This resource is divided into digital resources which address
the Silk Road hemispheric interactions c. 1000 to 1400 c.c. in the context of Mongols
and Steppe cultures. It includes Primary
Sources, Eyewitness/Traveler's accounts, sections on Religion and Women in the
Mongol era, Academic Papers and Monographs, University course syllabi, a
Bibliography and sources for related Mongol Historiography.
"Why Teach the Silk Road," Joan O'Mara, ASIANetwork Exchange, Vol. XV, No. 2, Winter 2007.
Silk Road: A Guide for College Teachers, Jacqueline M. Moore,Rebecca Woodward Wendelken (New York: State University of New York, 2012). Available as an E-book or
David Christian, Macquarie University, "Silk
Roads or Steppe Roads;The Silk Roads in World History," Bridging
World History, The Annenberg Foundation, 2004, 27 pp.
See another version: http://www.olemiss.edu/courses/pol337/Christian00.pdf
Dr. Valerie Hansen, Professor of History, Yale
University, video lecture, 1:09:56, "The Silk Road-A New History, "Mongols
and the Silk Road blog, May 2014.
Hemispheric Interactions, 1000 to 1400 c.c.
"Marco Polo and His Travels," article, Silk
Road Foundation, nd. Summary of Marco Polo's travels
to and within Yuan China beginning in 1271 and his return to Venice in 1295.
John Masson Smith, Jr., "The Mongols and the Silk
Road," The Silk Road Foundation Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 15,
Traditional Cultures of Central Asian pastoral nomads,
Silk Road Foundation. See Home page for Silk Road Foundation (https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/index.html) Walter
Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities, University of Washington, Dr. Daniel
Waugh, Project Director.
"William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols," translated by William Woodville Rockhill, 1900, University of Washington Silk Road website
moderated by Daniel C. Waugh. Flemish Franciscan monk's, ca. 1210-ca.
1270, book, "The Journey of William of Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1235-55," was the most detailed and
valuable of the early Western accounts of the Mongols.
"Mobility, Empire and Cross Cultural Contacts in
Mongol Eurasia, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Website. See tabs forfurther
CNN program series ravels from China to Italy.
Mongols, Nomads and Steppe Peoples in World History
Bryn Hammond, "Genghis Khan and the Tangut,"
Mongol China and the Silk Road, Archaeology and History of Silk Road blog,
moderated by Hans van Roon, February 9, 2015.
The Mongols in World History, Asia for Educators, Columbia University.
"The Mongols in World History," transcript
of page found in Asia for Educators,
Columbia University seen above.
Mongols, Interactive Maps and Images, Asia for Educators, Columbia University.
See 5 Mongol interactive maps.
Morris Rossabi, "All
the Khan's Horses," The Mongol in World History, Asian Topics in World
History, Columbia University, Asia for Educators, originally seen in Natural
History, October 1994.
Robert Guisepi, "The
Mongols: The Last Great Nomadic Challenges-From Chinggis Khan to
Timur," World History Center, 1992. See other essay tabs on left
side of page.
Timothy May, University of North Georgia, "The
Mongol Empire in World History," Vol. 5, no. 2, World History Connected, February 2008. Dr. Mayplaced
the Mongols contextually in world history in this article.
George Tait Edwards, "A Brief Guide to Early
Chinese History: The Mongol Conquest of China and Its Consequences," London Progressive Journal, October
Bryan Walsh, "How Climate Change Drove the Rise
of Genghis Khan," Time, March 10, 2014.
Nicola Di Cosmo, "Climate Change and the Rise of
Empire," Institute for Advanced Study, Spring 2014. Analysis of research
as to climate and rise of the Mongols.
Jack Weatherford, "Genghis Khan: Law and
Order," LA Times, December 29, 2006. Saddam Hussein's last televised
speech to Iraqis in 2003, found him comparing the US to the Mongols. He
said the US are Mongols of this age. Dr. Weatherford, Mongol historian, found
the comparison lacking, in that the US did not have the "organizational
genius of Genghis Khan."
Mike Edwards, "Genghis Khan," National
Geographic, December 1996, 18 pages. Photographs of Mongolia and history of
Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire.
Nikolai N. Kradin, Far
Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia,
"Mongols, Empire and Debates of the Nomadic State Origins, 2015,"
Papers in honour of Maurizio Tosi for his 70th birthday, BAR International Series 2690, 2014, 369-376. Dr. Kradin evaluated the debate on Chinggis Khan's empire as a
"state." Who is Maurizio Tosi, University of Bologna? https://www.unibo.it/sitoweb/maurizio.tosi/publications and papers: https://unibo.academia.edu/MTosi
Phillip P. Marzluf, Kansas
State University, English department, "The Oratory of Khans and Queens:
Reading the Secret History of the MongolsRhetorically,"
Education About Asia, Vol. 18, Number 3, Winter 2013. Uploaded to Academia by
Phillip Marzluf. Dr. Marzluf explained how the Secret History of the Mongols' language and tone was an
example of how Mongol leaders used language to persuade, control and
dominate their subjects and other peoples.
Mr. Welsh AP World History website, 2011,
"Chapter 12, The Mongols,"google site. Summary of Mongol
History of the Mongols, History World. Three-page summary of Turk/Mongol History,
Thomas J. Barfield, Boston University, "Something
new under the Sun: The Mongol Empire's Innovations in Steppe Political Organization
and Military Strategy," presented at The 8th International Congress of Mongolists, Ulaan Baatar, August 5-12, 2002, Mongolian Culture.
Big Era Five: Landscape Unit 5.4, Mongol Empire
Builder-Friends from Hell or Cultural Brokers?, 1200-1400 CE, World History for Us All,
San Diego State University website.
Ronald Findlay and Mats Lundahl,
"The First Globalization Episode: The Creation of the Mongol Empire,
or the Economy of Chinggis Khan," Yale Global online academic paper, 40
Michal Biran, Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, Asian Studies, Islamic and Middle East Studies,
"The Mongol Transformation: From the Steppe to Eurasian
Empire," Medieval Encounters, Vol. 10,Nos. 1-3, November 5, 2004.
Uploaded to Academia by Michal Biran. For Michal Biran academic papers, many on Mongols, Academia. See https://huji.academia.edu/MichalBiran
Nikolay Kradin, Far Eastern
Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Archaeology, "Chinggis Khan: World System Analysis and Preindustrial Globalization," Entelequia, No. 15, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by
Stefan Leder, "Nomadic
and Settled People in Steppe Landscapes and within Statehood," Scientia Halensis,
January 2005, 19-22, seen in Collaborative Research Centre (SFB), University of
Leipzig and Halle-Wittenberg. Importance of nomads and their contacts
with settled societies over time from Morocco to northern China where nomadic
societies still exist.
Anatoly M. Khazanov, "Nomads in the History of
the Sedentary World," Ch. 1, Curzon-IIAS, International Institute for Asian
Studies, Asian Studies Series, ed. by Anatoly Khazanov and Andre Wink, 1-23,
2001. Uploaded to Academia by Anatoly Khazanov. First Chapter
scanned introducing nomads over time with comments on the Mongols included.
Paul D. Buell, Horst-Gorst-Stiftungs-Institute, Charite Medical University, Berlin, "How Cinggis-qan Has
Changed the World," uploaded to Academia by Paul D. Buell.
Paul D. Buell, "Central Eurasia Genocide as a way
of life," monograph/paper, uploaded to Academia by Paul D. Buell. Dr.
Buell focused on Mongols and genocide in central Eurasian history.
Lt. Col. Darrel C. Benfield, United States Marine
Corp, "The Mongols: Early Practitioners of Maneuver Warfare," School
of Advanced Military Studies, US Army Command and General Staff College, Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas, 2012. Monograph.
Vu-Hong-Lien Warder, Archaeology, "The Mongol
Navy: Kublai Khan's Failed Invasions in Southeast Asia," Paper,
2014, uploaded to Academia by Vu-Hong-Lien Warder.
Paul D. Buell, Mongols in Vietnam: End of one
Era, Beginning of Another," uploaded to Academia by Paul Buell. Later 13th
and 14th century attempts by Mongols to expand their influence into Southeast
Asia, Indonesia and South Seas. See more Mongol academic papers by Paul D Buell
Christopher P. Atwood, Indiana University, "The
Date of the 'Secret History of the Mongols' Reconsidered," Journal of Song-Yuan
Studies, 37, 2007 seen in Scholar Works, Indiana University. Dr. Atwood
examined the historiography of studies as to when the Secret History was
written, then analyzed historical context of the text and came up with his own
Christopher P. Atwood, Indiana University, Central
Eurasian Studies, 75 academic writings, most on Mongol culture and history,
uploaded to Academia by Christopher P.Atwood.
Travelers' Accounts as Primary Sources
"Marco Polo eText-Primary
Source," Excerpt from "The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East,"
published 1903. Polo's accounts with annotated comments from eNotes of his time in the Great Khan'scourt, 1271
returning to Venice in 1295.
"Medieval Sourcebook: Marco Polo: The
Glories of KinsayHangchow] (c. 1300), Paul Halsall, Fordam University
Library. Note comments about reliability of Polo's account.
"The Travels of Ch'ang Ch'un to the West, 1220-1223," Diary recorded by
Taoist monk's disciple Li Chi Ch'ang, translated by E. Bretschneider, 1888, Silk Road Seattle, 2003. Aging
Chinese Daoist monk Ch'ang Ch'un was ordered to Chinggis Khan's court, at the time in
Central Asia and his disciple recorded Ch'ang's eyewitness account of Central Asia, geography, life of ordinary people,
Mongol administration, and perceptions of Chinggis. E. Bretschnieider valued this Asian account of the Mongolsand
Chinggis Khan over "European mediaeval travelers." This
"diary" was published by Sun si in 1228 and
included in the Tao tsang siyao.
"Daoist Master Changchun is Summoned to Visit
Chinggis Khan," trans. Arthur Waley, 1931,
University of British Columbia, Canada. Two excerpts of Li Chi Ch'ang'sdiary/recordings of Changchun's thoughts and
perceptions of central Asia and Mongols.
"Ibn Battuta's Travels East," ORIAS website,
University of California, Berkeley, moderated by Nick Bartel,
2012. See especially Chapter 3, 6 and 9 as to Mongols.
Paul Kahn, "The Secret History of the Mongols-The
Origin of Chinggis Khan-an Adaptation of the Yuan Ch'ao Shih,"13th century Mongol account of Mongol origins and Chinggis
Khan based primarily on the English translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves
written sometime after Chinggis Khan's death in 1227. See background on
that earliest Mongol account: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secret_History_of_the_Mongols
"The Secret History of the Mongols-The Life and
Times of Chinggis Khan," trans., edited, with Introduction by Urgunge Onon,
London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon, first
published 2001, this edition Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. 307 pp. Seen in Shanyoma E-Library.
See another version at: https://jigjids.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/the_secret_history_of_the_mongols_the_life_and_times_of_chinggis_khan1.pdf
Sabine Du Bourbonnais, "Friar William of Rubruck's 13thC Travels to the Mongolian Courts,"
Three Gold Bees blog, nd. Medieval Heraldist, Sabine Du Bourbonnais, described Friar Rubruck's travels and perspectives of the Mongol court of
GreatKhan Mongke 1253-1255. Rubruck's predecessors, Andrew of Longiumeau and John di Plano Carpini, envoys of Pope Innocent had attempted Christian
conversion of the Mongols. Rubruck was sent by French
King Louis IX to convert the Mongols and gauge their willingness to support
French crusade missions.
"The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyak Khan, 1245-1247," trans. by William Woodville Rockhill,1900, excerpted
from "The Journey of William of Rubruch to the
Eastern Parts of the World, 1235-55," London: Hakluyt Society, 1900.
Seen in University of Washington Silk Road website. See analysis of John of Plano's
report as an intelligence gathering mission for the Pope, below.
Stephen Bennett, Queen Mary, University of London,
History Graduate Student, "The Report of Friar John of Plano Carpini: Analysis of an Intelligence Gathering Mission
Conducted on Behalf of the Papacy in the Mid-Thirteenth Century," uploadedto Academia by Stephen Bennett. Paper analyzing the
reliability and value of Franciscan Friar John of Plano Carpini's extensive "report" on the Mongols for Pope
Innocent IV. Context of friar as spy.
"How the Mongols Ate," Three (3) primary
source eyewitness accounts of the Mongol diet and eating habits from Michael McInneshin,
Global History to 1500 course syllabus, LaSalle University. Arabic scholar Ibn
al-Athir, "On the Tatars [Mongols], 1220-1221
CE, Pope Innocent IV diplomatic emissary, 1245, Giovanni, "The History of
the Mongols," ca. 1248, and Franciscan monk emissary of French King Louis IX,
William of Rusbruck, 1253-1255.
Cross-Cultural Perceptions and Exchanges
Kaye Jones, "The Seige of Kaffa and the Black Death," History in a Hour website, August 5, 2011. Slim article on
Mongols, seige of Kaffa and
the Black Death. It should be noted that Mongol and Black Death history
Stefano Carboni and Qamar Adamjee, Department of
Islamic Art, "Folios from the Great Mongol Shahnama (Book of Kings)," Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2003. History of the
Mongol Ilkhanid Persian era written/designed in the
14thcentury by vizier Rashid al-Din, 1304-1316 as to Mongols. See You
Tube video, 2:36, published September 25, 2013, picturing that folio: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8aIXE5wRaU
David Morgan, "Persian Perceptions of Mongols and
Europeans," Chapter VI of Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.), "Implicit
Understandings: Observing, Reporting, and Reflections on the Encounters
Between Europeans and Other People in the Early Modern Era," Cambridge
University Press, 1994, 201-217. David Morgan described Juwayni,
Rashid al-Din, Rabban Sauma and Juzjani's perceptions
of the Mongols and their control of their lands.
Ibn al-Athir, "On the
Tatars," 1220-1221, Fordham Primary Source Library, Paul Halsall.
Qiu Yihao, Fudan University, History Faculty, "Mongol Empire in the view of Sadi's Poems, Wen hui, Shanghai, January 2016," [Special] Sadi Poetry and the the Mongol Empire, January 29,
2016. Uploaded to Academia by Qiu Yihao. Page translates into English. Persian
poet, Sadi or Saadi (1210-1291 or 1292) referenced the Mongols in his works. See biography of Saadi below:
Liu Yingsheng and Peter
Jackson, "Chinese-Iranian Relations iii. In the Mongol Period, Iranica online, December 5, 1991, last updated October 14,
The Legacy of Chinggis Khan and Mongolia, Asian Art
Museum exhibit, San Francisco, July 19-October 15, 1995. See two links to
annotated images of art, pottery of Mongolia under Chinggis Khan.
Timothy May, "The Chinggis Exchange: The
Mongol Empire and Global Impact on Warfare," World History Connected, Vol. 12, no. 1, February 2015. Forum on
Military in world history article.
"Mongol Invasion and Destruction of
Baghdad," Lost Islamic History, November 17, 2012.
Military Wiki. Fourth great Mongol Khan, 1209-2159, ruled from 1251-1259, noted
for reforms in administration and expansion into Syria, Iraq and parts of
Amir Butler, "The Mongol Invasion of Iraq:
Lessons Never Learned," Anti-War.com, May 12, 2004. Comparative of Mongol
and American invasions of Iraq.
Reuven Amitai, "Dangerous
Liaisons: Armenian, Mongol and Mamluk Relations, 1260-1292," in Gerard Dedeyan and
Claude Mutafian, eds., LaMediterranee des Armeniens, XIIe-XVe siecle. "Orient Chretien Medieval," Paris: Geuthner, 2014, 191-206. Uploaded to Academia by Reuven Amitai.
Himayatullah Yaqubi, "Mongol-Afghan
Conflict During Period of the Delhi Sultanates," History of Pashtuns blog,
August 19, 2015.
"Mongols in India," Horses and Swords blog,
March 5, 2006. Description of Mongols invasion of India.
John Masson Smith, Jr., University of California,
Berkeley, "Mongol Armies and Indian Campaigns," Mongolian Culture.
Women of the Silk Road in the Mongol era
"Encountering Mongol Women: Two European
Observations-Giovanni DiPlano and Marco Polo,"
Connecting Women to the Silk Road, Women in World History Curriculum. See also: http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/silk-road.html. For use of primary sources, see http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/silk-road-100.html.
Women Revive a Thread to Silk
Jack Weatherford, "The Women Who Ruled the Mongol
Empire," The Globalist, June 20, 2005. Toregene,
Christian widow of Ogedei, ruled the Mongols with a
Tajik Shiite Persian advisor, Fatima. Two of the other three Mongol regions
were also ruledby Christian widows, Sorkhokhtani,
northern China and eastern Mongolia, Ebuskun, Central
Asia or Turkestan.
Per Inge Oestmoen,
"Mongol Women," Cold Siberia, last updated January 23, 2001.
Jack Weatherford, "The Wrestler Princess,"
Lapham Quarterly, Roundtable, September 27, 2010.
"The Wrestler Princess Khutulun,"
Asian History, June 9, 2011, originally seen in Lapham's Quarterly. Undefeated wrestler
and Mongolian warrior, princess Khutulun.
"Mongol Society: Women, Men and
Children," slim article, History on the Net.
"In the Footsteps of Marco Polo," WLIW21,
WNET, New York Public Media. See entire documentary film, 1:27:18, from
November 2008 as adventurers Deninis Belliveau and Francis O'Donnell retrace Marco Polo's trek to
Mongol China. See also various Director's cuts video such as Spice Route,
Did Polo actually go to China? among others.
Prester John, BBC 4, 41:56 audio podcast interview
with scholars as to myth of Prester John and the East in medieval times.
See list of readings which included books on the Mongols, Christian
Missionaries, Mongols and Prester John.
Jack Weatherford lecture, Embry-Riddle Honor Series,
1:15:05 video, posted on You Tube, February 27, 2013. Dr. Weatherford defended
thesis that Genghis Khan was greatest conqueror in history.
Ed Vajda, Western Washington
University, "Mongol Impact on World History," 52:30 video published
on You Tube October 27, 2009.
"The Secret History of Genghis Khan:
Documentary of World's Great Conqueror," 48:34 published on You Tube
September 16, 2013. Documentary history claimed much of Genghis Khan's
"story" was kept secret or detailed by Chinese dynasties and
historians who were not friendly to the Mongol warlord.
The Mongols, 2007, 1:56:34 Film published on You Tube,
November 14, 2015. Russian semi-historical film about early life of Tenujim later known as Chinggis Khan. Film based on
controversial writings by Russian historian Lev Gumilyov.
See number of Film Reviews in "Film Review" section of this article.
John Green, "Wait for It-The Mongols-Crash Course
in World History #17," You Tube 11:31 Video, published on You Tube May 17,
John Green, "Russia, the Kievan Rus, and the Mongols-Crash Course in World History
#20," You Tube 10:46 Video, published on You Tube June 7, 2012.
Barbarians series-The Mongols, 43:39 Video
documentary, published on You Tube, June 29, 2011.
China vs. Mongol-War History, 27:42 You Tube Video,
published November 3, 2013. See another version of this video and look to right
of page to see others Mongol videos: http://wn.com/mongol_jin_war
"China's Great Wall 2007/The Mongols," 49:49
You Tube Video, published March 24, 2012.
"The Mongol Empire 'Kublai Khan,'" History
Channel, 47:18 You Tube Video, published November 14, 2013.
"Genghis Khan," 58:06 documentary,
Top Documentary Films, BBC, 2005.
1:18:00 Audio podcast, "Mongols:
Ilkhanate," Ask Historians, November 22, 2014. Professor Rakony discussed the Persian Ilkanate.
Cindy Tieu, "Mongol Four Khanates," 2:53 You
Tube Video, published June 6, 2013. Short video clip summarizing the four
Paul Cobb, University of Pennsylvania, 49:09 video
lecture, "The Detours of Ibn Battuta," Penn
Museum lecture series, Great Voyages, 2013-2014, Mongols China and the Silk
Road blog, moderated by Hans van Roon.
"Horse-head fiddle," To Mongolia blog, April
2010. View 5:34 Horse-head fiddle performance, You Tube, and read article on
13th century Mongol empire origins of the fiddle.
"Horse-head fiddle player, B. Bayarsaikhan performing in a rural Mongol ger," 4:59, You
Tube video, February 19, 2012. Bayarsaikhan is a
master Mongolian fiddle maker and performer. Filmed by University of
California, East Bay professor of music, Peter K. Marsh. Horse-head fiddle in
video is owned by the head of this Mongol household.
"Horse-head fiddle with throat singing," You
Tube video, October 8, 2009, 3:59. Filmed by Wolf Price in Karikorum,
Mongolia showing two adult males performing in a ger (yurt).
Image/Drawing. "Mongol Trebuchet,"
Boundless.com, World History textbook, online, Ancient History to 1600, The
Ryan Wolfe, Mongol Seige Machines, Ancient Mongol Weaponry blog. See photographs of catapult, trebuchet,
and mangonel and note tabs at top of this blog page
for other slim Mongol weaponry.
Mike Vergin, Mounds Park
Academy High School, "The Mongol Moment, Lesson #9," April 13, 2012.
Lesson plan using "The Mongols in World History" website
and Jigsaw strategy. See Lesson #10 on right side of page, "Impact of the Mongols."http://blogs.moundsparkacademy.org/worldhistory9/2012/04/lesson-9---the-impact-of-the-m.html
Mongol colorful power point with images, primary
source documents and 17 questions lesson, Forest Hills High School, January 13, 2016.
Steve Buenning, "The
Trial of Chinggis Khan: A Classroom Simulation," World History
Connected, Vol. 9, Issue 1,February 2012. AP world history teacher Steve Buenning explained Chinggis Khan
trial simulation, pedagogy, and resources for classroom use.
Another version of the "Mock Trial" above.
Lesson Module. "Mongol Empire Builders:
Fiends from Hell or Culture Brokers, 1200-1400?" Big Era Five:
Landscape Unit 5.4,World History for us All, San Diego State
Mrs. Walker, Pre IB World History, Valparaiso High
School, Indiana, "Mongols Reading," Various lessons using many
perspectives and primary source eyewitness accounts of theMongols based
on World History for us all, Big Era 5 Landscape 4.
"The Mongol Invasions," Lesson Module by
Ethan Segal, Asian Studies-Windows on Asia, Michigan State University.
Mongol WebQuest lesson
module, Creighton Prep, Mrs. Mlnarik, World History,
Samuel L. Green, Camas High School, Oregon, Mongols in
World History WebQuest and Socratic Seminar,
mistergweb.com. See two page WebQuest lesson.
Kristen Hock, Colerain High School, Mongol Empire
Mr. Holman, Mr. Pennington and Mr. Armstrong, The
Mongols and the Black Death," Students for Tomorrow website, Beachwood,
Chardon and Dublin, Ohio Middle Schools collaboration project for world
history, December 16, 2011.
USC US-China Institute lesson, "How to Rule
China." Students research and role play Mongol historical characters
and respond to questions seen in this lesson module with a partner in a
"Fishbowl" or "ring/circle" strategy.
DBQ. "Were the Mongols 'civilized?'"
Woodbridge, New Jersey schools.
Mr. Casey, "Conquerors DBQ: Mongols and
Ottomans," February 2015. Four page "worksheet" lesson using
Mongol and Ottoman primary source documents in a guided Document Based Question
(DBQ) format. See Mr. Casey's Global History website for more on this lesson: http://mrcaseyhistory.com/2015/02/14/dbq-essay-conquerors-mongols-and-ottomans-2/
NY State Regents Exam Prep, Global History and Geography,
August 2011. Document based Question, Mongols, Spanish and
OttomanEmpires reasons for conquering other people and lands. See
rubrics for grading this DBQ (Document Based Question)and sample student
"The Mongols: How Barbaric Were the
'Barbarians?'" Document Based Essay Question (DBQ), DBQ Project, 15 pages.
W. Trucillo, Lakeland
Schools, Document Based Essay Question with Student Guide sheet essay as
background, "How Barbaric Were the Mongols?"
Andrew Troxel, Fort Madison
High School, World History, Mongol Empires Document Based Essay Question.
How did Mongols conquer so muchterritory?
Mrs. Kavanagh, Global History Document Based Essay
Question, "Tang, Song and Mongols," March 8, 2010. Click on "Here"
to see google doc. DBQ.
Guided documents worksheet on Mongols, Seaford High,
Richard P. Wilds, Capital City High School, Topeka,
Kansas, "Mongol Lesson Plan: Medieval Travels, the Mongols and the
Silk RoadAcross Asia," Center for Russian, Eastern European and
Eurasian Studies, University of Kansas. See lesson, with questions and
extensive bibliography on Mongols in World History.
Mongols for Kids, Mr. Donn website lesson resources.
Chapter 12 Mongols in Eurasia, 73 slide share,
published November 30, 2009, slideshare.net.
"Studying the Material Culture of Three Nomadic
Cultures," American Museum of Natural History, 2002 Curriculum Collections.
Comparative lesson-Gabra (Central East Africa),
Mongols and Blackfeet.
Papers on Religion
and the Silk Road under Mongol Rule
Timothy May, "Converting the Khan:
Christian Missionaries and the Mongol Empire," World History
Connected, Vol. 12, no. 2, June 2015. World
History Connected Forum on Religious Mission and Conversion in world
"When Prester John Ruled India," First City
Magazine, Delhi, April 2004 seen in Devdutt. Myth of
Prester John, the Catholics, India and the Mongols.
Francesca Friaschetti, Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, "The Borders of Rebellion: The Yuan Dynasty
and the Rhetoric of Empire," paper, uploaded to Academia by F. Friaschetti. Dr. Friaschetti described the "strategies" used by the Mongol Yuan in their foreign
policy and how they defined themselves to outsiders. Also, Yuan histories
are included to define how the Yuan view the "Other" or foreigners
outside their empire.
Amanda Power, Oxford University, Associate Professor
of History, "Encounters in the Ruins: Latin Captives, Franciscan Friars,
and the Dangers of Religious Plurality in the early Mongol Empire," nd. Essay/Paper uploaded to Academia by AmandaPower.
"The Monks of Kublai Khan or The History of the
Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma envoy and plenipotentiary of the Mongol Khans to the Kings of Europe...,"
translated from the Syriac by Sir
Christopher P. Atwood, Indiana University,
"Validation by Holiness or Sovereignty: Religious Toleration as
political theology in the Mongol World of the thirteenth century,"
uploaded to Academia by Bolormaa Khasgaa.
Dr. Atwood analyzed religious toleration of the Mongols as a political tool.
Maria Magdolna Tatar, "The Ancient and New
Reputation of the Northern Mongol Shamans," Shamans
Unbound,Shamanistic Papers at the VI. Shamanistic Congress, Dobogoko 2007, Budapest 2009, Akademiai Kiado. Uploaded to Academia by Maria Magdolna Tatar.
Denise Aigle, Ecole Pratique Des Hautes Etudes, Paris, Sorbonne, "The Mongol
Invasions of Bilad al-Shan (Syria) by Ghazan Khan and Ibn Taymiyah's Three Anti-Mongol Fatwas," Mamluk Studies
Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2007, 89-120, in Middle East Documentation Center, The
University of Chicago. Mongol Rulers of Persia invasions of Syria, 1260-1312,
and scholar Ibn Taymiyah's fatwas aimed at them
described byDenise Aigle.
Jon Hoover, University of Nottingham, Islamic Studies,
"Ibn Taymiyya's Three anti-Mongol fatwas," Taymiyyan Studies, google site. Mongols invaded Syria three
Tengri.hu, Tengri community post. Community moderated
by Solyomfi-Nagi Zoltan. Tengrism was shamanistic religionof Central Asia.
Note, especially, two Khan letters to Pope and King of France which included
references to Tengrism.
Lewis Dowell III, Aberdeen University, "Visions
of Temujin and the Rise ofGenghis Khan:
Contemporary Perspectives on the Meaning and Influence of Genghis Khan in
Mongolian Shamanism," Master's Research Dissertation, Anthropology,
2012-2013, 40 pages.
"Heaven," First Year Course on Genghis Khan
Macalester College, Minnesota. Historical significance of Mongol notion
of heaven explained.
Timothy May, "A Mongol-Isma ili Alliance? Thoughts on the Mongols and the
Assassins," JRAS, Series 3, Vol. 14, Issue 3, The Royal Asiatic Society
Journal, 2004, 231-239. Dr. May described and analyzed Mongol and Assassins'
links and alliances fromtheir beginning through the Mongol destruction of
Peter Konieczny, "The
Prince, the Assassin and the Mongols," Medievalists.net, May 16, 2011.
Paper given at De Re Miltari: High
Medieval Warfare session at the 46th International Congress on Medieval
Studies, 2011. Context of Crusades.
James Holloway, Baylor University, undergraduate,
"Formation and Rule of the Mongol Ilkhanate," Baylor University History
Department paper, April 16, 2014. Uploaded to Academia by James Holloway.
Jennifer Purtle, University
of Toronto, Art, "The Far Side Expatriate: Medieval Art and Its
Languages in Sino-Mongol China," Medieval
Encounter, 17, 2011, 167-197, Brill Publishing, monograph. Dr. Purtle described how European medieval art in Yuan/Mongol
China "spoke languages" to its European visitors to the Yuan court.
Jana Valtrova, Department
for Study of Religions, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Czech Republic,
"Beyond theHorizons of Legends: Traditional Imagery and Direct
Experience in Medieval Accounts of Asia," Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010. Uploaded to Academia by Jana Valtrova.
Dr. Valtrova analyzed encounters of European
travelers such as William of Rubruck, John Plano, Odoric of Pordenone, John of Marignola, Jordanus Catalanus, and
others as to their traditional ideas of the Asian/Mongol Other and the reality
of what they saw.
Lewis Dowell III, "The Milk of Mongolia:
Culture, Customs, Rituals and Traditions," uploaded to Academia by Lewis
Dowell III, 14 pages, nd.
Pavel Rykin, "The
Social Group and its Designation in Middle Mongolian: The Concepts 'Irgn and Oboq,'" No. 1
Forum, For Anthropology and Culture. Dr. Pavel Rykin,
professor at the Institute for Linguistic Studies, Russian Academy of
Sciencesand Languages of Russia, European University at St. Petersburg,
analyzed Mongol societal structure through linguistic research on two
Mongol words, Irgn and Oboq,
denoting differing definitions of clan.
E. A. Wallis Budge, Assyrian International News Agency
online book, 1928. Syriac history of two Nestorian
Chinese monks, Bar Sawma and Markos,
which revealed details of the Il-Khans of Persia and their dealings with the
Mongol Christians. See three page sketch summary of
the two monks, below:
Gareth Huges, "An
Introductory Sketch-The Monks of Kublai Khan from Beijing to Baghdad and
Beyond," Oxford University, 2009, 3 pages.
Scott Parker, "The Indigenous Christians of the
Arabic Middle East in an Age of Crusaders, Mongols, and Mamluks,
1244-1366," Thesis paper submitted for Doctorate of Philosophy, Royal
Holloway College, University of London, September 2012. (300 + pages)
Mikko Vasko, HS Karlsruhe,
Project SKATING, "Writing a Christianized History of the Mongols:
The Mongols in Syriac texts in the late 13th
and early 14thcentury," January 24, 2006. Uploaded to Academia by Mikko Vasko. Thesis paper
describing and analyzing historiography of SyrianChristian authors under
Mongol rule using image research as methodology. Mikko Vasko relied on Bar Hraeus and "Monksof Kublai Khan" by an unknown Nestorian writer.
Mikko Vasko, "The Image of
the Mongols in Syriac Texts in the Late Thirteenth
and Early Fourteenth Century," uploaded to Academia by Mikko Vasko.
Relying on Bar Hraeus and image research, Mikko Vasko described Syrian
Christian wrtier's perceptions and mental images that
they created of the Mongols.
George Grigore, University
of Bucharest, Arabic Department, The Historical Context of 'Fatwa of Mardin' Given by Ibn Taymiyya,"
1st International Symposium of Mardin Papers,
Istanbul 2006, 343-351. Paper described Mongol invasion of Syria and context of
Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328) fatwa of Mardin.
Cory Johnson, University of Auckland, Graduate
Student, "For God at Your Pleasure: The Humiliation of a Franciscan
Friar in the Mongol Empire," dissertation, October 30, 2015. Mr. Johnson
described William of Rubruck's (1220-1293)
experiences at Great Khan Mongke's court in
Sunil Kumar, Delhi University, Delhi, India, "The
Ignored Elites, Turks, Mongols and a Persian Secretarial Class in the Early Delhi
Sultanate," Modern Asian Studies,
No. 43, Issue 1, 2009, 45-77. Paper uploaded to Academia by Sunil Kumar. Sunil
Kumar described consolidation of Delhi Sultanate in context of Mongol
devastation of Transoxiana, Iran, and Afghanistan and focused on an analysis of
Persian literature of 13th-14th centuries and that literature's perspective on the court of the Delhi Sultanate which does not credit
the Turk and Mongol ethnicity of those elites.
Nagoya University, Graduate Student, "The Mongols
Approach to Anatolia and the Last Campaign of Emperor John III Vatatzes," Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 55,
2015, 470-488. Byzantine historian Georgios Akropolites (ca. 1217/20-1282) in his "History" described campaign and diplomacy
of the Emperor of an exiled Byzantine government, John III Vatatzes (r. 1221-1254) to the East in context of the Mongols.
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, NJ, "Mongols and Merchants on the Black Sea Frontier," Amitai, June 21, 2004, 391-424. Uploaded to Academia
by Nicola Di Cosmo.
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, NJ, "Connecting Maritime and Continental History: The
Black Sea Region at the Time of the Mongol Empire," Chapter 6 in Peter N.
Miller, ed., "The Sea: Thalassography and
Historiography," Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2013.
Uploaded to Academia by Nicola Di Cosmo. See more Nicola Di Cosmo papers below:
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, NJ. Academic papers and monographs, many on Mongols.
Dr. Dashdondog Bayarsaikhan, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar,
"Some Dynamics of Mongol-Armenian Interactions,"Revue d'Etudes Armeniennes Bazmavep, 3-4, Saint Lazre,
Venice, 2010, 597-627. Uploaded to Academia by Dr.Bayarsaikhan.
Discussion of historiography of Armenian historians and chronologists as
to Mongols. 12-14th centuries saw a rich period for Armenian historiography in that
ten historians and chronologists were active in that period. See more of Dr. Baya Dash's
works on Armenians and Mongols below.
Dr. Dashdondog Bayarsaikhan (Baya Dash),
National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Armenian and Mongol resources. Note 2 book reviews, 7 papers and 1 Book.
Uploaded to Academia by Baya Dash.
University of Louisville Master's Thesis, "The Ilkhanid Mongols, the Christian Armenians, and the Islamic Mamluks:
A Study of their relations, 1220-1335," Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Paper 1152, December 2012, University of Louisville Library.
David Christian, "The Silk Roads in World
History," syllabus, Fall 2001, San Diego University, Department of
College Syllabus, Silk Road, University of Washington,
last updated November 15, 2002 by Daniel C. Waugh. A number of Eurasian and
Silk Road university syllabus many including Mongol history.
Jack Weatherford, "The Mongols: Past and
Present," Syllabus, Anthropology Department, Macalester College, St. Paul,
MN, Fall 2001, seen in Central Eurasian Studies World
Wide website, Harvard University. See site: http://cesww.fas.harvard.edu/
James Millward, "The
History of Central Eurasia," Georgetown University, syllabus Spring 2001.
Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom,
"Mongols in World History," syllabus with primary source writing
assignments, Wittenberg University, Fall 2005.
Drs. van den Berg and Gommans,
University of Leiden, e-Prospectus, "Arts and Culture in Area Studies:
Culture andConquest-the Impact of the Mongols and Their
Michael Brose, University of Wyoming, "Mongol
History Seminar Syllabus," Fall 2012.
Monica H. Green, American Academy in Berlin, "The
Black Death: Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World-Reading List for
Group Projects,"Syllabus and Reading List, Spring 2015, last updated
January 22, 2015. See especially resources and annotated comments for Mongols
and the Black Death.
Dr Bruno DeNicola, University
of St. Andrews, "Summer Course, 2016: Universitesi HIST 48K.01, SP.TP: The Mongols and Their World Empire," Course
proposal, syllabus for Bogazici University, summer
"The Mongol Empire in World History: The
State of the Field," Mobility, Empire and Cross Cultural Contacts in
Mongol Eurasia, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, last updated April 4, 2016.
Michael J. Bechtel, University of Chicago, Department
of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Bibliography of Mongol Studies,
last updated December 1, 2014. Large number of resources on the Mongols.
Suggested Readings for Problems in Islamic History-The
Mongol Empire in recent research, H 858, University of Wisconsin, Spring 2008.
"Mongol Empire," Infography,
published by Fields of Knowledge, nd. Mongol expert
chose six "Superlative Sources" and many other "Excellent Sources"
for Mongol empire.
"Mongolian History-Online Resources,
Indo-Mongolian Society of New York, 2004. Many Mongol digital resources.
Paul D. Buell, "Age of Mongolian Empire: A
Bibliographic Essay," Silk Road Foundation newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, January
15, 2003. Dr. Buell discussed historiography and resources on Mongol history.
"The Steppe, Nomadism, The Xiongnu,
and the Mongols, Bibliography, Silk Road Foundation.
Jana Russ, Mongols bibliography, World Civilizations
Courses, The University of Akron, Ohio, last update June 2001. See slim list of
historical fiction books plus more.
Charles Melville, "Historiography iv. Mongol
Period," Encyclopaeadia Iranica, Iranica online, originally published December 15,
2003, last updatedMarch 22, 2013. Persian historiography reached its
maturity in the 13th-15th centuries known as Turkic-Mongol era.
Michal Biran, The Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, "The Mongol Empire: The State of the
Research," History Compass, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2013, 1021-1033. Dr. Biran discussed the state of the field and historiography
of the Mongols in world history. See pdf version of that analysis: http://mongol.huji.ac.il/sites/default/files/Biran_The%20Mongol%20Empire%20The%20State%20of%20the%20Research_%20History%20Compass_2013.pdf
Achintya Tca, University of Delhi,
Department of History, Graduate Student, "The Mongols in Sources,"
uploaded to Academia by Achintya Tca.Slim
summary of Muslim (Arabic and Persian) and European source's reactions to the
Paul Steeves, Stetson
University, Florida, "Mongol Impact," Stetson University. Three
perspectives of the Historiography of Mongol impact on Russia. Summary
ofSoviet View, Eurasian View and Vernadsky View.
Geoff Humble, University of Leeds, "A Princely
Sacrifice: The Death of Tolui in Imperial
Mongol Historiography," Traces of Empire, June 7,2010. Dr. Humble
considered and evaluated the various sources which dealt with the alcoholic
death of Tolui and referenced these sources and their
comments as a good historiography of Mongol writing.
Nathan Light, Uppsala University, Department of
Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Researcher, "Muslim Histories of
China: Historiography across Boundaries in Central Eurasia,"
originally published in "Frontiers and Boundaries: Encounters on China's Margins," Zsombor Rajkai and Ildiko Beller-Hann, eds., Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2012. Dr. Light described Muslim historians
and historiography of Chinese and Central Eurasia including Mongols and Yuan.