2011), 115-133. Monograph uploaded to Academia by Dr. Shai Srougo, accessed
September 14, (2015).Description of Jewish guild dock workers in Ottoman
port city of Thessaloniki.
"Living Together in Urban Contexts: Port Cities versus Anatolian
Places, 1880-1924,"Erytheia,32, ((2011), 357-383,
uploaded to Academia by Herve Georgelin, accessed September 14, 2015. Writing
within context of cosmopolitanism and the late Ottoman Empire, Dr. Georgelin
compared port city of Smyrana (Izmir)to inner Anatolian Diyarbakir
(ancient Amide) surrounding thesis that stated western coastal port cities had
reached adifferent modus vivendi than inner Anatolian cities.
"The Hajj as its Own Undoing: Infrastructure and Integration on the
Muslim Journey to Mecca,"Past andPresent Society,226,
(2015). Steam technology of 1850's effected the Muslim Hajj in many ways.
Niles Green described that change over time using pilgrim diaries to
highlight steam journeys by ship and train through port cities and urban
"Hijaz-Palestine Railway and the Development of Haifa,"Jerusalem
Quarterly,28, from Bahai Library. Beginning in 1900 Ottoman Sultan
Abdel Hamid II began building Hijaz-Palestine Railway to solidify his
importance as protectorof Islam, improve trade and security. One
outcome was development of the port city of Haifa. See Academia version
ofthis paper downloaded by Johnny Mansour:
Audio Podcast, 40:44, "Salonica in the Age of Ports," Ottoman History
Podcast, February 23, 2011. Sotiris Dimitriadis was PhD candidate at SOAS,
London, who discussed Salonica (modern Greece) port city as urban space and
that port's change over time as part of economic and social transformation of
the Ottoman Empire during Tanzimat period. Scroll down page to see Images
and note other podcasts from this series.
Cornerstones,"Aramco World,November/December 1982.
Article on Saudi Arabian governments building of new sea ports, highways
and jet ports.
"How Vital is Syria's Tartus port to Russia?"BBC Middle East
News, June 27, 2012.
Paul J. Saunders,
"Cyprus Port Deal Gives Russian Navy Alternative to Tartus,"Al-Monitor,Middle
East news, March 3, 2015. Russia expanding ports in Mediterranean as
alternative to Tartus, Syria.
"Istanbul, a City of Spies in Fact and Fiction," NPR, September 9, 2012.
Audio podcast, 4:06, and short article on famed port city and it's
penchant for spying.
"Researchers Explore the Seafaring Culture of the Maya," History.com,
May 23, 2011. Slim article on Vista Alegre a bustling Mayan port city.
See more digital resources at bottom of this page.
Dr. Jeffrey B.
Glover, Maya Port City Vista Alegre, Ocean Explorer, NOAA, National Oceanic and
AtmosphericAdministration, September 13, 2011. Exploration research
as to Mayan coastal port city by NOAA.
Brazilian Port Legislation #16, NY and Geneva: UN, UNCTAD/SHIP/494 (16),
Number 16 in a series of monographs on Port legislation worldwide.
Franklin W. Knight and Peggy K. Liss, eds., Knoxville: University of
Tennessee Press, 1991. Atlantic world port city chapters mostly in Latin
America. Some chapters address Havana-18th century, Philadelphia and
Havana, 1800,Guadeloupe 1650-1800. Preface written by Philip D. Curtin.
Argentina," Maritime Heritage Project, Port Cities. History of
port cities of Argentina beginning in 16th century.
"Jamaica's 'wickedest city,' Port Royal banks on heritage," BBC news,
July 25, 2012. An early British 21st century point of view as to pirate
haven port city, Port Royal.
"Underwater Pirate City: Port Royal,"Ancient Origins,August
7, 2014. June 7, 1692 an earthquake struck pirate port haven of Port Royal and
sunk and destroyed two thirds of the city making it an important archaeological
"Most Wicked Place on Earth-Sin City Jamaica Documentary," (2015).
History of port city of Port Royal.
Port Royal, Sin city
Jamaica-Pirate Paradise and the Sunken City, documentary film, 43:36.
Schmitt, "A Tale of Two Port Cities: Contraband Trade, The Asiento
Contract, and Conflict in Early Modern Caribbean," Master's Thesis Paper
for Department of History, University of Utah, May, 2011. Research
utilizing British and Spanish sources
described Jamaican merchants moving British commodities to Spanish residents of
Cartagena. A case study approach.
Jacob A. Zumoff,
"Black Caribbean Labor Radicalism in Panama,"Journal of
Social History,Vol. 47, No. 2 (Winter, 2013), 429-457 uploaded to
Academia by Jacob Zumoff. New Negro Movement, West Indian migrants, and
other Black migrant labor in Panama's inter-oceanic port labor.
"Planned Mega Port in Brazil Threatens Rich Ecological Region,"Truth
out,May, 2015. Fifty square km. port terminal planned for rich
environmental Bahia province in northern Brazil.
"Canal Expansion Sets up Battle of Ports," NBC News, Business, July
12, 2012. Widening of Panama Canal to be completed in 2015 sets up competition
among US ports for the business of handling supersized container ships filled
with goods from Asia. This had been handled by West coast ports, but now
Gulf of Mexico and eastern seaboard ports can be in the mix.
"Progress and Pollution: Port Cities Prepare for Panama Canal
Expansion,"Environmental Health Perspectives,Vol. 120,
No. 12 (December, 2012), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Concerns as to pollution and environmental degradation as Panama canal expansion continued. See another version of
this article: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/120-a470/
Koca, Kocaeli University, Barbaros Maritime School, Kocaeli, Turkey, "The
Opening of the Black Sea to International Trade and Ports in the 18th
Century," uploaded to Academia by Yasemin Memlioglu Accessed September 3, 2015.
and Grigoris Zarotiadis, "Black Sea: Old Trade Routes and Current
Perspectives of Socioeconomic Co-operation,"Procedia Economic and
Finance,Vol. 9 (2014), 74-82. There have been 32
important medieval and Byzantine Port Cities lining the Black Sea trade network
which links Europe with central Asia and China. This paper is a summary
of literature review of economic history of some Black Sea port cities from
19th century to the present. Download PDF of full text.
Programme en itled The Black Sea and its Port Cities, 1774-1914.
Development, Convergence and Linkages with the Global Economy (2012-2015)
financed by the Greek Ministry of Education and European Union," uploaded
to Academia by Gelina Harlaftis. Project summary including analysis and
synthesis of the economic and social development of 20 port cities of the Black
Sea. See website for project: http://blacksea.gr/
"Warm Water Ports-Afghanistan-Balochistan,"
Global Security site moderated by John Pike. Short article on Russia and
Britishin Great Game in central Asia to protect, threaten warm water
"Great Game in Asia,"Foreign Affairs, essay, Spring
1980. David Fromkin explained Russian and British struggle to protect
warm water ports by geopolitical maneuvering in Central Asia and how this
background played in 1980 US and Russian
new Great Game.
"Cental Asia's Seaport: Gwadar or Chabahar?"Registan,August
20, 2007. Iran and Pakistan two "new" seaports link them to Central
Asian trade routes.
To 600 BCE:
"Which dynamics might offer satisfactory explanations for the development
of successful Mediterraneanmercantile cities," (2014). Uploaded to
Academia by Paddy Altern. Paper which examined Mediterranean port cities such as Ashkelon,
Tyre, Byblos, Troy, Thapsos from the Bronze Age onward as to geography and
technology implications as to their rise and fall in a comparative analysis.
600 BCE-600 CE:
William M. Murray,
University of South Florida, "Do Modern Winds Equal Ancient
Winds?"Mediterranean Historical Review,Vol. 2, December
1987.The importance of winds prior to steam power explained with charts
and archaeological evidence. Wind was critical toancient maritime
navigation, outcomes of sea battles, and seaborne communications between
coastal port cities along the Mediterranean maritime network.
William M. Murray,
"The Location of Nasos and Its Place in History," download to JSTOR
April 23, (2013). Uploaded to Academia by William Murray.
Importance of island port of Nasos to Romans and other Mediterranean
states 300-200 BCE.
"Cities and Maritime Trade under the Roman Empire," seen in Schafer,
Charles, ed., "Connecting the Ancient World: Mediterranean
Shipping, Maritime Networks and Their Impact," Rahden, (2015), Verlag
Marie Leidorf Pharos Studien zurgriechisch romischen, Antike. Dr. Arnaud,
Universite' Lumiere-Lyon2, Senior Fellow, Institut Universitaire
deFrance, described Roman ports and their role in maritime trade under
Roman Empire in this chapter.
"Roman Trade With the Far East: Evidence
for Nabataean Middlemen in Puteoli," (2015) The Trustees of Columbia
University in the City of NY, Chapter 5 in Federico De Romanis and Marco Miuro,
ed., "Across the Ocean: NineEssays on Indo-Mediterranean Trade,"
Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2015).Dr. Terpstra discussed evidence in
Puteoli, major harbour town serving Rome and an important port for trade with
theEast which utilized Nabataean middlemen in that trade. Puteoli
had a community of the northern Arabian and southernLevant Nabataean
"Archaeologists Unearth New Areas of Ancient Roman City,"Huffington
Post, April 17, (2014). Portus Project unearths new evidence as to
Roman port city, Ostia, historical importance to 5th century. See Portus
Project global photos of new finds as to Ostia's size and residence on both
sides of the Tiber River. See Portus Project, University
ofSouthampton, website and details as to archaeology and research at
Portus and Ostia, Italy:
and Nick Marriner, "Mind the Stratigraphic Gap: Roman Dredging in
Ancient Mediterranean Harbours," Roma ((2008)) International Congress of
Classic Archaeology Meetings Between Cultures in the Ancient Mediterranean,
Bollettino Di Archeologia Online, (2010). Conference report on Roman
dredging of harbors in port
Marseilles, Naples, Sidon and Tyre from 4th century BCE onwards.
"On the Urbanism of Roman Harbours: The Evolution of Space
Organization in Harbours of the Aegean Sea," Harbors and Harbor Cities in
the Eastern Mediterranean from Antiquity to the Byzantine Period: Recent
and Current Approaches, Band 2, Istanbul, 2011, Conference presentation.
Description of Aegean Sea Roman harbors and their access tothe sea
and to maritime networks and trade as well as housing naval defenses.
Note description of Rhodes.
Vlasta Begovic and
Ivancica Schrunk, "Remote Sensing of the Archaeological Remains of Roman
Maritime Villas on theEastern Adriatic Coast," seen in Konstantinos
Perakis & Athanasios Moysiadis, eds., EARSel.,Advances in
Geosciences, (2012). Huge maritime villas built by rich Roman politicians
included harbors along the Adriatic trade route and became costal colonies with
adjacent rural villas.
David J. Blackman,
"Ancient Shipsheds," Harbors and Harbor Cities in the Eastern
Mediterranean from Antiquity to the Byzantine Period: Recent and Current
Approaches, Band 2, Istanbul, (2011). Conference presentation.
Presentation with photographs of ancient shipsheds and dockyards in port
cities on Turkish and east Aegean coast including Knidos,Kyzikos, Kos and
1:36:40 Hulu Film
documentary, "London: A City in Time," (2012). Change
over time history of London, from marsh to Roman "town," to Port City
600 CE-1450 CE:
"Korcula, Venetian empire's island arsenal in Adriatic,"Smithsonian,November
24, (2015). Built 800 years ago on what is now the Croatian coast, the
island port of Korcula or Curzola was arsenal for Venetian empire. Note
importance of Adriatic winds to architecture and maritime routes.
Superba,' Pt. 1-Rival to Venice," Byzantin Emporia blog, July 31, 2015.
Rise and fall of Genoa as a trade port rival to Venice.
"Marking the Water: Territoriality, Fortifications and Port Cities
in early modern Italy," for History, Theory and Criticism of Art and
Architecture, Massachussets Institute of Technology, Professor Lauren Jacobi,
MIT open courseware. Paper described Italian port city architecture in
world historical context of Spanish and Portuguese maritime competition during
medieval and early modern history.
N. Zmic, K. Hoffman,
S. Bosnjak, "A note on the history of handing in ports: from ancient
to medieval cranes," 12th IFToMM World Congress, International Federation
for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, Besancon, France, June
18-21, ((2007)). Ancient and medieval European port cranes described in
History of the
Hanseatic League, Historical Re-enactors website moderated by Debra L. Prevot.
See tabs on left side of page for more information and resources.
The Hanse, an 80 port city alliance, existed from 12th-mid-17th century
trading in northern Europe and to the Baltic Sea.
Port Cities in World
History World History Association Conference, University of Pompeu Fabra,
Barcelona, Spain, March 26-28, 2014. See abstracts/short summaries of all
papers presented. Uploaded to Academia by Salles Vilaseca, University of
Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
Beerbuehl, "Networks of the Hanseatic League," European History online,
January 13, 2012. Port cities linking the European Hanse. See home page
for this website: http://ieg-ego.eu/
"Latvia and the
Hanseatic League,"Latvian History, December 18, (2009). See
great map of Hanse trading and port cities innorthern Europe and article
with other links describing Latvia's participation from 12th-13th centuries.
"Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the
1440's,"De re Militari (March, 2014). Description of
Hanse piracy and port cities of Bremen and Hamburg.
Death," History.com. See article and videos on Black Death as it hit
Sicilian port of Messina in 1347 and other European port cities.
Heeboll-Holm, University of Copenhagen,"Ports, Piracy and
Maritime War-Piracy in the English Channel and the Atlantic, c. 1280-c.
1330,". See book review, in Spanish:
"Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the
1440's,"de re militari,The Society for Medieval
History, postedMarch 9, 2014 by Sandra Alvarez. Bremen and Hamburg were
port centers of the Hanseatic Trade network in
northern Europe. David Ditchburn, Trinity University, Dublin, Ireland,
discussed those ports and Scottish piracy in the region.
Catia Antunes and
Louis Sicking, "Ports on the Border of the State, 1200-1800, An
Introduction,"International Journal of Maritime History,Vol.
19, No. 2 (December 2007), 273-286,
downloaded from ijh.sagepub.com at Universiteit Leiden/LUMC on February 26, (2014).
Uploaded to Academia by Louis Sicking. This Introduction to series of
articles derived from Eighth International Conference on Urban History Forum
which described historical continuities and changes of port cities of Europe in
a comparative fashion.
||Figure 2: Painting Source: Maritime Heritage Project.
Lincoln Paine review
of Pablo E. Perez-Mallaina, trans. by Carla Rahn Phillips, "Spain's Men
of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleets in the 16th Century,"
Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2005. See World History Connected,
Vol. 3, Issue 2 (February, 2006) in which Lincoln Paine praises Perez-Mallaina's description
of Seville ,Spain as 16th century port city.
"The Port and City of Ostend and the Process of State Consolidation in the
Southern Netherlands in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: A
Geopolitical Approach,"International Journal of Maritime History, posted to docstoc.com June 13, 2013, accessedJune 7, 2015.
Originally published in Vol. 19 (2007), 319-347.
Wendy Butler, Paper,
"The Dutch and the World: Revising My View of European Participation
in Global Trade," NEH Seminar, Leiden and London, (2013), University of
Massachusetts, Dartmouth. Ms. Butler's assigned paper for this five week
seminar revealing her new found understanding as to the periodization and depth
of Dutch VOC (Dutch East India Company) Asian trade with a numberof
primary source documents and images at the end.
"Early Modern Ports, 1500-1750," European History Online, Institute
of European History, Mainz, Germany, December 3, (2010). Note tabs on
right side of this essay for more images, maps. See Home page for this massive
"The Opening of the Harbour, the closing of the walls: Urban History
of two Mediterranean Port Cities," Humanities-Anno,1, Numero
2, Giugno (2012), 100-115. Monograph comparing Valletta and Messina from
16th through18th centuries and port/harbor development and fortifying the
Term Paper 4.663,
"Marking the Water: Territoriality, Fortifications and Port Cities
in Early Modern Italy," for Professor Lauren Jacobi, History, Theory and
Criticism of Art and Architecture, MIT open courseware (
"Changing Patterns in Seaborne Trade (c. 1450-1800)," Baltic
Connections. A description of Baltic Sea trade competition with
references to key port cities beginning with rise and fall of the Hanse, Dutch
inclusion mercantilism's effect on the region and ports and emergence of new
Baltic sea powers including Russia. See Home page for Baltic Connections
"Baltic Connection 1450-1800," National Archief of the
Netherlands, (2006). Cooperatively operated by nations surrounding the
Baltic Sea and funded and supported by Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
Dr. Gustave Milne,
"The Gresham Ship: An Armed Elizabethan Merchantman Recovered From
the Thames," Gresham College, UK audio podcast putting the 1545 sunken
British ship into its political, economic and maritime context plus a
description of the Tudor port city of London and war with Spain.
"Cradle of the
Navy: The Hospital School then and now," Port Cities, London.
London port city Hospital Schools begun in 1694 with a Hospital Charter
legalizing care and education for children of dead or disabled seamen.
Review. Jorg P.
Vogel, University of Dusseldorf, review of Richard Lawton and Robert Less,
eds.,"Population and Society in Western Europe Port
Cities, c. 1650 1939,Liverpool Studies in European Population, Vol.
2, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, (2002) seen at Social History
Portal, April, 2002).
18th century port-Painting the Thames," Port Cities Project, London, UK.
17th century Dutch painting of the Thames followed by Canaletto's London
and Samuel Scott's art increased popularity of Thames port city of London.
Wharves," Port Cities, London. Resources on London's riverside wharves.
the Slave Trade," Discovering Bristol, Port Cities Project UK. Slave
Trade history of port city of Bristol, England.
"London and the
Transatlantic Slave Trade," Port Cities, UK website. Importance of
the port of London in the transatlantic slave trade network.
and sources for Bristol and the transatlantic slave trade," Discovering
Bristol, UK. See other resources on this topic on left of page and tabs
for other English ports at top of page.
"Ports of the Transatlantic Slave Trade," Liverpool Museums, UK.
Anthony Tibbles conference paper presented at Text Ports Conference at
Liverpool Hope University College, April 2000. Dr. Tibbles explained the
few number of European ports involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Note
other "talks" on left side of this page.
Century Port," Port Cities,UK website.
Overview of 19th century British port cities. See tabs for
individual port cities and articles on docks and harbors.
Port Towns and Urban
Cultures, Port Towns Project, UK. See articles on English ports and urban
cultures. Note Resources tab at top of page for bibliographies on London/English
18th Century Port-Painting the Thames," Port Cities Project, UK, Royal
Museum Greenwich. See slim review of London port in art with painting
examples on right of page. Clicking on each art work reveals a
description of the art work.
Crime and Punishment
in Port cities, Port Cities Project, UK. Crime along the Thames River,
London port city.
"The Port in
Literature," Port Cities, UK, Royal Museum Greenwich See links to Sherlock
Holmes, Charles Dickens, Daniel Defoe, 'Chinatown'literature, Frost fair
'poetry' and note Joseph Conrad tab on right side of page.
Dr. Patricia Pulham
and Dr. Brad Beavan, University of Portsmouth, "Dickens & the
Victorian City-Poverty and the Poor," Port Project, UK. Port city of
Portsmouth and the poor. Charles Dickens' 1838 "Oliver Twist"
written in context of 1834 Poor Laws which Victorian liberals, like Dickens,
felt criminalized the poor.
Community and the Port," Port Cities London website. Immigration of Jews
to port of London.
"The Great Dock
Strike of 1889," Port Cities, UK. London was scene of great port
city dock strike in 1889. See other articles to right of this page for more
resources as to London as port city. And note at top of page other
British port city tabs for more.
Robert Van Ness,
"French Revolution-War of the 1st Coalition, Sardinia, Toulon, and
Introducing Napoleon Bonaparte," Clio's Lessons, May 7, 2012. Port
cities and the opening salvos of the French Revolution.
"Port Cities in the French Wars: The Responses of Merchants in
Bordeaux, Hamburg, and Lovorno to Napoleon's Continental Blockade,
1806-1813,"The Northern Mariner/Le Marindunord, Vol. I, No. 4
(October 1996), 65-73. Silvia Margalli, Institut Universitaire de France
History professor, downloaded this monograph to Academia.edu. See more of her
Major John A. Tokar,
Logistics, Army, Army Logistics University, Ft. Lee, Va., "Logistics and
the British Defeat in the Revolutionary War," (September/October 1999).
Note importanceof port cities such as Cork, Ireland and Boston, MA.
as to logistical failures as a major cause for British Defeat in
Professor Peter L.
Guth, Department of Oceanography, US Naval Academy, "Navigation and
Logbooks in the Age of Sail," United States Naval Academy introduction and
overview of speakerPeter Reaveley who has spent the last 20 years
researching the wreckage of John Paul Jones' "Bonhomme
Richard"after Jones' victory over the French "Serapis" off
coast of England in 1779. This "article" explained neatly with
charts, how shipsnavigated coastal areas between port cities in the late
18th century using the Serapis and Bonhomme Richard asexamples. See
more concerning Dr. Guth and Peter Reaveley research on wreckage of Bonhomme
Richard from Geoff Ziezulewicz, "Expedition Continues Search for 220 Year
Old Shipwreck,"Stars and Stripes, October 30, 2011:
and Grigoris Zarotiadis, "Black Sea: Old Trade Routes and current
perspectives of socioeconomic cooperation,"Procedia Economics and
Finance, Vol. 9 (2014), 74-82. See abstract and tabs to download
article which summarized reviews of economic history literature from 19th-20th
Black Sea port cities. There has been 32 important medieval and Byzantine
port cities which had flourished in history.
for Warm Water Ports,"Global Security, page last modified
September 7, 2011. Global Security website maintained by John Pike.
See four other articles on "Warm Water Ports," Constantinople,
Persia, Afghanistan, andFar East on right side of this page.
Chatziioannou, "Patras: Greeks and foreigners in the port of Patras
during the 19th century," in Eugenia Drakopoulou and Dimitris
Dimitropoulos, eds.,Sailing in the Ionian with History at the
helm,"National Hellenic Research Fund, Institute of Hellenic
Research, Athens (2015), uploaded to Academia by Maria Chatziioannou.
"Battle for the Seaports,"Military History Online,
published May 15, 2011. Slim review of WW II European campaign for
Warm Water Ports,"Global Security,last modified
September 7, 2011, site moderated by John Pike. Background as to Russian search
for warm water ports over time. Note four links, upper right of this page
for more informationon this topic.
"Tensions Boiling over Crimea Warm Water Port,"Al Jazeera,
March 10, 2014) Crimea conflict in context of Russian warm water port at
Economics, Europe. Website dedicated to research, news about modern
European ports and maritime centers.
Department of Geography, University of Hamburg, "Managing and governing
commodity chains: the role of producer service firms in the secondary
global city of Hamburg," Research article,Journal of the
Geographic Societyof Berlin,Vol. 146, No. 1, published online
February 16, 2015. Hamburg, Germany is the 14th largest container port city in
the world. This article discussed role of insurance, real estate, and
other business within the context of a modern port city, Hamburg,and
their workings within a global commodity chain. This research is in line with
theme of world or global cities and commodity chains and how they have
restructured since 1970 and increased globalization. See paper below on similar
Wouter Jacobs, Cesar
Ducruet, and Peter de Langen, "Integrating World Cities into Producer
Networks: The Case of Port Cities,"Global Networks,Vol.
10, Issue 1 (2010), 92-113. As in the Hamburg, Germany paper, above, this
research focused on "world or global cities" since 1970 and producer
services within port cities and commodity chains.
"Gay Life in
Port Cities, Life at Sea," Liverpool Maritime Museums, UK.
"Sailors on Shore Leave During the First World War: reinforcing
stereotypes of Jack Tar?"PortTowns website, UK. British seamen
stereotyped as immoral and drunk seen in Jack Tar stereotypesstumbling
through port cities is challenged by Simon Smith.
"Mapping Cinema Culture in Portsmouth's Sailortown in the Early Twentieth
Century,"Port Towns & Urban Cultures,UK,
July 7, 2015. Film popularity in port city of Portsmouth, England from WW
I through 1930's.
Port Cities website,
UK. See tabs on left side of this page for resources and information
about Bristol, Hartlepool, Liverpool, London and Southampton Port Cities
museums and sites.
Data: Manchester/Liverpool," Working Paper of the Project,Shrinking
Cities, Philipp Oswatt, ed., Berlin (March,
2004). Uploaded to Academia by one of the authors, Ed Ferrari.
Description of changing urban form in port cities of Manchester and
Liverpool, England with charts, graphs, photographs.
"Port Cities in
the Global Age," Thinking Allowed, BBC Radio 4 interview. Laurie Taylor
interviewed Alice Mah, Sociologist at University ofWarwick about
transformations along port city waterfronts from Marseilles to Liverpool. Note
this Interview is in secondhalf of audio podcast beginning around the 14
minute section of the 28 minute program. Mah is author of"PortCities
and Global Legacies: Urban Identity, Waterfront Work and Radicalism."
See more on Alice Mah:
See review of "Port
Cities and Global Legacies" below:
"Review of Alice Mah,Port Cities and Global Legacies: Urban
Identity, Waterfront Work, and Radicalism," Palgrave Macmillan, 2014
in H-Soz-Kult, H-Net, Clio-online, June 19, 2015. See H-Soz-Kult version of
this review: http://www.hsozkult.de/publicationreview/id/rezbuecher-23787
Mah's discussion on
port citydock worker's "radicalism" fits the hydrarchy theory
mentioned in Introduction of this article.
Olaf Merk, et.al.,
"The Competitiveness of Global Port Cities: The Case of the Seine
Axis (Le Harve, Rouen, Paris, Caen)-France," Regional Development Working
Paper, OECD Publishing, July ((2011)). These French port cities effects on
surrounding region described.
||Figure 3: Portsmouth Point, by Thomas Rowlandson, in 1811.
Source for Portsmouth Point:Port Cities Project, UK
Living in the
Atlantic World, Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Website,
"On the Water" with resources onAmerican port cities, riverine
ports and coastal waterways from 1450-Present. See Home and site index:
Early Manhattan Through Art,"National GeographicLesson
Activity. This lesson involving two paintings by modern artist and
architect Len Tantillo incorporated Dutch history in mid-17th century
Manhattan, New Amsterdam, port city fora middle school class, but this
lesson module could easily be upgraded for higher level students.
"British American Port Cities," Oxford Bibliographies, last modified
August 26, 2011. Note short introduction followed by slim list of books
on topic. Look to right of page to find other global port cities Oxford
Coastal Cities," National Humanities Center, Becoming America, revised
September, 2009. Primary sources on largest American port cities in 1775
with guided questions.
"The Free People of Color in Colonial Natchez, 1700-1798,"Mississippi
History Now.Article describing slaves and free blacks in
Mississippi River maritime port city of Natchez.
"Were There Sex Shops in the Time of George Washington?"Slate,
March 2, 2009. Answer is NO, but in the mid-18th century as American
maritime trade expanded and port cities grew, sailors and dock workers became a
growing customer clientele for brothels. A change over time in colonial
American social history.
"A Safe Harbor:
The Port Mission in Fells Point,"Underbelly, Maryland
Historical Society Library(November 14, 2013). Story
of port city of Fells Point founded as shipping hub in southeast Baltimore in
1730. Change over time by mid-19th century saw Fells Point
riverine trade increase and population boom. But, this attracted
seafarers, prostitutes and criminals into the outpost turning it into a
drunken, brawling port. This article discussedthe Port Mission
Gospel Hall's attempts to temper the lawlessness.
"Drunken Sailors and Fallen Women-The New London Whaling Industry and
Prostitution, 1820-1860," Honors Paper, Connecticut College, Paper 1 (April
2005) published in Digital Commons and Connecticut College, May 1, 2005.
Description of whalers and prostitution in New London, Connecticut port
in the Age of Sail," Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Vergennes, Vermont.
War of 1812 saw problem for Americans as to protecting and defending
thevast coastline and America's numerous ports. Worksheet questions
with short article on that history. This lesson good for elementary and high
school history classes.
Los Angeles Port
History, LAP Port History,Click on tabs at top of page for product
history for Los Angeles harbor, port background.
Project. This website's focus is researching passenger lists of
immigrants and opportunists sailing from world seaports into San Francisco Bay
during the 1800's. See bibliographies of maritime port cities' books,
captain's logs and much more.
or Shanghaiing of people in American port cities in 19th century.
Great Lake Mighty
Rivers, Inland Waterways, On the Water website. See series on waterways
in American history. Part 4, 1820-1940 featured inland waterways, inland ports
focusing on the Great Lakes.
Michael D. Thompson,
"Working on the Dock of the Bay-Labor and Enterprise in an Antebellum
Southern Port," TheUniversity of South Carolina Press (2015). The South Carolina Press described Dr.
Thompson's book on role and struggles of enslaved labor prior to emancipation
in Charleston. Black and white, native and immigrant, slave and free dock
labor are described.
Solonick and Gary J. Ohls, 2 Reviews of Spencer T. Tucker, "Short
History of the Civil War at Sea,"Wilmington: SR Books, 2002. Seen in Steven E.
Woodworth, Texas Christian University personal Civil War site.
Gary Ohls' second
review includes more on specific American port cities in key Civil War naval
battles.See Timeline of Naval Operations of the Civil War.
and Harbors," Sons of the South website. Click on image and scroll
down to seeHarper's Weekly, October 26, 1861, articles and maps of
ports in the 1861 South in early Civil War America.
"Four Days of Fire: The New York City Draft Riots,"
History.com, July 5, 2013. Beginning July 13, 1863, the port city of New
Yorksaw America's worst civilian riot as white immigrant dock workers,
many Irish Catholic, angry at 1863 Civil War DraftLaw and draft lists
looted and killed aiming their wrath at the city's elite, Blacks and the very
idea of the Civil War itself. The low paid dock workers had seen for themselves
the commodities flowing out of New York city's port enriching the city's elite.
Racial tensions were added to the mix as white immigrant dock workers had
refused to work with Blacks with whom they had competed for port dock worker
James Russel Soley,
USN, "Blockade! The Blockade of Southern Seaports During the Civil
War,"Civil War Trust,nd. Up to this time, the Union
naval blockade of Confederate seaports was the largest ever undertaken in world
Deep," PBS, American Experience website for Rick Burns' documentary film
on American whaling, 17th century through 1870's. Note especially static map of
whaling port cities. One can google the full documentary "Into the
Deep," YouTube, 1:37:02.
Lesson Module for
"Into the Deep," PBS, American Experience. See four lesson plans to
accompany Rick Burns' documentary film on American Whaling history.
1900 to Present:
Marine Art-Tim Bell,
Sea History, The National Maritime Historical Society. Tim Bell,
Maryland, USA, Impressionistmarine artist. Click on links to see
samples of his art of wharves, docks, port city seascapes and note other
maritime artists on this site/page.
Explosion," Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Nova Scotia (2015).
Resources for 1917 Halifax explosion in which two WW Iships crashed
in port killing 2000 and wounding 9000 and flattening much of the port city.
Prior to the explosion Nova Scotia, Canada was evolving into a world class port
shipping resources and supplies to WWI Europe.
their Unions,Waterfront Workers History Project, Harry Bridges
Center for Labor Studies, University of Washington.
Longshoremen and Warehouse Union website. History of the ILWU. See tab on
upper right of this page, "Library and Archives" for resources on
these port city workers including archived newspapers.
Strike and San Francisco General Strike, 1934, Jeremy Brecher,"
libcom.org, posted September 3, 2013. San Francisco 1934 Port City dock workers
strike summarized from Jeremy Brecher's history of that strike.
Seeeffects of this strike and how automation changed port city longshoremen's
lives after 1961 below:
Automation on the Lives of Longshoremen," libcom.org, posted October 23, 2012.
After San Francisco dock worker's strike, detailed in article above, San
Francisco longshoremen controlled the dock labor process from 1934 through
1961, but automation would change the port city longshoremen's world.
Maritime Safety and Security,"Center for Asymmetric Warfare,accessed
July 6, 2015. American website about port and maritime security.
website, Maritime Research Center, accessed September 20, 2015. Information,
news on terror, maritime trade,and port cities.
Great Lakes Ships
Initiative, Duluth Seaway Port Authority website. Duluth-Superior, Minnesota
and Wisconsin has serious ship-mediated invasive species problems as ships from
all over world in port dump water from their ballasts taking on commodities.
John Maunu is Digital
Resources Editor for WHC and an AP World History College Board consultant. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.