Paul Marks, writing for New Scientist,
noted that an MIT team running a computer simulation found that if current
plans the 2024 Martian settler colonial base ("Mars One") are to be followed,
the settlement was doomed, not because of the planet's hostile environment or, as
science fiction would have it, resistance from its indigenous inhabitants, but because
Mars One's proposed crop growth system will produce too much oxygen, poisoning
settler colonists after 68 days. 1 Here on Earth, settler colonization
efforts have often failed due to poor planning and environmental challenges,
and historically have overcome indigenous resistance. It is the latter that is the focus of this
article, which offers resources that explore the relationship between settler
colonialism and the material and psychological methods it has employed to
overcome indigenous resistance. The article's intent is to enable scholars to
engage the issue of whether or not, or to what degree, settler colonialism can
be described as ecocide and/or genocide within the context of world historical
In 2013, Edward Cavanagh
and Lorenzo Veracini, writing as editors of the journal Settler Colonial
Studies, noted that:
Settler colonialism is a global and
transnational phenomenon, and as much a thing of the past as a thing of the
present. There is no such thing as neo-settler colonialism or post-settler
colonialism because settler colonialism is a resilient formation that rarely
ends. Not all migrants are settlers; as Patrick Wolfe has noted, settlers come
to stay. They are founders of political orders who carry with them a distinct
sovereign capacity. And settler colonialism is not colonialism: settlers want
Indigenous people to vanish (but can make use of their labour before they are
made to disappear). Sometimes settler colonial forms operate within colonial
ones, sometimes they subvert them, sometimes they replace them. But even if
colonialism and settler colonialism interpenetrate and overlap, they remain
separate as they co-define each other. 2
Settler Colonial historiography runs in
parallel with the rise of a revisionist alternative perspective referenced as
subaltern studies or history as seen and written by indigenous historians,
poets, authors, and even former colonial peoples from all classes and varied
social status (see digital resources for subaltern studies in Historiography section
of this article). Settler colonialism studies also delve into gender as
indicated through indigenous, settler colonial and colonial empire literature,
letters, and narratives (see "Decolonizing Feminism" article by Maile
Arvin and others in US section of this article). They frequently draw upon art, film, literature, music, and
theatre in their examinations of settler colonialism and the indigenous
Many of the articles referenced below
claim that settler colonialism destroys the main resource, food source,
cultural hearth, environment of the indigenous people (ecocide when taking over
the lands of indigenous people. Accompanying this process is the depiction and colonial histories of the
indigenous as a subject "other" inferior to settler culture which was employed
as a justification for the settlers' right to that land and resources. Examples
of this work can be found in the Russian section of this resource in articles
on 20th century Russian color photography in Central Asia by Margaret Dikovitskaya,
depicting Central Asian "others" and an article on British Columbia indigenous
artist Sonny Assu's reactive graffiti art to those portrayals in Pacific
Northwest in the Canada section.
This article is organized into the
following sections: Digital resources for the Other in World History, Settler
Colonialism historiography, blogs, Journals and websites, university syllabus,
Global Settler Colonial digital sources, and settler colonialism resources
divided into regions. The article concludes with references to previous
articles on digital sources that have appeared in World History Connected of relevance to this subject.
Lorenzo Veracini, "Settler Colonialism and Decolonisation," borderlands, Vol. 6, no. 2, 2007. Veracini addresses
the evolution and historiography of settler colonial studies during the second
half of the 20th century and defended settler colonial studies being linked to
"Lorenzo Veracini on settler colonialism-'Here from Elsewhere: Settlerism as a Platform for South-South Dialogue," Southern Perspectives, October 22,
2010. Discussion Roundtable at the Institute for Postcolonial Studies, Melbourne, Australia, October 10,
2012 with James Belich, Lorezo Veracini, and Kate Darian Smith. Discussion focused on a historiography
of settler colonialism. See more from comment page:
Lorenzo Veracini, "Defending settler colonial studies," Australian
Historical Studies, 45, 2014. Uploaded to Academia by Lorenzo Veracini. Dr.
Veracini, Swinburne University.
Alissa Macoun and Elizabeth Strakosch, "The Ethical Demands of
Settler Colonial Theory," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, nos.
3-4 (2013), 426-443. Australian scholars weigh the merits of settler colonial
historiography. Note thesis, "This article explores the strengths and
limitations of settler colonial theory (SCT) as a tool for non-Indigenous
scholars seeking to disturb rather than reenact colonial privilege. See also
Veracini above and Tim Rowse, on settler colonial historiographyhttps://www.westernsydney.edu.au/ics/people/researchers/professor_tim_rowse that serves as foundation for this article.
Andrew Woolford, "The Next Generation: Criminology, Genocide Studies, and
Settler Colonialism," Revista Critica Penal y Poder, no. 5, (2013),
163-185. Special Issue: Redefining the Criminal Matter: State Crime, Mass Atrocities and Social
Harm. Dr. Woolford claimed that
criminology of genocide suffers from the first generation of genocide
scholarship which exhibit sweeping comparatives, narrow legalism, and
inattention to genocide processes. Woolford highlights and focuses on second
generation genocide historical research with special attention to schools in
Canada, especially the Fort Alexander Indian Residential School. See more Dr.
Woolford articles and resources especially on Canadian settler colonialism and
genocide at https://umanitoba.academia.edu/AndrewWoolford
Andrew Woolford and Jeff Benvenuto, "Canada and Colonial
Genocide," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 17, Issue 4 (2015),
373-390, Special Issue on Canada and Colonial Genocide, published online
December 11, 2015. This Introductory article gave an overview and
historiography of debates about genocide and settler colonialism in Canada. The
authors claimed that Canada has been a marginal case in this field, but urge
historians to take more interest in Canadian settler colonialism and genocide
as comparative to other regions.
Tim Neale, Deakin University, "Notes on Settler Colonialism,"
Tim D. Neale blog, March 1, 2016. Dr. Neale discussed the settler colonial
"ontology" debate in Australia.
"Historiography of settler-colonialism," maevekane.net,
February 28, 2016. In the 1960's historians and scholars in related disciplines
began to analyze the recent decolonization happening across the globe. Frederick Cooper asked, "How can we
study colonial societies keeping in mind ... that the tools of analysis we use
emerged from the history we are trying to examine?" Slim article on the
historiography of settler colonialism and decolonization.
Frederick Cooper, "Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African
History," The American Historical Review, Vol. 99, no. 5 (December
1994), 1516-1545. Frederick Cooper described historiography of colonial African
history in light of modern Latin American colonial insights.
Dipesh Chakrabarty, "Subaltern Studies and Post-Colonial
Historiography," Position Paper in Nepantia: Views from the South, Vol. 1, Issue
1 (2000). Subaltern Studies: Writings on Indian History and Society began
in 1982 inspired by Ranajit Guha (b. 1923) which challenged settler colonial
and imperial histories of India. In
1984 Guha stated, "We are...opposed to much of the prevailing academic
practice in historiography...for its failure to acknowledge the subaltern as
the maker of his own destiny." See another perspective on beginnings of
Subaltern Studies by David Ludden immediately below.
David Ludden, "Reading Subaltern Studies-Critical History,
Contested Meaning and the Globalization of South Asia," Anthem Press.
Introductory chapter, "Introduction-A Brief History of Subalternity,"
accessed at Northern Arizona University education site. David Ludden stated
that Subaltern Studies began in England in the 1970's as English and Indian
historians collaborated to challenge settler colonial and British imperial
histories of India. By 1993, this
"movement" had inspired a Latin American Subaltern Studies group. See
series of essays "Latin American Subaltern Studies Revisited," below:
"Latin American Subaltern Studies Revisited," Dispositio/n 52, American Journal of Cultural History and Theories, Vol. XXV, no. 52,
2005, edited by Gustavo Verdesio, University of Michigan, Romance Languages and
Literature, American Culture. Uploaded to Academia by Gustavo Verdesio. A
number of essays critiquing Latin American Subaltern Studies. See Gustavo
Verdesio article below as to lack of history, subaltern studies written by
victims of colonialism, i.e., "the wretched of the earth."
Gustavo Verdesio, University of Michigan, "Colonialism Now and
Then-Colonial Latin American Studies in the Light of the Predicament of Latin
Americanism," uploaded to Academia by Gustavo Verdesio. Dr. Verdesio
critiqued Latin American Subaltern Studies and researchers/students of colonial
texts as not coming from the social strata and ethnic groups that were victims
of settler colonialism, i. e., "the wretched of the earth."
John R. Chavez, Southern Methodist University, "Aliens in Their
Native Lands: The Persistence of
Internal Colonial Theory," History Faculty Publications, Paper 5, Southern
Methodist University, December 2011, originally published in Journal of
World History, Vol. 22, no. 4, December 2011, 785-809. The 1960's saw the
development of Internal Colonialism as a historical theory which researched
ethnic and racial inequality in colonial states. By the 1980's the theory was
dismissed, but John Chavez defended Internal Colonial theory in this article.
Maile Arvin, Eve Tuck, and Angie Morrill, "Decolonizing
Feminism: Challenging Connections
between Settler Colonialism and Heteropatriarchy," Feminist Formations, Vol. 25, Issue 1, Spring 2013, seen at Project Muse. This article by three
indigenous female scholars explored two intertwined ideas: that the United States is a settler
colonial nation-state and that settler colonialism has been and continues to be
a "gendered process." The authors describe historiography and
perspectives of historians in these fields.
Andrea Smith, "Queer Theory and Native Studies: The Heteronormativity of Settler
Colonialism," A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, Vol. 16, no.
1-2, 2010, 42-68. Andrea Smith
challenged Settler Colonial and Native Studies historians to include
"Queer Theory" in their works.
Tate A. LeFevre, "Settler Colonialism," Oxford
Bibliographies, last modified May 29, 2015. Slim bibliography of key
settler colonial works with an introduction and General Overview by Tate A.
LeFevre as to the definition of settler colonialism and historiography.
David Armitage, Harvard University, History, "From Colonial History
to Postcolonial History: A Turn Too
Far?" William and Mary Quarterly, March 26, 2007. Dr. Armitage
warns of "a specter" haunting American history. That specter is
Postcolonialism which historiography embraces global/world historical context,
comparative history, especially as to settler colonial studies of South and
Southeast Asia, Africa and the Middle East, inclusion of entire North American
continent, hemispheric America, the Atlantic world, British empire for example.
That postcolonial/settler colonial historiography is filled with stories of
Europeans forcibly shaping indigenous peoples in those colonial regions.
Armitage included fears that US History would have to be revised with a new
narrative about the peoples and territories now occupied by the US.
Blogs, websites, and Journals
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal is the official journal of The
International Association of Genocide Scholars founded in 1994. See another
version with articles available in pdf:
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal is the official journal of the International
Association of Genocide Scholars, Scholar Commons. Read articles in pdf for this edition.
"Major Genocide Journals," Concordia University, Montreal,
Canada. Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies.
International Network of Genocide Scholars website. See tabs at top of
this page for resources and Journal.
General Genocide, Holocaust, and Human Rights Resources Links, Cummings
Institute for World Justice, LLC, Woburn, Mass. Note "Rwanda"
resources on left side of page. See "About Us" page with more links,
Preventing Genocide Blog, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. See
Home Page for Museum: https://www.ushmm.org/
"Articles on Genocide," Genocide Watch Home Page, Genocide
Watch-International Alliance to End Genocide, Washington DC. Note tabs at top
of this website for more genocide resources.
Gendercide Watch website. Confronting gender-selective atrocities worldwide.
Native American and Indigenous Studies Association. Note Journal for
this website and blog:
Aboriginal Perspectives, National Film Board of Canada website. See
resources on left side of this page as to Canadian colonialism from an
The Decolonial Atlas website, blog begun in 2014 to present maps which
picture colonialism, settler colonialism and decolonialism.
Intercontinental Cry-A Publication for the Center for World
Indigenous Studies. IC is an indigenous rights publication that strives to
enrich global media ecosystem, support for Indigenous Peoples and protect the
diversity of nature.
Ecocide Alert. This website was designed to support campaigns to make ecocide a crime,
to highlight instances of ecocide, and to warn of potential threats of ecocide.
Much on settler colonialism and genocide also. Canadian site.
Jeff Corntassel website. Dr. Corntassel, a Tsalgi (Cherokee) received
PhD from the University of Arizona, 1998, and is professor in School of
Indigenous Governance at the University of Victoria, Canada. Look to left of
page for more resources, articles.
Wicazo Sa Review, published by University of Minnesota. See free sample issue on upper right
side of this page. Journal dedicated to American "Indian past" and
"relationship to the vital present." Seen at Project Muse.
Colonial and Settler Studies Network, CASS, University of Wollongong,
Australia. The Colonial and Settler Studies Network promotes critical inquiry
into the history, theoretical framing, and contemporary legacies of colonialism
on a global scale.
Settler Colonial Studies blog and journal. Established in
Melbourne, Australia in 2010 under direction of settler colonial studies
historians Lorenzo Veracini and Ed Cavanagh. See home page:
Settler Colonial Studies Journal, History On-line, UK. See many articles
from previous editions of Settler Colonial Studies Journal.
Note digital atlas, newspapers, and old texts from settler colonists
provided by Australian, Dr. Luke Keogh, Harvard University, February 14, 2017:
Queensland Historical Atlas. Note tabs to see resources that pertain to settler colonialism and
development of Australia.
This is the National Library of Australia resource and searchable. One
really good source on settler information is the newspapers: http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/?q=
And the New Zealand papers: https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/
There are many good sources to find here too: http://www.textqueensland.com.au/
You might be able to find some interesting old texts from colonists.
Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History. See abstracts to articles from 2000 to Present.
Critical Ethnic Studies-University of Minnesota Press Journal.
Exploration of guiding question of critical ethnic studies and how colonial
histories and ethnic studies combine.
Website. Unsettling America. Site dedicated to a "mental and
territorial decolonization throughout Turtle Island and the 'Americas.' See
"Settler Colonialism Primer," by Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque
(June 6, 2014) which urged unsettling the Klamath River Coyuntura Colonialism
and Settler Colonialism in northern California and Oregon. See
"About" section from Unsettling America blog:
Post Colonial and Postimperial Literature: An Overview, Postcolonial web, created
by George Landau, Professor of English and Art History, Brown University dating
back to 1985.
"Subaltern Studies," Cultural Anthropology website and
Journal. This page cited Cultural Anthropology contribution to Subaltern
World Postcolonial literature in English Journals, series, webpages,
University of Rochester, River Campus Library. See Subaltern website.
Website/Blog. #Standing Rock Syllabus-NYC Stands with Standing Rock,
November 2016. See history
resources and videos of lectures on Standing Rock protests, especially #4
Standing Rock Teach In, "Gendered Violence and Settler Colonialism,"
with Lou Catherine Cornum.
Family and Colonialism Research Network. Website dedicated to history of
families in colonial contexts. Tag Archives
articles seen here are "settler colonialism." See also "Book Reviews" tab at
top of page for reviews on Settler Colonialism.
Settler Colonial Art History website. Settler Art Historians from New
Zealand, Australia, Canada, South Africa and US combine indigenous art with
Rebe Taylor Blog. Historian with interest in settler colonialism in
Tasmania. See posts as to Ernest Westlake archived letters and journals as he
traveled from England to Tasmania, March 23, 2017.
Cultural Survival website with goal of advancing indigenous people's rights and cultures
worldwide. Cambridge, Mass. based.
H-Empire, H-Net online website/network for Colonial and Imperial
Studies. See all of H-Net networks many of which would include settler colonial
Arena Journal, Australia.
borderlands e-journal home page, Australia. Transdisciplinary research, politics, feminism,
and cultural and postcolonial studies.
Southlink, Southern Perspectives online website. Originating in
Australia Southern Perspectives had a network of organizations and
individuals engaged in ways of thinking that are alternative to "Western
Universalism" and promotion of South-South dialogue, i.e. states and
individuals in the southern hemisphere. Many articles on settler colonialism.
The Journal of Retracing Africa (JORA) a peer-reviewed African studies
journal, Eastern Kentucky University. One can find settler colonialism articles
in editions of this journal which can be accessed online.
Mixed Race Studies website. Articles evident as to settler colonialism.
Colonial Voyage website moderated by Marco Ramerini, Firenze, Italy with
"particular reference to the Portuguese and Dutch trading colonies,"
geographical discoveries, and settler colonies.
Aboriginal History Journal, Australia.
Matt Hooley, Settler Colonialism and the Environment: Violence, Culture, Resistance, online syllabus, Tufts University, American Studies 194.
Alison Bashford, etc. al, "World Environment History," syllabus, University of
Cambridge, 2015. See especially Part 2, Frontiers, focus on environmental
legacy of settler colonial history with resources. Note, throughout this
syllabus are resources which link to settler colonialism.
J. M. Bacon, "Decolonizing Environmental Justice," Syllabus,
University of Oregon, 2016. Focus on course is studying how indigenous peoples
have been harmed by settler colonial damage to the ecology and building
coalitions and alliances to defend and protect the environment.
Dr. Miranda Johnson, "His 600 Settler Colonialism at Work,"
syllabus, University of Wisconsin, Spring 2011. See another version of this
syllabus which focused on comparing settler colonialism in New Zealand and
Wisconsin in the 19th century:
Adam Gaudry, "The Indigenous-State Relationship," IGOV 383,
University of Victoria, Fall 2011. Dr. Gaudry's course, Indigenous Governance
(IGOV) focused on Canadian colonial relationship with reference to other
settler colonial histories and colonial and Imperialism over the last 500 years
and its effects on Indigenous peoples and Canadians today.
Circe Sturm, "The Politics and Conditions of Indigeneity,"
Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, Fall 2012. World relationships of
Indigenous peoples with their respective settler state.
Leena Dallasheh, "Comparative Conflict: Palestine-Israel, Algeria, South Africa,
and (Northern) Ireland," Syllabus, Oberlin College, Spring 2012. Focus on
settler colonialism in the four regions in a comparative fashion.
Gary Marquardt, Westminster College, Syllabus, "Homelands and
Contested Spaces, History Topics Course," Spring 2012. Settler states of
US, Australia, and South Africa, 1600-Present, and their reservations and
indigenous homelands. How do settler ancestors and indigenous populations see
and experience these spaces today?
Dr. Daniel Rueck/Ruck, "Themes in World History: Settler Colonialism," syllabus,
McGill University, May 2014.
Dr. Daniel Rueck/Ruck, syllabi, History, University of Ottawa. See Dr. Ruck's syllabi many dealing with
settler colonialism, 2014-2017.
Dr. Daniel Rueck/Ruck, "Seminar in Aboriginal Studies: Settler Colonialism and Indian Law in
Canada," syllabus, University of Ottawa, Canada, Winter 2017.
Ramona Beatty, Course Outline for Indigenous Studies 397, Parallel
Narratives: The Stories of Canadian
First Nations, Metis, Inuit (Aboriginal), and Settlers-Past and Present,
University of Calgary, Canada, Spring 2014. Course focused on key debates
within field of Indigenous and Settler Colonial Studies.
Emilie Pigeon, York University, Canada, "Indigenous Responses to
Settler Colonialism in Canada," syllabus, Institute of Canada and
Aboriginal Studies, York University, Winter 2015. The Canadian state has long
relied on the mechanisms of settler colonialism to impose its will on
indigenous peoples within its territory through borders, policies, settler
narratives and violence.
Steven Williams, "Surviving America: Introduction to Native Studies,"
syllabus, Oberlin University, Indigenous peoples of North America and effects
of settler colonialism from indigenous perspective. Misrepresentations and mistreatment of
Native Peoples under settler colonial society.
Kathleen DuVal, "Native North America," syllabus, University
of North Carolina, Fall 2009. Course focus on North American Indian peoples and
their encounters with one another, Europeans, and Africans from early times to
the 21st century.
Emilie Cameron, "Empire and Colonialism," Syllabus, Draft,
Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton College, Winter 2016.
Abaki Beck, Syllabi-POC Online Classroom, last updated October 10, 2016.
Abaki Beck, Blackfeet & Red River Metis, moderated this online classroom
site focused on Native Lives Matter and teaching the history and effects of
Settler Colonialism in the Americas.
NYC Stands with Standing RockCollective, 2016. "#Standing Rock
Syllabus." See resources on US settler colonial history, timeline,
readings in context of Standing Rock protest of Dakota Pipeline.
Paul Hadweh, Course Facilitator, Dr. Hatem Bazian, Faculty Sponsor,
"Palestine: A Settler Colonial
Analysis," syllabus, University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2016. See
more on this course below:
Jillian D'Amours, "UC Berkeley reinstates course on settler
colonialism in Palestine," Middle East Eye, September 19, 2016. Political
pressure had caused a decision to suspend the course. See Course description/syllabus for that
reinstated course: http://www.decal.org/courses/4237
"Palestine: A Settler
Colonial Analysis," Ethnic Studies course description, University of
California, Berkeley, Fall 2016.
Arnon Degani, UCLA, California, History, Middle East,
"Syllabus: 'This Land is my
Land': Global Histories of Settler
Colonialism," Introduction to Historical Methods, Fall 2016. Object of
seminar is to explore the global historical phenomenon of settler colonialism
and gain an understanding of the relatively new interdisciplinary field of
settler colonial studies.
Ashley Greene, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, "The Global History
of Genocide," Syllabus, Keene State College. Main text: Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and
Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yale University Press, 2007. Course
covered question "Is Genocide natural?" Chimpanze behavior, Genocide
in Hebrew Bibl, Spanish conquest, Asia, Herero genocide in German East Africa,
Holocaust, Latin America, Gender and Sexuality.
Professor Dirk Moses, European University Institute, Syllabus, Genocide
in Global Perspective, Seminar, Autumn/Spring 2010-2011. A comparative study of
genocide over the last 250 years.
Jobb Arnold, "Genocide, War, and Conflict," Syllabus, Menno
Simons College, University of Winnipeg, posted as Teaching Genocide Studies,
International Association of Genocide Scholars website.
Global Settler Colonialism
||Figure 1: Image source from article below
Nuunja Kahina, "Indigenous Settler Decolonization and the Politics
of Exile," Intercontinental Cry-Journal of the Center for World
Indigenous Studies, May 28, 2013. Slim article summarizing all indigenous
struggle against settler colonialism.
Danielle Celermajer, Human Rights, University of Sydney, "A Nation Apologizes
for Wrongdoing-Is that a mistake?" Aeon (website) April 3, 2017. General essay on the notion of nations apologizing for
wrong doing. Note photo of British apology to Kenyans for abuses during the Mau
Mau uprising in Kenya aimed at fighting British settler colonialism.
JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz, "Academic Space and the Cambodian
Genocide," World History Bulletin, Vol. XXX, no. 1, Spring 2014.
Uploaded to Academia by JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz. This upload contained entire
Special Section, "Genocide in World History," five articles seen in
pages 5-25 of this edition of the World History Bulletin, including
Lutz's Cambodian article. Note,
especially, first article by Mohamed Adhikari, University of Cape Town,
"Settler Colonialism and Genocide: When Hunter-Gatherers and Commercial
Stock Farmers Clash," 5-9. Adhikari noted that in his global research on
this subject, specifically, 17th-18th century Dutch cattle farmers and Cape San
hunter gatherers, that "settler colonial confrontations-those in which
livestock farmers linked to the global capitalist markets clashed with
hunter-gathers-were particularly catastrophic..." See slim review of
Adhikari's comparative research globally as to hunter gatherers and settler
commercial livestock farmers:
Book Review. Henning Melber, Settler Colonialism and Genocide: When Hunter-Gatherers and Commercial
Stock Farmers Clash," Cape Town: UCT Press, 2015, 356 pages, Africa Spectrum 2, 2015, 137-139 seen in
University of Hamburg, Germany Journal. Note Norbert Finzsch monograph below
disagreeing with genocide and ecocide thesis:
Norbert Finzsch, University of Cologne, Germany, "'The intrusion
therefore of cattle is by itself sufficient to produce the extirpation of the
native race,'" Settler Colonial Studies, 2015 uploaded to Academia
by Norbert Finzsch. The complete title of this work was "'The intrusion
therefore of cattle is by itself sufficient to produce the extirpation of the
native race': Social Ecological
Systems and ecocide in conflict
between Hunter-Gathers and commercial stock farmers in Australia." Dr.
Finzsch stated that Settler colonialism should be referenced as "Settler
Imperialism" and that charging commercial stock farmers with genocide or
ecocide is too strong of an indictment. He cited "Social Ecological
Systems" definitions and theory to claim that the farmers were not out to
destroy the indigenous hunter-gatherers but unknowingly changed the biological
habitats in Australia and Africa.
James Hughes, "Genocide and ethnic conflict," London School of
Economics Research Online, 2010 originally seen in Karl Cordell and Stefan
Wolff, eds., "Routledge Handbook of ethnic conflict," 2010.
Google Book. Edward Cavanagh and Lorenzo Veracini, eds., Routledge
Handbook of the History of Settler Colonialism, Routledge, 2016, 486 pages.
Beginning in ancient times this settler colonial handbook focused on Australia,
New Zealand, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Liberia, Algeria, Canada, and the
"Terra nullius," Wikipedia. Latin expression derived
from Roman law meaning "nobody's land," which was used over time by,
especially, European nations to claim indigenous land and "legally"
control that land as property.
Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Giraldez, "Born with a 'Silver
Spoon': The Origins of World Trade
in 1571," Journal of World History, Vol. 6, no. 2, 1995. Settler
colonialism in a big picture definition began in earliest times as humans
moved, migrated to "settle" other regions. Flynn and Giraldez set the stage,
context, for global colonialism, migrations, settler colonialism in our modern
John Docker, Australian Intellectual, "Raphael Lemkin's History of
Genocide and colonialism," Paper presented to United States Holocaust
Museum Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, Washington DC, February 26, 2004.
Raphael Lemkin was a Polish-Jewish jurist (1900-1959) who linked settler
colonialism, colonialism and genocide. John Docker and others had
asked in their own works if settler colonialism was inherently genocidal?
Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque, "Settler Colonialism Primer,"
Unsettling America blog, June 6, 2014. Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque support Unsettling the Klamath River
Coyuntura Colonialism and Settler Colonialism movements. Much of their article
placed indigenous people in context of global colonialism and defined types of
colonialism including settler colonialism. "Settler Colonialism sees
"land, not labor, [as] key" and the indigenous people "are
David Jefferess, University of British Columbia, Critical Studies,
"Introduction to Settler Melankelownia, Colonialism, Memory and Heritage
in the Okanagan," Cultural Studies course, University of British Columbia,
Winter term 2013-2014. Uploaded to Academia by David Jefferess. Student poetry, graphic texts, essays, articles about
cultural aspects of European colonialism in the Americas, Caribbean, Africa,
and South Asia including settler colonist stories about themselves and about
the 'others' they "discovered and colonized." See more resources from
David Jefferess at https://universityofbritishcolumbia.academia.edu/DavidJefferess
Christopher Lloyd, and Jacob Metzer, "Settler Economies in World
History," Settler Colonization and Societies in History: Patterns and Concepts," XIVth
International Economic History Congress, Helsinki, Finland, August 21-25, 2006,
Session 97. A description of settler colonization in world history over time
branching away from the original historiographic rigor of settler colonization
being locked into British settler colonization in North America, Australia, New
Zealand, Dutch in South Africa, Spain in Latin-South America. Lloyd and Metzer
describe other settler colonial history outside this framework focusing on an
Chapter 1, Christopher Lloyd and Jacob Metzer, "Settler Colonialism
and Societies in World History: Patterns and Concepts," 1-34, in Lloyd, Metzer, and Richard Sutch,
eds., "Settler Economies in World History," Leiden and
Boston: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2012).
See Table of contents for that book. Dr. Lloyd and Dr. Metzer define settler
colonialism and cite case studies in world history as an introduction to book.
See Google eBook:
Christopher Lloyd, "Institutional Patterns of Settler
Societies: Hybridized Political
Economies and Civil Societies on Parallel and Convergent Paths? The Common
Institutional Pattern of the Settler Societies," Chapter 19 in Lloyd,
Jacob Metzer, and Richard Sutch, eds., Settler Economies in World History,
Leiden and Boston: Koninklijke
Brill NV, 2012, 545-578. Christopher Lloyd in this chapter described how
settler societies developed economic and institutions across the settler world.
Isabel Altamirano-Jimenez, University of Alberta, Political Science and
Native Studies, "Indigenous Encounters with Neoliberalism: Place, Women, and the Environment in
Canada and Mexico," University of British Columbia Press, 2013. A
comparative and case study approach to describing indigenous, especially women,
responses to neoliberal settler colonialism. Altamirano-Jimenez used 4 case
studies, two from each country, Nunavut and Nisaga's in Canada and Zapatista
Caracoles in Chiapas and Zapotec Juchitan in Mexico to compare indigenous
responses to settler colonialism and neoliberal states. Plus, University of British Columbia
Press included a link to a sample chapter, 24 page pdf.
Keith Windschuttle, "In Defense of Colonialism," American
Outlook, Sagamore Institute, August 1, 2002. Keith Windschuttle defended
Western settler colonialism based on a thesis which stated, "Rather than
feel guilty about the legacy of Western colonialism, modern-day Westerners
should recognize that it made the world a better place." American
Outlook is journal published by Indianapolis, Indiana think tank, the
Sagamore Institute. This digital resource could have easily been placed in
earlier section on Historiography.
"Lorenzo Veracini's response to the skepticism of Tequila Sovereign," Settler Colonial Studies, April 20, 2011. Dr. Veracini, Swinburne
University Institute for Social Research responded to a critique of settler
colonialism as interpretative category
and paradigm by a blogger named "Tequila Sovereign." See two responses to this defense at
bottom of this slim comment by Patrick Wolfe and Tobold Rollo. A sample of Veracini's reply: "Tequila Sovereign identifies a clearly discernible
scholarly trend: after the publication of Patrick Wolfe's Settler Colonialism and the Transformation of Anthropology (1999),
several books and articles have developed settler colonialism as an
interpretative category. Sovereign contends that this debate displaces
"imperialism", "colonialism" and "nation-state" as paradigms and she is not
ready to let them go (even though I am not sure whether anyone has asked her to
do so). Settler colonialism is not unique (or "specific", see below), the
conceptual categories that were used until what could be defined as the
"settler colonial turn" were perfectly capable, she argues, of appraising what
happens when people move somewhere else and decide to stay and found a new
political order. Sovereign is also of the opinion that anticolonial and
anti-imperialist rhetorics are more effective in supporting the struggles for
indigenous self-determination and empowerment. This is fair enough, except that
no scholar of settler colonialism (that is, not a single one) has ever said
that "imperialism" or "colonialism" should be considered useless concepts, or
suggested the language indigenous militancy should or should not use (Sovereign
indeed overstates settler colonial studies' capacity to displace). If anything,
the study of settler colonialism as a specific formation aims to expand the
available conceptual toolbox, certainly not to restrict it."
Book Review. Eric Richards, Flinders University, South Australia, James
Belich, "Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World, 1783-1939," Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2009, 592 pages seen in Reviews of History, UK. A
"grand" perspective of US and British settler colonialism.
John Hinkson's, Introduction to Arena Journal Editorial,
"Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler Colonial Present," Arena Journal, Issue 37/38,
2012. Note Hinkson's comparative as to Adolph Hitler's settler colonialism of
Slavs to the East and US westward colonialism of the American indigenous
Note 3 part series by Pan African author Chinweizu, Nigeria, comparing
Arab and European effects on Africa. Chinweizu has 3 strands within his comparative: 1.) Racism, 2.) Enslavement of Blacks,
"Comparative Digest  Racism: Arab and European Compared, Pan India
Hindu blog, May 1, 2014.
"Comparative Digest  Black Enslavement: Arab and European Compared," Pan
India Hindu blog, May 3, 2014. Part
2 of three-part comparative digest series in which Nigerian Pan Africanist
author Chinweizu discussed African historical comparatives between Arab and
& European Compared," Secular African blog, July 12, 2014. Part 3 of Comparative by Pan African
writer Chinweizu, Nigeria, on Arab and European colonialism.
Felipe Garzo Montalvo and Haleh Zandi, "The Modern/Colonial Food
System in a Paradigm of War," Planting Justice, nd. Settler Colonialism and
destruction and control of indigenous culture's food and crops.
Gender, Women & Sexuality Studies, University of Minnesota
Humanities digital e-learning modules. See first module "Empire"
which focused on Orientalism, Settler Colonialism and imperialism.
Anne Hickling-Hudson, Julie Matthews and Annette Woods, "Disrupting
Preconceptions: Postcolonialism and
Education," Post Pressed flaxton, 2003 seen in Research Gate. 264 page
book with essays on settler colonialism, postcolonialism and education globally
using case studies as examples.
Amanda Dominguez-Chio, "District 9: A Post-Colonial Analysis," The
Artifice, June 9, 2014. Sci-Fi film, District 9 as a settler
colonial history. Neil Blomkamp directed film narrated the story of an alien
invasion where humans treat the "invaders" as the Other.
Nancy Shoemaker, University of Connecticut, History, "A Typology of
Colonialism," Perspectives on History, news magazine of American
Historical Association, October 2015. Slim article describing settler
colonialism and other 'types' of colonialism.
Patrick Wolfe, "Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the
Native," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 8, no. 4, (December
2006), 387-409. Settler colonialism and genocide are often linked in world
history. Dr. Wolfe compared Australia, Israel-Palestine, and US settler
Patrick Wolfe, "Recuperating Binarism: a heretical introduction," Settler
Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 3-04, (2013), 257-279. Patrick Wolfe
described his thesis as to settler colonial societies eventual goal of
eliminating the native and attacks from binary Western thought, but claimed not
one native historian or source has criticized or objected to his elimination
"Wolfe, Patrick," Global Social Theory, Slim article on
Patrick Wolfe, Australian anthropologist and ethnographer whose work sparked a
surge in studies of settler colonial societies. Short summary with questions as
to Wolfe's theories on colonialism and effects on natives.
Ana Levy, Review, "Patrick Wolfe Traces of History: Elementary Structures of Race, Verso, 2016," New Books Network, November 7, 2016. Slim review by
Ana Levy on Patrick Wolfe's, settler colonial historian who famously stated
that settler colonialism is "a structure, not an event," new book
published just before his passing, February 2016. Dr. Wolfe had continued his
analysis of settler colonialism via a comparative approach using five
cases: Australia, Brazil, Europe,
North America, and Palestine/Israel. See, also, at bottom of this page a 48:39
audio podcast interview of Patrick Wolfe with colleagues Aziz Rana, Professor
of Law, Cornell University Law School and Lynette Russel, Anthropologist and
Indigenous historian, Director, Monash Indigenous Centre, Monash University.
See review from Mixed Race Studies, December 1, 2016:
Book Review. Adam Shatz, "Where Life is Seized," review of
Frantz Fanon, 'Ecrits l'alienation et la liberte,' eds. Robert Young and
Jean Khalfa, la Decouverte, October 2015, 688 in London Review of Books,
Vol. 39, no. 2, January 19, 2017. Frantz Fanon has been recognized as preaching
resistance in the face of settler colonialism, colonialism, and Imperialism,
but some claim violence was never Fanon's remedy for the Third World; it was a
rite of passage for colonized communities and individuals who become mentally
ill. . . as a result of the settler-colonial project saturated with violence
and racism. Remember, Fanon was a
psychologist who observed the Algerian Civil War against France in the 1950's.
Erin Hurt, University of Texas, Austin, "The Shape of Resistance
Literature," E3W Review of Books, Vol. 8, Spring 2008. E3W is
Ethnic and Third World Literature website at University of Texas, Austin. Erin
Hurt reviewed foundational text in the field of postcolonial writing, Barbara
Harlow's Resistance Literature, broke new ground in western literary
studies. Harlow had asked for more serious consideration of previously ignored
Third World texts which she claimed was an "arena of struggle" for
people who seek liberation from oppressive settler colonialism and colonial
rule. See example of Harlow's writing as to Palestinians, Spring 1987:
Barbara Harlow, "Narratives of Resistance," New Formations,
number 1, Spring 1987. Essay written in context of remembering Frantz Fanon.
Harlow described Palestinian struggles against neo-colonial states.
William Grimes, "Barbara Harlow, Scholar on Perils of Resistance
Writing, Dies at 68," NY Times, February 9, 2017. Harlow supported
more Third World narratives to add insights into postcolonial history and the
fight against settler colonialism.
Lorenzo Veracini, Queen Elizabeth II Fellow, Swinburne University of
Technology, Melbourne, "Introduction-The Settler Colonial Situation,"
in Settler Colonialism: A
Theoretical Overview, Palgrave Connect, 2010. Dr. Veracini defined settler
colonialism and explained nuances between immigration, colonization and settler
Jesse Curtis, PhD candidate, Temple University, Philadelphia, "A
Settler Colonial Global History," Jesse Curtis blog, April 6, 2016. Jesse
Curtis argued that settler colonial studies can allow for a revised history of
indigenous peoples and American, African and global history across the 19th and
20th centuries. Curtis "sketches" what that history would look like.
"Settler Colonialism," CiCo3, 2016. Blog posts on settler
colonialism such as John Brown, October 28, 2016, being most recent and
posts/articles on Zionism, the Herero and Nama Genocide by Germans, French,
Detroit, Algeria, Palestine: A
Specter of Settler Colonialism, Patrick Wolfe eulogy with links to his works on
settler colonialism, and more.
J. Kehaulani Kauani, "A Structure, Not an Event: Settler Colonialism and Enduring
Indigeneity," Forum-Alt Humanities: Settler Colonialism, Enduring Indigeneity, Lateral, Journal of
the Cultural Studies Association, Emergent Critical Analysis for Alt
Humanities, Issue 5, No. 1, Spring 2016. Slim article prepared for Alt
Humanities Forum described Patrick Wolfe (see above article) discussion of genocide
done via settler colonialism, especially in Australia, Israel-Palestine and US
and his phrase which noted that "system" as "a structure, not an
Awad Issa Mansour, "Orientalism, Total War and the Production of
Settler Colonialism Existence: The
United States, Australia, Apartheid South Africa, and the Zionist Case,"
PhD thesis presented to University of Exeter, UK, February 2011. Awad Issa
Mansour's thesis stated that settler colonialism is "total war" on
the indigenous peoples with the US, Australia, and Apartheid South Africa as
case studies. Zionist Israel is
viewed as an ongoing, current model of settler colonialism.
Daniel Geiger, "Turner in the Tropics: The Frontier Concept Revisited,"
PhD dissertation, University of Luzern, December 9, 2009. Daniel Geiger
challenged Frederick Turner's Frontier "myth" and used case studies
of indigenous peoples and settlers in South and Southeast Asia to discuss
boundaries, state border, borderlands, frontiers, settler nations and the
ethnic other in a sweeping dissertation of 227 pages.
Book reviews. Tom Laichas, Crossroads School, Santa Monica, California,
Senior Editor World History Connected, Book Review, World History
Connected, Vol. 12, no. 1, February 2015. Mr. Laichas reviewed Elkins and
Peterson, eds., Settler Colonialism in the Twentieth Century, Routledge,
2005, 303 pages, Lloyd, Metzer, Smith, eds., Settler Economies in World
History, Brill 2013, 605 pages, and Pilkington and Bateman, eds., Studies
in Settler Colonialism: Politics,
Identity, and Culture, Palgrave MacMillan, 2011, 307 pages. Note comment as
to slim use of settler colonialism studies in our current historiographies and
curriculums and reason why.
Julia Sherwood, "A Dispatch from European Literature Days
2016: On Colonialism and
Literature, Asymptote Journal blog, December 5, 2016. Cultural
appropriation and colonialism in world literature discussed and described by
Eve Tuck, State University of New York and University of Toronto,
"Neoliberalism as nihilism? A commentary on education accountability,
teacher education, and school reform," Journal for Critical Education
Policy Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2013. Eve Tuck described market driven neoliberalism as an extension of
settler colonialism and its effect on teacher education globally.
Angie Morrill, U. of California, Davis and Program Director of Indian
Education, Portland Public Schools, Eve Tuck, and the Super Futures Haunt Collective,
"Before Dispossession or Surviving it," Liminalities: A Journal of Performance Studies,
Vol. 12, no. 1, 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Angie Morrill.
A quote caught my eye from this interesting article: "Settler Colonialism societies are
haunted by the host of gone peoples..."
Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, eds., University of Queensland,
Australia, "Post Colonial Drama-Theory, practice and politics,"
London and New York: Routledge,
1996, seen in mohamedrabeea.com blog. Tompkins and Gilbert described
"methods by which post-colonial drama resists imperialism and its
effects," in other words how drama was "Re-Acting" to Empire and
"settler-invader colonies." 335 page pdf.
Deane Williams, review, "Making Settler Cinemas: Film and Colonial Encounters in the US,
Australia, and New Zealand," by Peter Limbrick, Palgrave MacMillan,
2010 seen in Screening the Past, August 2011. See Table of Contents and
Introduction from Peter Limbrick's book below:
Table of contents and Introduction to Peter Limbrick, "Making
Settler Cinemas: Film and Colonial
Encounters in the US, Australia, and New Zealand," Palgrave MacMillan,
"Lorenzo Veracini on settler colonialism," Southern
Perspectives, October 22, 2010. Australian based website which encouraged
dialogue between peoples in southern hemispheres including Settler Colonial
Taiaiake Alfred and Jeff Corntassel, "Being Indigenous: Resurgences Against Contemporary
Colonialism," Chapter in Politics of Identity, Government and Opposition
Ltd, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK and Malden, MA., 2005, 598-614, an
ongoing series edited by Rich Bellamy. Posted on Jeff Corntassel blog. Taiaiake
Alfred and Corntassel discussed resurgent politics against colonial governments
in Canada, US, Latin America and elsewhere. See Jeff Corntassel site: http://www.corntassel.net/index.html
Corey Snelgrove, University of British Columbia, Rita Kaur Dhamoon,
University of Victoria, and Jeff Corntassel, University of Victoria,
"Unsettling Settler Colonialism: The discourse and politics of settlers and solidarity with Indigenous
Nations," originally seen in Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, Vol.
3, no. 2, (2014), 1-32, posted in NYC Stands with Standing Rock blog, October
2016. Original comments on all citizens standing together to rid global culture
of settler colonial racism, education, history by a Cherokee man, Corntassel,
white male, Snelgrove, and woman of Sikh heritage, Dhamoon.
Scott Lauria Morgensen, Department of Gender Studies, Queen's
University, "Theorizing Gender, Sexuality and Settler Colonialism: An Introduction," Settler
Colonial Studies, Vol. 2, no. 2, (2012), 2-7, in Special Issue: Karangatia: Calling Out Gender and Sexuality in
Settler Societies, downloaded to tandfonline.com, December 16, 2016. Focus of
this Introduction to Special Issue is Canada and the US, but references are
made to Australia, New Zealand, Palestine.
Desley Deacon, The Australian National University, Emeritus, History,
"Review of Margaret D. Jacobs, White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism and the
Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940," Lincoln and London: University
of Nebraska Press, 2009, seen in Australasian Journal of Victorian Studies,
Vol. 18, no. 1, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Desley Deacon.
Trish Luker, University of Queensland, Book Review, Margaret D. Jacobs,
"White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism and the
Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia,
1880-1940," University of Nebraska Press, 2009, in International
Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies, Vol. 3, no. 1, 2010.
Maile Arvin, "The Future is Indigenous: Decolonizing Thanksgiving," Truth
out, Nov. 24, 2016. In context of Thanksgiving think about settler
colonialism, colonial myths, decolonizing and indigenous people looking to the
Tate A. LeFevre, "Settler Colonialism-Anthropology," Oxford
Bibliographies, last modified May 29, 2015. Slim bibliography of anthropologist
perspectives as to settler colonialism.
Bibliography (16 pages) from Zoe Laidlaw and Alan Lester, eds., Indigenous
Communities and Settler Colonialism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. Many entries
are from subaltern and native perspectives. See Laidlaw and Lester google book
Google book. Zoe Laidlaw and Alan Lester, eds., "Indigenous
Communities and Settler Colonialism: Land Holding, Loss and Survival in an Interconnected World," Palgrave
Fiona Bateman and Lionel Pilkington, eds., Studies in Settler
Colonialism-Politics, Identity and Culture, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. See Palgrave Macmillan publisher table
of contents and Introduction for this book.
Introductory chapter, Tracey Banivanua Mar, La Trobe University,
Australia, and Penelope Edmonds, University of Melbourne, eds., "Making
Space in Settler Colonies," 1-24 in Making Settler Colonial
Space-Perspectives on Race, Place and Identity, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Only Introduction is seen in this digital resource, but book included settler
colonial essays about Antarctic, Australia, New South Wales, British Columbia,
New Zealand settler colonialism and a chapter, "Indigenous Music as a
Space of Resistance," by Crystal McKinnon.
Eric Tagliacozzo, Cornell University, Book Review, Robert Peckham, ed.,
"Empires of Panic-Epidemic and Colonial Anxieties,"Hong Kong
University Press, 2016, in Asia Pacific Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1,
Fall 2016, 119-120. Peckham collected essays about pandemic disease as
perceived by Europeans and settler colonists in 19th-20th century India, Dutch
Indonesia, and 19th century China. Book not exactly focused on settler
colonialism theme, but an area, disease, that should be considered.
Luise White, University of Florida, Gainseville, Book Reviews. "Sex,
Soap, and Colonial Studies, Journal of British Studies, nd., 479-486
posted in Anne McClintock's University of Wisconsin English Department site.
Colonial studies linked to settler colonialism as Dr. White stated in this
review of 5 books, "colonialism came to be seen as a moment of forced
Beenash Jafri, PhD thesis, York University, Toronto, Ontario, "Brown Cowboys on Film: Race,
Heteronormativity and Settler Colonialism," York Space, July
2014. Settler colonialism as depicted in global film.
See articles on Indigenous reconciliation and settler colonialism as to
US, Sami in northern Finland, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, The
Conversation, May 2016. Series in line with Settler colonialism theme.
Jesse Curtis, Temple University, Philadelphia, PhD student, "walk
on: A Settler Colonial Global
History," Jesse Curtis blog, April 6, 2016. On September 13, 2007, the UN
approved the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples with over-whelming
support from member states. Four dissenting votes from US, Canada, Australia
and New Zealand, all genocidal settler colonial states with policies which have
injured indigenous populations over time.
"Unit One: Settler
Colonialism, Indigenous Peoples, and Genocide," 10:11 You Tube video,
Gratz College, Philadelphia, PA., Jewish Studies College, published August 29,
2015. Introductory power point and
supplemental video lecture for this course. One can see other Gratz College
power points and video lectures below, plus, one can google "Gratz College
You Tube Videos, Settler Colonialism, indigenous Peoples, and Genocide"
for more of these resources.
"Module 1: Settler
Colonialism," 18:13 Video lecture, Gratz College, published August 29,
2015. Module 1 focused on two Patrick Wolfe articles on Settler Colonialism.
Jeff Benvenuto, "Native American Genocides," 13:15 You Tube
Video, Gratz College, Fall 2015, published August 28, 2015. Power point for
Native American Genocides, Class 5, Nazi Holocaust and Colonial Genocide
Studies, REVISE2," 45:06 You Tube Video, Gratz College, published February
10, 2014. Another power point for this course.
Book Review. Guy Lancaster, "Review of Redefining Genocide: Settler Colonialism, Social Death and
Ecocide," by Damien Short, London: ZED Books, 2016, 261 pages. Academic
Council on the United Nations System, ACUNS, September 27, 2016. Settler
colonialism as an attack on the totality of indigenous existence including the
environment and social structures.
Book Review. Michael S. Bryant, Bryant University, Review of John Cox,
"To Kill a People: Genocide
in the Twentieth Century," New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 215
pages, seen in World History Connected, Vol. 14, no. 1 (February 2017). Dr. Bryant highly recommended this
genocide history for courses on Genocide in 20th century world history.
Africa Settler Colonialism
Leander Heldring and James A. Robinson, "Colonialism and Economic
Development in Africa," Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic
Research, November 2012. Heldring and Robinson analyzed legacy of settler
colonialism and colonialism on Sub-Saharan Africa and concluded that colonialism
had a negative effect on Africa.
"Colonialism and Imperialism," New Encyclopedia of Africa,
edited by John Milleton and Joseph C. Miller, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, Charles
Scribner's Sons, 2008, 467-484, World History in Context, Gale Group. This entry on African Colonialism and
Imperialism is broken into sections, "Overview," an introduction and
historiography, "African Experience," each with bibliographies.
Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor, Hunter College, "The Colonization of
Africa," Africana Age-Africa and African Diaspora-Transformation in the
20th Century, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public
Library. Between 1870 and 1900 Africa faced European imperialist aggression,
diplomatic pressures and settler colonialism.
African history through African Eyes-Videos.
The Story of Africa: Early
History, 1:48:41 You Tube video. See more videos in this series on right side of this page.
Note part 20 in this series:
27:08 video, "Life under Colonization-Between the World Wars,
1914-1945," The Story of Africa, Pt. 20, June 28, 2016. African voices
remember European colonialism.
Other Digital Resources:
Dominik J. Schaller, "Raphael Lemkin's view of European colonial
rule in Africa: between
condemnation and admiration," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 7,
no. 4, (December 2005), 531-538. Polish-Jewish specialist in international law
(1950-1959) had many unpublished works on settler colonialism and genocide
throughout the world. Dominik J. Schaller described his thoughts on European
colonial and settler colonialism in Africa.
Ewout Frankema, University of Wageningen, Netherlands, Erik Green, Lund
University, Sweden, and Ellen Hillbom, Lund University, "Endogenous
Process of Colonial Settlement: The
Success and Failure of European Settler Farming in Sub-Saharan Africa,"
10th New Frontiers in African Economic History Workshop, Wageningen University,
October 30-31, 2015. This paper presented three comparative case studies, West,
East, and South Africa, to describe and analyze the confrontations between
European settler farming and indigenous African farming. The workshop at
Mageningen University was focused on the question, "Is Africa Growing out
of Poverty? An Economic Transition in Historical Perspective."
"The Maji Maji Rebellion," Violence in Twentieth Century
Africa scholar blog, Emory University. See other tabs for more resources many linked to settler colonialism. This
slim resource describes the background to Maji Maji rebellion against German
settler colonialism in East Africa.
Module Eleven, Activity Six, Exploring Africa, Michigan State
University. Lesson module revolving around Magi Magi revolt against German
settler colonialism in East Africa. Read play, Kinjeketile by Ebrahim M.
Hussein, Tanzanian author about that 1904-1905 rebellion and its leader
Timothy Mitchell, "Colonising Egypt," Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991,
218 pages, University of California E-Books Collection 1982-2004. Entire book
on-line. Dr. Mitchell extended deconstructive theory to historical and
political analysis to examine the peculiarity of Western conceptions of order
and truth through a re-reading of Europe's colonial encounter with 19th century
Egypt. See review of book: https://ahorbinski.dreamwidth.org/71431.html
"The Empty Land Myth," South African History online, last
updated May 11, 2016. British and Afrikaner settler colonial identity and
perspective in 19th century South Africa. The Empty land or Vacant Land Theory
was a theory propagated by European settlers in nineteenth century South Africa
to support their claims to land.
Laura J. Mitchell, University of California, Irvine, "Kinship and
Identity: A van der Merwe
Story," Chapter 5 in Belongings-Property, Family, and Identity in
colonial South Africa, An Exploration of Frontiers, 1725-c. 1830," Columbia
University Press, 2008, Gutenberg-eHome. Marriage norms in Cape Town South
African settler society.
Rodney Harrison, University College, London, Archaeology and Lotte
Hughes, Senior Research Fellow, The Open University, Chapter 7, "Heritage,
colonialism and postcolonialism," in Understanding the Politics of
Heritage, Rodney Harrison, ed., Manchester University Press, UK,
Understanding Global Heritage series, 2009, 234-269, 238 pages. This essay based
on Lotte Hughes research comparing settler colonial and administrative colonial
perspectives with indigenous Kenyan perspectives as to colonial and
postcolonial history in Kenya. In the conclusion of this chapter, these
alternative narratives are referenced as "indigenous people in former
settler colonial and local communities in Kenya have challenged centralized,
state-led initiatives to create 'safe' or unifying narratives...of the
Cassidy Flood, "African Women's Role in Resistance Against
Colonization," The Classic Journal, March 23, 2016 seen in
University of Georgia education post. Settler colonists and English
colonization attempts to westernize Africa failed to acknowledge African women
and their substantial role in society. The English colonizers projected their
misogynistic gender onto a complex society in an attempt to plant capitalism in
African soil. Note reference to Mau Mau in Cassidy Flood's essay. One could
read colonial protest "Song for Murang'a Women" (Kenyan Song),
ca. 1950, below:
Source: Todd Shepard,
Voices of Decolonization-A Brief History with Documents, Bedford, 2015,
"As women of Kikuyu, we were taken to Murang'a
Because we had refused to have our cows and
And upon refusing, we were all imprisoned.
Our children cried a lot as
they had no milk to suckle.
Oh God, we beseech you to
emancipate us from this slavery.
When we got to prison, they dressed us in white uniforms
And asked us, "Are you the movement that is
Many patriots who were already in prison gathered at
the entrance to our cell
Because they were shocked to hear our children wailing.
After dressing us, they moved us to Tambarare
There we found fellow patriots, who were moved
away as soon as we arrived.
We fell asleep, and just before dawn porridge was
brought in a bucket.
There was nothing to drink from, and so we drank it
from our hands.
And when it was 8 a.m., we saw soldiers in formations.
They ordered us to quickly start clearing the grass
that was around us.
Kikuyu music and dance-Traditional Music & Cultures of Kenya, Blue
gecko. Scroll down page to see Kikuyu resistance songs to British colonialism.
"Colonialism in Kenya," Source Watch. Wikipedia style entry as
to Kenyan resistance to settler colonialism and British colonialism which
lasted roughly 68 years until independence in 1963.
Ashley Sanders, "Between Two Fires: The Origins of Settler Colonialism in
the United States and French Algeria," Claremont University publishing,
PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, May 2015.
Lee Lawrence, Review, "Picturing Algeria," Aramco World, March 2017. Slide share style review of Pierre Bourdieu, Picturing Algeria,
Columbia University Press, 2012 described Bourdieu's sociological description
of 1950's Algeria documented and annotated by photographs. Settler Colonialism,
documentary photography, social science all a part of this Photo exhibit of
Fiona Barclay, Charlotte Ann Chopin, and Martin Evans,
Colonialism and French Algeria," Settler Colonial Studies, (January
12, 2017), 1-16, seen in Taylor and Francis Publishing online. Paper divided
into abstract, 1830-1870 invasion, annexation and the military regime,
1870-1908 consolidation of settler authority, and 1908-1945 rise of Algerian
Elodie Saubatte, Paris Institute of Advanced Study, Workshop
description. "French Algeria in Comparative Perspective: A Specific form of Settler
Colonialism?" H-Net, May 21, 2016. Note slim description of settler
colonialism in French Algeria with workshop presentation topics, titles which
could be of interest.
Christine Whyte, Review, Bronwen Everill, "Abolition and Empire
in Sierra Leone and Liberia," Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, 248 pages in Reviews
in History, UK, February 2013. Comparative as to West African settler
colonialism in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
Aparna Venkat, "Colonialism in aChebe's Things Fall Apart,"
Creative Writing blog, October 19, 2014. Aparna Venkat, MA in English, posted
this analysis of Achebe's novel set in the context of European settler
colonialism in Igbo West Africa. Note comparison to "stereotypical"
settler colonial perspectives and attitudes from Joseph Conrad's "The
Heart of Darkness," 1899, and 1952 Mister Johnson.
Obododimma Oha, "Oduche, Chinua Achebe's character in Arrow of
God, Writes to His Father," X-pens blog, March 10, 2017. Oduche
explained in the letter about the white man settler colonialism and his
schooling. Obododimma Oha is an online English teacher, English Communications
Polytechnic of Namibia. See resources for Arrow of God, 1964, Achebe's
3rd book, together, they have been called The African Trilogy-Things Fall
Apart, No Longer at Ease, and Arrow of God.
Lynnette Grate, "Arrow of God," Western Michigan
University Colonial and Post-Colonial Dialogue Literature website, last updated
February 2002. Note references to settler colonialism in Nigeria, the setting
for Arrow of God and analysis and deconstruction of the novel. See
Western Michigan Colonial/Post Colonial Literary Dialogue website: https://wmich.edu/dialogues/index.html
Shah Obaidul Mustafa, "Critical Study about the Colonialism in Heart
of Darkness," Letter Pile blog, October 1, 2016. Shah Obaidul Mustafa,
an English student at Dhaka University, described Joseph Conrad's 1899 novel Heart
of Darkness as a settler colonial interpretation of African trade,
imperialism, capitalism and Africa.
Mohamed-Salah Omri, "History, Literature, and Settler Colonialism
in North Africa, Modern Language Quarterly, Vol. 66, no. 3, (September
2005), 273-298. Uploaded to
Academia by Mohamed-Salah Omri. Literature and French settler colonialism in
Algeria and North Africa.
J. B. Peires, "The Central Beliefs of the Xhosa
Cattle-Killing," Journal of African History, 28, (1987), 43-63. The
only reliable and authentic account of the vision of Nongqawuse, prophetess of
the great Xhosa cattle-killing of 1856-57. Reaction to settler colonial
expansion in South Africa.
Edward McNamara, University of Cambridge, "South African Settler
Colonialism, 1880's-2015," Routledge Handbook of History of Settler
Colonialism, 2016, 291-309.
"The Empty Land Myth," South African History online, last
updated May 11, 2016. British and Afrikaner settler colonial identity and
perspective in 19th century South Africa. The Empty land or Vacant Land Theory
was a theory propagated by European settlers in nineteenth century South Africa
to support their claims to land.
Ingrid Jonker, "The Child Who Was Shot Dead by Soldiers in
Nyanga," Poetry International web. 1960 poem by Afrikaans-speaking
white South African female poet reacting to shooting at Nyanga in Apartheid
South Africa (1948-1991). Poems' inscription of 'Afrika' was taken by many to
mean that Jonker saw what was happening, police and soldiers shootings of
blacks to protect settler colonial system, as a continent-wide struggle.
Liz Stanley, "Settler Colonialism and Migrant Letters: The Forbes Family and letter-writing in
South Africa 1850-1922," The History of the Family Journal, Vol.
21, Issue 3, (2016): Migrant
Letters. A "new" historiography in Settler Colonialism history which
uses family letter writing as evidence. See articles from that Issue below:
The History of the Family Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, (2016). See open access articles on Settler
Colonialism and migrant letters.
Neilesh Bose, University of North Texas, "New Settler Colonial
Histories at the Edges of Empire: 'Asiatics,' Settlers and law in colonial
South Africa," Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Vol.
15, no. 1, (Spring 2014) seen at Project Muse. The history of Indians in
colonial South Africa betrays a long history of settlement, from at least the
Christopher Allen, University of Pennsylvania, "Missions and the
Mediation of Modernity in Colonial Kenya," Penn History Review, Vol.
20, Issue 1, (Spring 2013). Dr. Allen's first sentence set the stage for this
missionaries played a crucial role in colonial development." He went to
state that "settlers, colonial authorities, and missionaries were
inextricably connected." Christopher Allen does describe the friction
between the three, inherent in Kenya's settler colonial community as well.
Rodney Harrison, Archaeology, Australian Studies, University College,
London, and Lotte Hughes, African Studies, specializing in Kenya, Open
University, Oxford, UK, "Heritage, Colonialism, and Postcolonialism,"
Chapter 7. Uploaded to Academia by Rodney Harrison. This chapter is a case
study of settler colonialism in Kenya by Lotte Hughes seen in Rodney Harrison,
ed., "Understanding the Politics of Heritage," Manchester
University Press, 2009, 328 pages.
From Mombasa is the starting-point of one of the most wonderful railways
in the world [...] a sure, swift road along which the white man and all that he
brings with him, for good or ill, may penetrate into the heart of Africa as
easily and safely as he may travel from London to Vienna. [...] The British art
of "muddling through" is here seen in one of its finest expositions. Through
everything - through the forests, through the ravines, through troops of
marauding lions, through famine, through war, through five years of excoriating
Parliamentary debate, muddled and marched the railway.
Winston Churchill, My African Journey, 1908
Quote seen in Remi Jedwab working paper below:
Remi Jedwab, George Washington University, Edmund Kerby, London School
of Economics, Alexander Moradi, University of Sussex, "History, Path
Dependence and Development: Evidence
from Colonial Railroads, Settlers and Cities in Kenya," Institute for
International Economic Policy Working Paper, Elliott School of International
Affairs, George Washington University, January 2014. Economic historian's
perspective as to economic activities across space in Kenya. Description of movement of settlers and
commodities via railroad transport in colonial Kenya, Africa. See 2016
reference to this economic research by same authors, below:
Remi Jedwab, Edmund Kerby, Alexander Moradi, "3 Policy Lessons from
Africa's Colonial Railways," The International Growth Centre, 2016. Slim article with maps as to
international development organisations and African economic development. The
Railroad was a technology for transport of settler colonial commodities in most
See below, two slim articles from Curating Kisumu [Kenya] as to land
alienation, the Kisumu port, and European settler colonialism:
Carol Martincic, Leonard Obiero, and George Ochieng, "Land
Alientation and its Impact in Kisumu-Miwani Sugar," Macleki/Curating
Kisumu, accessed December 25, 2016. Kenyan Port city of Kisumu in the Great Lakes region, European settler
colonialism and land alienation.
Joseph Ochieng Odwar, etc., "The Kisumu Port,"
Macleki/Curating Kisumu, accessed December 25, 2016. The Kisumu Port, the
Kenya-Ugandan Railway, Kenya's Lake Trade, and European settler colonialism.
John Lonsdale and Bruce Berman, "Coping with the
Contradictions: The Development of
the Colonial State in Kenya, 1895-1914," Journal of African History, 20,
(1979), 487-505. Article accessed in Cambridge University Press, September 7,
Barbara Celarent, University of Atlantis, "Facing Mount Kenya by
Jomo Kenyatta, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 116, no. 2,
(September 2010), 722-728. Celarent reviewed "rare anthropological study
of Africans by an African," Jomo Kenyatta's 1938 study of his central
Kenyan Kikuyu people. Kenyatta articulated from his African perspective the
dangers of European influence, settler colonialism, over a population of people
whose entire lives are based on social customs and religious ideas. Barbara
Celarent was pen name of U. of Chicago sociologist and editor of the American
Journal of Sociology, Andrew Abbott, born 1948. She his/her essays, reviews
Study guide, free sample, "Facing Mount Kenya: the Tribal Life of the Gikuyu," Book Rags Summary and Study Guides.
Jomo Kenyatta, The Gentlemen of the Jungle. An African man made a
friendship with an elephant. Parable as to colonial African history and
European settler colonialism.
"The Gentlemen of the Jungle," You Tube, 7:42 animation,
published February 20, 2016.
3 Lesson modules, Stanford University. Gandhi and Imperialism in India, Kenya,
inc. The Gentlemen of the Jungle, and Athenian Democracy.
"What are 'Settler Colonies'? Answer the Question making reference
to a specific case study," Art History and Theory, March 2013. Essay
response with sourcing written by Emily Sinclair in 2010. Kenya British East
Africa is the case study described. Note 1952-1959 Mau Mau insurgency mentioned as an anti-British settler
Bernard C. Moore, Book Review, "Review of Colonial Africa,
1884-1994 by Dennis Laumann," Middle Ground Journal, no. 12,
(Spring 2016). Colonial Africa, 1884-1994, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012 has first
chapter on historiographical debates, economic motives with following chapters
on colonial administration and collaborators in settler vs. non-settler
Jeanne Garane, "The Invisibility of the African Interpreter," Translation,
Interdisciplinary Journal. One overlooked aspect of settler colonialism,
Imperialism, etc. would be the power of the interpreter who "manipulated
the contacts between (in this case) French settler colonists and African
populations in colonial French West Africa. Note author of book below, Dr.
Tamba M'bayo, referenced in this article.
Google Book. Tamba M'bayo,
"Muslim Interpreters in Colonial Senegal, 1850-1920: Mediations of Knowledge and Power in the
Lower and Middle Senegal River Valley, Lexington Books. 2016.
Professor Peter Adamson, "Arabic Translators did far more than just
preserve Greek," Aeon, Ideas, November 4, 2016. Note comparative for power of Muslim
Interpreters in West Africa to Abbasids who "wanted to establish their own
cultural hegemony, in competition with Persian culture and with the Byzantines.
The Abbasids wanted to show they could carry on Hellenic culture better than
the Greek-speaking Byzantines..." All this to further strengthen their settler colonial empire and
expansion. See more as to history and metamorphoses of West African languages
into written status and West African acquisition of translations skills during
spread of Islam and Christianity below:
Adewuni Salawu, "The Spread of Revealed Religions in West Africa
and its implications for the Development of Translation," Journal of
Translation, Vol. 3, no. 2, (2007). Description of metamorphoses of West
African languages into written status and acquisition of translation skills by
West Africans during the spread of Islam and Christianity.
Winta Woldeyesus, "Italian Administration in Eritrea,"
Shabait, Eritrea Ministry of Information, November 13, 2009. Italian
colonization in Eritrea was aimed at getting access to the virgin resources of
the country, besides securing farmland and cheap labor for Italian settler
Dr. Giulia Barrera, Archivist and African Historian, PhD, Rome,
"Mussolini's colonial race laws and state-settler relations in Africa
Orientale Italiana (1935-41), Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Vol. 8,
no. 3, (2003), 425-443. Uploaded to Academia by Giulia Barrera. Dr. Barrera
described Mussolini's Fascist Italy Eritrea Settler Colonial laws governing
settlers in Eritrea and the Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI). See more resources
from Giulia Barrera below:
Giulia Barrera, Archivist, See documents researched by Ms. Barrera,
especially as to Italian settler colonialism in Eritrea.
Danielle Sanchez, Book Review. Matthew Stanard, "Selling the
Congo: A History of European
Pro-Empire Propaganda and the Making of Belgian Imperialism,"
Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Press, 2011, 387 pages seen in Journal of Retracing Africa, Vol. 3,
Issue 1, (2016).
Colonialism in the Congo: Conquest, Conflict, and Commerce-Ethical Culture Fieldston School,
CHOICES, Brown University, Watson Institute for International Studies, November
2005. 146- page lesson module.
Ryan Hill and Yemi Katarere, "Colonialism and Inequity in
Zimbabwe," IISD, (2002), 248-271. The battle over access to land resources
in Zimbabwe demonstrated how gross inequalities with respect to land distribution
occurred in settler colonial history. Note short article at end of this
Zimbabwe tract by Ted Ganlin, "Solomon Islands and Environmental
Insecurity-Logging and Urban Sprawl."
Sam Moyo, Executive Director of Africa-Institute for Agrarian Studies,
Harare, Zimbabwe, PhD, University of Northumbira, UK in Rural Development and
Environmental Management, "Perspectives on South-South relations: China's
presence in Africa," Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 17, Issue 1,
(2016), 58-67. Paper explored the broad questions on China's presence in Africa
from the perspectives on South-South relations.
African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies, Dossier/Africa: 50 Years of Independence, International
Development Policy, January 2010.
East Asian Settler Colonialism
||Figure 2: China's Propaganda painting depicting all the "ethnic minorities"
Source of Poster: Chineseposters.net, seen in article by Dawa Lokyitsang below.
Dawa Lokyitsang, "The Art of (China's) Colonialism: Constructing Invisibilities in (Tibetan)
history and geography," Lhakar Diaries, December 19, 2012. Dawa Lokyitsang dedicated her Lhakar
Diaries blog to a non-violent resistance to Chinese settler colonialism in
Tibet in the 21st century. The poster, above, shown in her article, is far
different from the self-immolation protests (June 2012) by Tibetans against
Chinese colonialism and continuing Tibetan protests. Lokyitsang defined "Invisibilities"
as Chinese "erasure, silences" of Tibetan nationalism, history,
geography and protest.
Yeshe Choesang, "Chinese Colonialism in Tibet causes cultural
identity crisis," The Tibet Post, March 17, 2014. Article stated
two reasons for Chinese colonialism, settler colonialism in Tibet from Tibetan
POV: 1.) access to Tibetan natural
resources from Himalayan region, 2.) a buffer separating China from "every
"The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Korea and Vietnam," See especially
111 BCE-939 CE section in middle of this 9 page pdf which summarized Chinese
settler colonialism, migration into North Vietnam and growing resistance to
that settler colonization.
Edward Vickers, Kyushu University and Institute of Education, University
of London, Book Review, Yangbin Chen, "Muslim Uyghur Students in a
Chinese Boarding School: Social
Recapitalization as a Response to Ethnic Integration," New York:
Rowman and Littlefield, 2008, 211 pages. Seen in series, Emerging
Perspectives on Education in China. Uploaded to Academia by Edward Vickers.
Chinese settler colonialism education plan to "normalize" relations
between Muslim Uyghur students and settler Han students.
"Circling the Wagons," The Economist, China, May 25,
2013. Chinese government run settler colonialism in Xingjiang has produced
ethnic strife and tensions.
"East Turkestan: China
Whitewashes Uyghur Reality in 66th Annexation Anniversary," UNPO, October
2, 2015. Chinese communist settler colonialism in Xingjiang and East Turkestan.
Book Review. "Howard W. French, China's Second Continent: How a million Migrants are Building a
New Empire in Africa," New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014, 285 pages seen in Journal of Retracing Africa,
Vol. 3, Issue 1, (2016).
Tomonori Sugimoto, Master's Thesis, Anthropology, University of
California, San Diego, "The Yellow Man's Burden: The Politics of Settler Colonialism in
Hokkaido and Taiwan," University of California, San Diego electronic
Theses and Dissertations, 2013. Description of 150 years of Japanese settler
colonialism in Hokkaido and Taiwan. Note effects on native Ainu of Hokkaido and
Taiwan's yuanzhumin and Koreans and Okinawans.
Edward Vickers, University of London, "Original Sin on the Island
Paradise? Qing Taiwan's colonial history in comparative perspective," Taiwan
in Comparative Perspectives, Vol. 2, (December 2008), 65-86. Uploaded to
Academia by Edward Vickers. Chinese settler colonialism on Taiwan compared to
Chinese mainland settler colonialism in Tibet.
"The First Nations of Taiwan: A Special Report on Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples," Cultural
Survival Quarterly Magazine, June 2002. A history of settler colonialism on
Stephen Holden, Review, "Machismo, Obtained via Machete-'Warriors
of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale,'"
by Wei Te-Sheng, NY Times, April 27, 2012. Blockbuster Taiwanese film
set in 1930 central Taiwan where 300 "aboriginal warriors" of the
Seediq people confronted the Japanese army in the Wushu Incident. In 1895 China
had ceded Taiwan to the Japanese who moved Japanese military and settler
colonists onto the island.
David Y H Wu, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Book Review, Hiromitsu Iwamoto, Nanshin: Japanese Settlers in Papua and New
Guinea, 1890-1949, Canberra: Journal
of Pacific History, (1999), 179 pages. Slim review seen on scholarspace.
manoa.hawaii.edu. 200 Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea.
Ryan W. Kitkowski, "Today is the Day to Shout Mansei: The Culture of Resistance in Korea
during the Japanese Imperial Period, 1905-1945," Honors College Thesis,
August 2015 for B.A. in History, University of Arizona Library open repository.
Ryan Kitkowski described how Koreans "resisted" the Japanese Imperial
military and settler colonialism from 1905 through the end of World War II.
John Hennessey, Linnaeus University, Book Review, Jun Uchida, "Brokers
of Empire: Japanese settler
colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945," Harvard East Asian Monograph
Series, Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 2011, 481 pages, published on H-Empire, H-Net, April 2014.
John Hennessey, Linnaeus University, Review, Jun Uchida, "Brokers
of Empire: Japanese Settler
Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945," Harvard East Asian Monograph
Series, Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 2011, 481 pages in H-Net and H-Empire, April 2014.
Erik Esselstrom, University of Vermont, Review, Jun Uchida, "Brokers
of Empire: Japanese Settler
Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945," Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011, seen in Reviews
of History, UK, June 2013.
South Asian Settler Colonialism
Amardeep Singh, "Getting Into It With Niall Ferguson/Facts about
Empire," Amardeep Singh blog, Lehigh University, June 30, 2006. Dr. Singh
linked to Priyamvada Gopal's perspective on British settler colonialism and
Empire, which argued that neocon ideologues, like Niall Ferguson, are rewriting
Britain's Empire history and whitewashing its crimes. Singh also weighed the
merits of British settler colonialism on India with "facts" about the
British imprint on Indian society, economy, and politics.
Shashi Tharoor, "'But what about the railways...?' The Myth of
Britain's gift to India," The Guardian, March 8, 2017. See :54
Video Shashi Tharoor's demand that the British pay damages to India for settler/colonial
rule. Britain left a society with
16% literacy, a life expectancy of 27 years, and over 90% living below the
poverty line. Apologists for empire and settler colonialism like to claim that
the British brought democracy, the rule of law, and trains to India.
Dr. Ricardo Roque, book review, Christopher Bayly, "Empire and
Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India,
1780-1870," Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 428 pages seen in Reviews in
History, UK, December 2016. Ricardo Roque set Bayly's work in colonial
historical context and referenced Bernard S. Cohen and his student Nicholas
Dirks works, among others, on how the British colonial state relied on cultural
technology and classificatory techniques to conquer, dominate, and rule
indigenous people in India. See Nicholas B. Dirks Introduction, chapter 1 to
"Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India," below:
Nicholas B. Dirks, Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern
India," Princeton University Press, 2001, Chapter 1, Introduction in
which Nicholas Dirks explained and set the stage for how British settler
colonialism used the Indian caste system to control indigenous Indians.
Shilipi Rajpal, Researcher, History, University of Delhi, review of
Satadru Sen, "Savagery and Colonialism in the Indian Ocean: Power, Pleasure and the Andaman
Islanders," London and New York: Routledge, 2010, 278 pages. Uploaded to Academia by Shilipi Rajpal. Over
time the colonizer, settler colonist, has made the indigenous native the
"Savage" as a strategy and tactic of colonialism. Satadru Sen
described British and Indian racializing of the Andamanese.
"Ecocide or Genocide? The Onge in the Andaman Islands," Cultural
Survival, December 1990. Slim article on British settler colonialism
destroying the Onge natives in the Andaman Islands. Settler colonists moved
into Onge "reserve" lands for boars, honey, fish and turtles.
Leela Prasad, "The Authorial Other in Folktale Collections in
Colonial India: Tracing Narration
and its Dis/Continuities," Cultural Dynamics, Vol. 15, no. 1,
(2003), 5-39, uploaded to Academia by Leela Prasad. 1860-1920 British
administrators, missionaries, wives and daughters of British officials, and
Indian scholars collected Indian folktales. Dr. Prasad researched and analyzed
two Folktale collections and commented on the "delineated alterity and
subjectivity while they experience[d] shifting subaltern positions."
Settler colonist's perspectives on indigenous folktales say much as to their
view of the Other.
Sanjay Joshi, History department, University of Northern Arizona,
"Colonial Notion of South Asia," South Asia Journal,
nd., seen in Penn Arts & Sciences site, Dr. David Ludden, South Asian
historian. Dr. Joshi described in this slim article how post-colonial India and
the Cold War shaped the definition of an entire region by European and US
"colonizers." See more from Dr. David Ludden, South Asia historian,
as to Empires, frontiers and borderlands below:
David Ludden, "The Process of Empire: Frontiers and Borderlands," seen in
Bang and Bayly, eds., Tributary Empires in Global History, London: Palgrave Macmillan, (2011),
132-150. Professor Dr. Ludden uses
the word "process" instead of settler colonialism in this chapter on
empire, colonizing in South Asia.
Neilesh Bose, "New Settler Colonial Histories at the Edges of
Empire: 'Asiatics,' settlers and
law in colonial South Africa," Journal of Colonialism and Colonial
History, Vol. 15, no. 1, (2014). Uploaded to Academia by Neilesh Bose. Dr.
Bose described Indian settler colonialism in South Africa. Many would trace the
path of Gandhi from India to British law degree and South Africa where he, as a
lawyer, represented Indians against civil rights abuse in South Africa.
Jaswant Rathod, Govt. Arts and Commerce College, Gujrat, India,
"Positioning the Subaltern in Post-Colonial India: A Socio-Cultural and Environmental Study
of Mahasweta Devi's Pterodactyl," Research Scholar, Vol. I,
Issue II, (May 2013). A description of Mahasweta Devi's struggle to protect and
defend the "subaltern" Indian "tribals who were effected by
British settler colonialism and are still threatened by post-colonial India.
The 21st century Indian government as settler colonists abusing 8.2% of the
population, tribal indigenous Indians. See current article on Indian
"subaltern tribals" below:
Anuradha Sengupta, "They Lost Their Jungles to Plantations, But
These Indigenous Women Grew Them Back, Truth out, December 2016.
Lisa Fletcher, University of Tasmania, "Reading the postcolonial
island in Amitav Ghosh's The Hungry Tide," Island Studies
Journal, Vol. 6, no. 1, (2011), 3-16. Paper argued that literature has much to contribute to the theoretical
work of Island Studies and not just because literary texts provide evidence of
the ways islands are conceptualized in different historical and cultural
contexts. Ghosh's historical fiction has background of Sundarban islands and
Dalit people under West Bengal government in latter 20th century and settler
Md. Ashrafuzzaman, MA Science Thesis, Development Studies, Social
Anthropology, "The Tragedy of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in
Bangladesh: Land Rights of
Indigenous People," Lund University, 2014. Research paper described
abusive colonial settlement by British, Pakistani's, and Bangladesh government
in the indigenous Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.
Christian Bleuer, "State Building, Migration and Economic
Development on the Frontiers of Northern Afghanistan and Southern
Tajikistan," Journal of Eurasian Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 1, (January
2012), 69-79 seen in Science Direct. See especially section 2.2 of this
article on Amir Abdur Rahman Khan (1880-1901) Afghan Pashtun leader
"settler colonization" of northern Afghanistan and southern
Tajikistan referenced as "internal imperialism," Afghanization,
Pashtun colonization, Pashtunization, and Afghanization.
Pacific Settler Colonialism
Patrick Kirch, "When Did the Polynesians Settle Hawaii?"
Uploaded to Academia by Patrick Kirch. The Polynesians, like the African Bantu,
were indeed ancient, early settler colonists. Patrick Kirch provides background,
archaeological evidence as to Polynesian settlement of Hawaii.
Tagi Qolouvaki, "The Mano of Wansolwara: Oceanic Art/Story as Protest and
Decolonial Imagining," Hehiale blog, April 27, 2015. Tagi Qolouvaki
highlighted Wansolwara, "one salt water," united, Pan Oceanic
defiance against American settler colonialism in the Pacific.
Haunani-Kay Trask, "Settlers of Color and 'Immigrant' Hegemony-'Locals'
in Hawaii," Conflict in Innovation Lab files, (March 2014), 45-66.
Originally published in the Amerasia Journal, Vol. 26, no. 2, (2000),
1-24. The Land, US apology and a poem.
The indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims
to their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the
United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or
referendum. -U.S. Public Law 103-150, the "Apology Bill"
[Bill Clinton "apologized" to the Hawaiian people in 1993]
Slogans of cheap grace rather than land:
But not one acre of taro,
For now we own one river of water, one handful of labor.
And all our dead and barely living,
one dozen dirty pages of American paper to feed our people
and govern our nation.
Haunani-Kay Trask responds to a racist listener, You Tube Video, 1:36.
Kathleen O'Toole, "Hawaiian nationalist discusses rights
Constitution doesn't recognize," Stanford News, April 1, 1998.
1:09:17 C-Span 3 video, James Haley lecture, "History of Hawaii and
the Life of Queen Liluokalani," March 16, 2017. American History TV video
from University of Mary Washington, VA. which traced Hawaii from James Cooke
through Western colonialism and settler colonialism of the islands based on
Haley's book, Captive Paradise: A History of Hawaii.
Kyle Kajihiro, "The Militarization of Hawai'i: Occupation, Accomodation, and
Resistance," Conflict Innovation Lab, March 2014. Description of how and why the US
developed, as a settler society, Hawai'i as a military state.
Adria L. Imada, "Aloha Oe: Settler Colonial Nostalgia and the Genealogy of a Love Song," American
Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 37, no. 2, (2013). Uploaded to
Academia by Adria L. Imada. From the Imperialist, settler colonial POV it is a
nostalgic song saying good bye to those leaving the island or those coming into
Hawai'i. Yet, from the perspective of Queen Lili' uokalani, deposed by
missionary settler colonists, 1893, could it be anti-settler and anti-colonial
and a reminder of what Hawai'i was prior to the American presence. Music/Song
as propaganda supporting settler colonialism. See another aspect of cultural
imperial and settler colonialism below. The Hula dance as propaganda.
Adria L. Imada, "Hawaiians on Tour: Hula Circuits through the US
Empire," American Quarterly, Vol. 56, no. 1,( March 2004). Uploaded
to Academia by Adria L. Imada. Dance, music as settler colonial propaganda.
Hawaiian women became ambassadors of "aloha" or welcome for an
American Imperial outreach and tourist marketing performed in New York City,
Chicago and throughout America. See book review of Imada's book of the same
Book Review. Lauren E. Sweetman, PhD candidate, Ethnomusicology, New
York University, "Adria L. Imada, "Aloha America: Hula Circuits through the US
Empire," Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2012, 392 pages. Uploaded to Academia by Lauren
"Obesity in Pacific Islands 'a colonial legacy' of settlers,"
University of Oxford, August 29, 2014. University of Oxford Study of people on
Nauru and Cook Island described highest levels and fastest rates of obesity
increase in the world (1980-2008). Cook Island was a British Protectorate in
1888. Colonial settlers changed lives of islanders who lost traditional food
growing and food preparation skills due to a dependence on importer Western
Candace Fujikane, "Asian Settler Colonialism in US Colony of
Hawai'i," Introduction, University of Hawai'i Press, 2008, 43 page
pdf. Introduction to Fujikane and
Odamura, Asian Settler Colonialism in the U.S. Colony of Hawai'i, University
of Hawai'i Press, 2008. See another version uploaded to Academia by Candace
Google book. Candace Fujikane and Jonathan Y. Okamura, eds., Asian
Settler Colonialism: From Local
Governance to the Habits of Everyday Life in Hawai'i, University of Hawai'i
Film Review. Maile Arvin, "Possessions of Whiteness, Settler
Colonialism and Anti-Blackness in the Pacific,"
Decolonization-Indigeneity, Education & Society blog, June 2, 2014. Maile
Arvin reviewed film "The Descendants," 2011 starring George
Clooney based on Kaui Hart Hemmings book with same title about wealthy Hawaiian
family and settler colonialism. Key words: Settler colonialism and white supremacy.
Dean Itsujo Saranillio, Social and Cultural Analysis Studies, New York
University, "Why Asian Settler Colonialism Matters: a Thought Piece on Critiques, Debates,
and Indigenous Difference," Settler Colonial Studies, 3:3-4,
(2013), 280-294. Uploaded to Academia by Dean Saranillio. Dr. Dean Itsujo
Saranillio used his own family history in Hawai'i to link settler colonialism
and Imperialism, frame and contextualize global politics and the Cold War with
Asian immigrants to Hawai'i who had to deal with White US settler colonialism,
fellow Asians, and Hawai'i natives.
Dean Itsujo Saranillio, "Settler Colonialism," chapter in
Stephanie Nohelani Teves, Andrea Smith, and Michelle Raheja, eds., Native
Studies Keywords, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, (2015), 284-297, posted on the web, Project
Muse, July 12, 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Dean Itsujo Saranillio.
Joseph A. Salazar, "Multicultural Settler Colonialism and
Indigenous Struggle in Hawai'i: The
Politics of Astronomy on Mauna A. Wakea," PhD dissertation, Political
Science, University at Manoa, December 2014. Astronomy expansion and telescopes
on sacred mountain of Mauna a Wakea, Kanaka indigenous people's native land was
"emblematic of the larger struggle over settler colonialism on Hawai'i.
Timothy Neale, Deakin University, "Settler Colonialism and Weed
Ecology," Engagement, Anthropology and Environment Society,
November 2, 2016. Dr. Neale described settler colonialism and encounters with
weed ecology in Australia and Aotearoa (New Zealand).
Michele Grossman, "When They Write What We Read: Unsettling Indigenous Australian
life-writing," Australian Humanities Review, Issue 39-40,
(September 2006). Settler colonial societies denigrate indigenous history,
culture to create a political, cultural, economic system in which
Indigenous peoples are a
"problem to be solved."
Renisa Mawani, "Law, Settler Colonialism, and 'the Forgotten Space'
of Maritime Worlds," Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences, Vol.
12, no. 1, (October 2016), 107-138.
Dr. Mawani began article with an analysis of Joseph Conrad's Heart of
Darkness in a maritime context and then breaks article into two parts. Part one described the intertwined legal
history of colonialism and settler colonial studies and part two looked at the
British maritime world as to last clipper ship built in Britain (1875) and the
Torrens system of land in South Australia (1858).
Irene Watson, "Aboriginal Laws and the Sovereignty of Terra
Nullius," borderlands e-journal, Vol. 1, no. 2, (2002). Survivor of
British terra nullius and settler colonialism in Australia.
C. L. Ogleby, "Terra Nullius, The High Court and Surveyors,"
originally published in The Australian Surveyor, Vol. 38, no. 3,
(September 1993), 171-189. Europeans for 224 years used Terra Nullius as law to
seize indigenous lands. In 1992 Australia the Mabo Land Case overturned that
law. This paper was a discussion of the High Court decision regarding customary
land tenure in Australia.
Peta Mitchell and Jane Stadler, "Imaginative Cinematic Geography of
Australia: The Mapped View in
Charles Chauvel's Jedda and Baz Luhrmann's Australia," Historical
Geography, Vol. 38, (2010), 26-51. Mitchell and Stadler analyzed the 1955
film, Jedda, and the 2008 film Australia in context of marketing
an "Australian look" to Australians and the Pacific region along with
a defense of settler colonialism as to mixed races and adoption of aboriginal
children by white Australians.
Crystal McKinnon, "Indigenous Music as a Space of Resistance,"
Chapter 11, Tracey Banivanua Mar and Penelope Edmonds, eds., Making Settler
Colonial Space-Perspectives on Race, Place and Identity, Palgrave
Macmillan, 2010, 255-272, uploaded to Academia by Crystal McKinnon. Crystal
McKinnon described indigenous Australian music as resistance to modern settler
colonial Australian society.
Elizabeth Strakosch and Alissa Macoun, "The Vanishing Endpoint of
Settler Colonialism," Area Journal no. 37/38, (2012), 40-62,
uploaded to Academia by Elizabeth Strakosch. Australian settler colonialism.
Elizabeth Strakosch and Alissa Macoun, "The Ethical Demands of
Settler Colonial Theory," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, nos.
3-4, (2013), 426-443. Uploaded to Academia by Elizabeth Strakosch. This article
by two Australian settler colonial researchers explored the strengths and
limitations of settler colonial theory (SCT) as a tool for non-Indigenous
scholars seeking to disturb rather than reenact colonial privilege. Based on an
examination of recent Australian academic debates on settler colonialism and
the Northern Territories intervention, Strakosch and Macoun described settler
emotions, knowledge, institutions and policies. See more on Australian Northern
Territories intervention in Melissa Lovell's second article below.
Melissa Lovell, "Settler Colonialism, Multiculturalism and the
Politics of Postcolonial Identity," Refereed Paper presented at
Australasian Political Studies Association Conference, Monash University,
Melbourne, Australia, September 23-26, 2007. A four-pronged analysis of
national identity in settler states with focus on Australia. Uploaded to
Academia by Melissa Lovell.
Melissa Lovell, The Australian National Centre for Indigenous Studies
(NCIS), "A Settlercolonial Consensus on the Northern Territory
Intervention," Arena Journal, no. 37/38, Special Issue: Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler-Colonial Present, 2012. Uploaded to Academia by Melissa
Lovell. In June 2007 the Australian
federal government initiated a policy program that aimed to transform
Aboriginal communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Many commentators and
scholars saw the stamp of racist settler colonialism in that policy. See
introduction to Arena Journal Special Issue below:
John Hinkonson, "Introduction: Why Settler Colonialism?" Arena
Journal, no. 37/38, Special Issue: Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler-Colonial Present. John Hinkonson's introductory essay to
this settler colonial series of articles in Arena Journal, 2012.
Keith Windschuttle, "The Fabri-cation of Aboriginal History,"
Koori web, presentation to The Sydney Institute, February 11, 2003. Dr.
Windschuttle challenged historians like Lyndall Ryan, the principal historian
of race relations in Tasmania, who claimed that settler colonists committed
"genocide" in Australia with British "covert government
Dan Tout, Federation University, Australia, "The Janus Faces of
Indigenous Politics." Uploaded to Academia by Dan Tout. Dan Tout
highlighted the angry arguments by Tim Rowse who railed against Patrick Wolfe's
settler colonial theory as "elimination paradigm" and The Arena
Journal and its book, Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler Colonial Present at the
2013 Conference of Australian Historical Association. Tout also highlighted the
Australian government recent reactions to settler colonialism and indigenous
Book Review. Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore, Brown
University, August-September 2006. The settling of White Australia written in
context of Australian debates over their founding history, i.e., the convict
Dr. Rachel Franks, "Governor Davey's Proclamation to the
Aborigines: A Curious, Colonial Object,"
State Library New South Wales. See 4 panel image as metaphor for Australian
atrocities inflicted on indigenous Tasmanians in the early 19th century.
||Figure 3: Governor Davey's [sic - actually Governor Arthur's] Proclamation to the
Aborigines, 1816 [sic - actually c. 1828-30]
Book Review. Thomas Keneally, "Rogues Continent," NY Times,
January 25, 1987. Review of Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987, 688 pages.
V. G. Kiernan, "England Rejects," London Review of Books, Vol. 9, no. 6, (1987). Kiernan reviewed two books on Australia's founding
including Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore: A History of the Transportation of
Convicts to Australia, 1787-1868, Collins Harvill, 1987, 688 pages.
Brittany Myburgh, University of Toronto, Graduate Student, "Our Old
Koroua: Modernism in
Aotearoa," uploaded to Academia by Brittany Myburgh. Who is allowed to represent a
"settler colonial state?" Do colonial settler artists paint the
picture of the culture, history, politics or does the Indigenous artist? Who
globally accepts that portrait? Case study of New Zealand European settler
"Pakeha" artists and Indigenous Maori modernism.
S. A. McAra "Indigenizing or adapting? Importing Buddhism into a
settler-colonial society," Journal of Global Buddhism, 8, (2007),
132-156. Uploaded to Academia by S. A. McAra. Description of indigenous
Australian angst and concerns about Buddhist stupas on and near their
aboriginal sacred sites. See another version of that research article: https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/1521/1/mcara07.pdf
Lorenzo Veracini, University of Wollongong, Australia,
"'Emphatically not a white man's colony': Settler Colonialism and the construction
of colonial Fiji," The Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 43, no. 2,
(2008), 189-205. Seen in University of Wollongong Research Online.
Richard Eves, "Unsettling settler colonialism: Debates over climate and colonization in
New Guinea, 1875-1914," Ethnic and Race Studies, Vol. 28, no. 2,
(March 2005), 304-330. Dr. Eves described the debates over climate and settler
colonization in New Guinea and if New Guinea would ever be "white man's
Southeast Asia Settler Colonialism
Ben Kiernan, Yale University, History, "Settler colonies,
ethno-religious violence, and historical documentation: Comparative Reflections on Southeast
Asia and Ireland," Chapter 14 seen in Researchgate.net. Full text (PDF)
available from Ben Kiernan, October 19, 2016. Comparative description of
16th-18th century violence against settler colonists in SE Asia and Ireland.
"Vietnam's Expansion and Colonial Diaspora, 1471-1859," Khmer
Circle, September 29, 2014. For Vietnamese, they have been 'victims' of
Chinese colonial diasporas, being physically, psychologically, culturally, and
intellectually displaced [settler colonialism]. This Khmer blog described Viet
"Nam Tien" or settler colonialism southward and genocides against
Cham and Khmer populations.
Tracy C. Barrett, N. Dakota State University, History, Philosophy,
Religious Studies, "Teaching East and SE Asia Through Asian Eyes," Asia
Network Exchange, Vol. 21, no. 2, (Spring 2014), 36-44. Note download available for this
article. East and SE Asian peoples reaction to settler colonialism, colonialism
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, "The Book That Killed Colonialism," NY
Times Magazine, 1999. The West wanted spices, Multatuli wanted Justice.
1859 Max Havelaar comparative to Uncle Tom's Cabin in the US,
became cause celebre for liberal Netherland's reform in Indonesia.
"West Papua: Forgotten
War, Unwanted People," Cultural Survival Quarterly, June 1991.
Armed liberation struggle of West Papuans against Dutch and then Indonesian
settler colonialism. Example of entire peoples joining the resistance.
Bart Luttikhuis and A. Dirk Moses, "Mass Violence and the End of
the Dutch Colonial Empire in Indonesia," Journal of Genocidal Research,
Vol. 14, nos. 3-4, (September 24, 2012), 257-276. Description of the brutal
1940's Dutch settler colonial history in Indonesia.
Nathan Down, Researcher, Humanities, Charles Sturt University,
Colonialism and Papau," E-International Relations, December 17,
2015. Dr. Down's article described the dynamics and enduring legacy of Dutch
rule in Indonesia and Papua and post-colonial Indonesia's settler colonial
efforts of the Melanesians in Papua.
David Webster, University of Regina, International Studies,
"Narratives of Colonization, Decolonization and Recolonization in
Papua," Active History, Canada, nd. Indonesian settler colonialism
in Papua and competing historical narratives of the Indonesian state and Papuan
Frida RG, Webster University, International Relations, Graduate Student,
"Settler Colonialism: The Case
of 'Transmigration' Program in West Papua," Slim paper uploaded to
Academia by Frida RG, nd. Summary of Indonesia's settler colonialism in West
Papua beginning in the 1970's under Indonesian President Soeharto who moved
thousands of poor Indonesians from Java to Papua under pretext of a
"Transmigration" program. Papua is rich in fertile land, gold mines, and natural gas. Frida RG's
12 page paper highlighted Indonesia's colonial resettlement to control the
Papua indigenous population as a profit motive.
Kjell Anderson, Netherlands Institute for War, Holocaust, and Genocide
Studies, "Colonialism and Cold Genocide: The Case of West Papua," Genocide
Studies and Prevention, Vol. 9, Issue 2/Article 5, (2015), 9-25, seen on
Stephen Wertheim, Columbia University, "Reluctant Liberator: Theodore Roosevelt's Philosophy of
Self-Government and Preparation for Philippine Independence," Presidential
Studies Quarterly, Vol. 39, no. 3, (September 2009), 494-518. Stephen
Wertheim noted that President Roosevelt was an ardent supporter of American
settler colonialism, but by his view of "self-government" in the
Philippines should be credited with the eventual freeing of the Philippines
from US imperial control.
Daniel P. S. Goh, National University of Singapore, Sociology,
"From Colonial Pluralism to Postcolonial Multiculturalism in Malaysia and
Singapore," Sociology Compass, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2008), 232-252. Dr.
Daniel Goh discussed colonial racisms, anthropology and construct of settler
colonial state institutions, ethnic conflicts of decolonization,
multiracialism, and globalization threats to that multiracialism in Malaysia
Marek Jan Olbrycht, University of Rzeszow, Warsaw Poland, Ancient
History and Oriental Studies, "Ethnicity of settlers in the colonies of
Alexander the Great in Iran and Central Asia," Bulletin of OFFICAS, Vol. 4, (2011). Alexander the Great settler colonialism 330 BCE in Iran and
Dustin Hosseini, "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia," Vestnik, The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, SRAS, The School of
Russian and Asian Studies, (December 12, 2005). Slim history of the Mongol
"settler colonial" presence in Russia, beginning in 1219.
Ian Wylie Campbell, "Knowledge and Power on the Kazakh Steppe,
1845-1917," PhD dissertation, History, University of Michigan, 2011. A 148
page dissertation on Russian Tsarist settler colonialism on the Kazakh Steppe.
Catherine Guirkinger, University of Namur, Belgium, Economics and Gani
Aldashev, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Paris, and University of Namur,
"Clans and Ploughs: Traditional institutions and Production decisions of Kazakhs under
Russian colonial settlement," perso.fundp.ac.be, August 5, 2015. This
paper investigated how Kazakh clans developed land under the pressure of late
19th century Russian settler colonialism.
Alexander Morrison, Nazarbayev University, History, Philosophy, and
Religious Studies, "Peasant Settlers and the Civilizing Mission in Russian
Turkestan, 1865-1917," Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth
History, Vol. 43, no. 3, (2015), 387-417. Uploaded to Academia by Alexander
Morrison. See Alexander Morrison's works on Russian and Central steppe settler
colonialism from Academia: https://nu-kz.academia.edu/AlexanderMorrison
J. Otto Pohl, "The Deportation of the Crimean Tatars in the Context
of Settler Colonialism," International Crimes and History, Issue
16, (2015), uploaded to Academia by J. Otto Pohl. The Soviet ethnic cleansing
of the Crimean Tatars in May 1944, the subsequent settlement of their lands
with Russians and Ukrainians, and the de-Tatarization of the peninsula's place
names has a number of similarities with other historical cases of settler
colonialism. Tsarist Russian moved in Tatar Crimea in 1783 and in 1856-1860
there was a massive migration of Tatars into the Ottoman Empire.
Book Review. Nicholas Breyfogle, The Ohio State University, David Moon,
University of York, UK, "The Plough That Broke the Steppes: Agriculture and Environment on the
Russian Grasslands, 1700-1914," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013 seen on
H-HistGeog, H-Net, February 23, 2015. Russian settler colonialism with focus on
agriculture, technology, and effect on the environment of the Steppes. See more
on this topic:
Michelle Sinness, "Empire of the Steppe: Russia's colonial experience on the
Eurasian steppes," UCLA International Institute, May 5, 2014. Summary of
historian Michael Khodarkovsky's presentation on Russian settler colonialism
and colonialism in the Eurasian central steppes and implications for current
crisis in Ukraine today. A slim article.
Middle East Settler Colonialism
Jamil Hilal, Sociology, University of Dar es Salaam (1974-75) and
Beirut, Lebanon, "Imperialism and Settler-Colonialism in West Asia: Israel and the Arab Palestinian
Struggle," Utafiti, Vol. 1, no. 1, 51-70 seen in Michigan State
University African e-Journal Project, Michigan State University Library.
"Settler-Colonialism, Memoricide and Indigenous Toponymic
Memory: The Appropriation of
Place Names by the Israeli State," Journal of Holy Land and Palestine
Studies, Vol. 14, Issue 1, (1998), 3-57, available online, The Edinburgh
Press, April 2015. Cartography, place-naming and the state sponsored
explorations were central to the modern European conquest of the earth, empire
building and settler colonialism.
Haifa Rashed and Damien Short, "Genocide and settler
colonialism: can a Lemkin-inspired
genocide perspective aid our understanding of the Palestinian situation?" The
International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 16, no. 8, (December 2012),
1142-1169. Raphael Lemkin, sociologist and specialist in International Law,
1950-1959, who is given credit for coining the term, "genocide,"
research in Australia is analyzed in Palestinian context. Lemkin described a
historiography of genocide and colonialism, especially settler colonialism as
Daniel Greenfield, "Islam is Colonialism, 'Palestine' is
Colonialism," Arutz Sheva, Israel National News, November 4,
2016. Mr. Greenfield is a freelance commentator with the David Horowitz Freedom
Center. Article in defense of Israel against charges of being a settler
colonial state abusing the rights of Palestinian people.
Pekka Pitkanen, University of Gloucestershire, "Ancient Israel and
settler colonialism," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 4, no 1,
64-81. Essay described ancient Israel as a settler colonial society.
Pekka Pitkanen, "The ecological-evolutionary theory, migration,
settler colonial, sociology of violence and origins of Ancient Israel," Cogent
Social Sciences, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2016), 1-23. Dr. Pitkanen analyzed origins of ancient
Israel from perspectives of four social-scientific approaches, including
settler colonialism, which he claimed fit together to interpret both biblical
and archaeological data to see Israel as a "settler colonial agrarian
frontier society that was considerably based on migration from outside and
where violence played a significant part in the formation and development of
that society." Pekka Pitkanen has two other articles including "Pentateuch-Joshua: a settler colonial document of a
supplanting society," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3,
(2014) and "Reading Genesis-Joshua as a unified document from an early
date: A Settler Colonial
Perspective," Biblical Theology Bulletin, 45:1, (2015). See
Pekka Pitkanen, "Pentateuch-Joshua: A Settler Colonial document of a
supplanting society," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 3,
(2014), 245-276. Pitkanen used Bible as resource for Israel's ancient origins
as a settler society.
Tovah Lazaroff, "Israeli Minister: The Bible not Google gives Israel the
moral right to land," The Jerusalem Post, March 28, 2017. Israeli
Communication Minister Tzachi Hanegbi stated in Washington DC that the Bible
gave Israel the moral right to place West Bank settlers and settlements within
"final boundaries of the Jewish state."
Irwin J. Mansdorf, "Is Israel a Colonial State?: The Political Psychology of Palestinian Nomenclature," Jerusalem Center
for Public Affairs, March 7, 2010. Argument by Irwin Mansdorf that Israel is
not a colonial settler state.
David Lloyd, University of California, Riverside, "Settler
Colonialism and the State of Exception: The Example of Palestine/Israel," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2012), 59-80 downloaded to Academia by David Lloyd June 25,
2015. Dr. Lloyd explained how Israel has defined itself as an exceptional state
surrounded by enemies, then deconstructs that argument presenting Israel as a
prototype settler colonial society.
Nadim Rouhana, "Homeland, Nationalism and Guarding Dignity in a
Settler Colonial Context: The
Palestinian Citizens of Israel Reclaim Their Homeland," borderlands e-journal, Vol. 1, no. 1, (2015). Nadim Rouhana described how Palestinians have
reacted to a Zionist Israel settler colonial state via popular rhetoric and
Thayer Hastings, "Palestinian Oral History as a Tool to Defend
Against Displacement," Al-Shabaka-The Palestinian Policy Network,
September 15, 2016. Following the Nakba of 1948, the Arab tradition of the
'hakawati' (storyteller) was used to defend against erasure of culture and
memory among Palestinians. Since then, oral history has served as a prominent
counter narrative in context of active settler colonialism.
Amelie Huber, "The Political Ecology of Everyday Life Under Settler
Colonialism, Pt. I, Reporting From Palestine," Entitle blog, September 2,
2015. This 3 part blog written by a group of Entitle Fellows which traveled to
Palestine in July 2015 to attend the International Conference of Critical
Geography in Ramallah. See two
other blog articles below.
Melissa Garcia Lamarca, "The Political Ecology of Everyday Life
Under Settler Colonialism, Pt. II, Reporting from Palestine," Entitle
blog, September 8, 2015. Note posters on Jaffa Oranges.
Amelie Huber, "The Political Ecology of Everyday Life under Settler
Colonialism, Pt. III, Reporting from Palestine," Entitle blog, September
16, 2015. Jordan Valley.
Magid Shihade, Institute of International Studies, Birzeit University,
"Global Israel: Settler
Colonialism, Mobility, and Rupture," Borderlands, e-journal, Vol.
14, No. 1, (2015). Shihade described Israel settler colonialism in Palestine as
a rupture in Palestinian culture and history.
Brenna Bhandar and Rafeef Ziadah, "Acts and Omissions: Framing Settler Colonialism in Palestine
Studies," Jadaliyya, January 14, 2016.
Arnon Degani, "Opinion//Israel Is a Settler Colonial State-and
That's Ok," Haaretz, Israel, September 13, 2016. Article in Haaretz written in
context of University of California, Berkeley, "Palestine: A Settler Colonial analysis,"
Muhammad Idrees Ahmad, Book Review, M. Shahid Alam, "Challenging
the New Orientalism: Dissenting
Essays on the 'War Against Islam,'" Islam Publishing International,
2007, 272 pages, Scoop News, New Zealand, March 13, 2007. Ahmad described Dr.
Alam's, Economics Professor, Northeastern University, Boston area, book as
divided into three sections with the first being Orientalist, Zionist tracts, the
earliest promoting settler colonialism in the Middle East with later
Orientalist literature more political.
David Shulman, "Palestine: The End of the Bedouins?" NY Review of Books, December 7,
2016. Israeli Settler colonialism.
20:00 Film Documentary. "Gaza in Context," 2016. See full 20:00 documentary or
4 five minute sections of the film. Israel as settler colonist.
Max Ajl, "Militarized Neoliberalism: Jeff Halpers' War Against The
People," Jadaliyya, December 3, 2015, Review of Jeff Halper, "War
Against the People: Israel, the
Palestinians, and Global Pacification," London: Pluto Press, 2015. Review began with a description
of Israeli cyber tools and weapons, remote sensors, mechanized micro-drones,
water cannons, used in settler colonial control of Palestine and Palestinians
with remaining article describing the US-Israel military industrial connection
in global context.
Aemer Ibraheem, Tel Aviv University, Humanities Graduate Student,
"'You Know What I Mean': Researching Masculinities and Borders Under Settler-Colonial
Context," APSA MENA Workshops: Alumni e-Newsletter, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (November 2016). Uploaded to
Academia by Aemer Ibraheem. Short paper as to limitations of in-depth
interviews as settler colonial research method in Middle East and North Africa
studies and how "silence," warning from the settler colonial power
can emasculate the indigenous peoples, in this case specifically, Syrian men
living in the occupied Golan.
Video lecture, 87:00, Mansour Nasasara and Sophie Richter-Devroe,
"The Naqab Bedouin and Colonialism: New Perspectives," Library of Congress, April 6, 2015. Historic
isolation of the Naqab Bedouin and settler colonialism including Israeli
settler colonial policies and settler colonial power structures.
Oren Yiftachel, "Naqab/Negev Bedouins and the (Internal) Colonial
Paradigm," Chapter 8, new papers, 2009, 289-318. Ben Gurion University
Paper described Israel settler colonialism of the Naqab/Negev Bedouins
beginning in 1948.
David Lloyd, "Settler Colonialism and the State of Exception: The Example of Palestine/Israel," Settler
Colonial Studies, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2012), 59-80.
Irwin J.Mansdorf, "Is Israel a Colonial State? The Political Psychology of Palestinian
Nomenclature," Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, March 7, 2010.
Irwin Mansdorf claimed that Israel's creation, far from being a colonial
transplant, i.e., settler colonial history, can actually be seen as the
vanguard of and impetus for decolonialization of the entire Middle East.
Haifa Rashid, Damien Short, and John Docker, "Nakba
memoricide: Genocide Studies and
the Zionist/Israeli genocide of Palestine," Holy Land Studies, Vol.
13, (May 2014), 1-23. Uploaded to Academia by Haifa Rashid. Essay furthered
debate on the Palestinian case as it relates to Genocide Studies and questioned
the lack of substantive discussion of Palestine in traditional Genocide Studies
fora. It re-emphasized the importance of settler colonial studies within this
See more resources from Haifa Rashid as to settler colonialism,
genocide, and Palestine:
David Ryden, Review, Natalie A. Zacek, Settler Society in the English
Leeward Islands, 1670-1776, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, in H-Albion, February 2011.
Cathy Matson, University of Delaware, Review, Natalie A. Zacek, Settler
Society in the English Leeward Islands, 1670-1776, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, 304
pages in H-Atlantic, January 2013. Matson summarized her review as claiming that English Caribbean settler
colonialism was another example of a continuity of "Englishmen
Dr. Kristen Block, "Cultivating Inner and Outer Plantations: Property, Industry, and Slavery in Early
Quaker Migration to the New World," Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol.
8, no. 3, (Fall 2010), 515-548, uploaded to Academia by Kristen Block. For
American Quakers during the seventeenth century, a careful moral calculus
permeated the Society's negotiations between their twin goals of spiritual
reflection and economic sustenance-balancing one's metaphorical plantations,
both 'inner' and outer. Dr. Block also described West Indian Quakers and their
migration of wealthy Barbadian Friends to the North American Middle colonies
and their influence in promoting African Slavery, slave plantation economy,
settler colonialism, and "quelling critiques of the institution."
Ralph G. Bennett, "History of the Jews of the Caribbean,"
sefarad.org, Los Muestros, June 11, 1993. Article seen in "the
Sephardic voice" Los Muestros on-line site described Jews as
successful settler colonists in the Caribbean.
The British in the Caribbean, British Empire website, Maproom. History of British settler colonialism
in the Caribbean. See other
resources and articles on the right side of this page.
Lucy McKeon, "The True Story of Rastafari," NY Review of
Books, January 6, 2017. 1930's origins of Rastafarism a stand against
British settler and economic colonialism.
Jason Antrosio, Review, "Spanish Conquest: Indigenous Allies and Politics of
Empire," Living Anthropologically, February 1, 2013. Jason Antrosio
reviewed Matthew Restall's Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest and is
critical of Jared Diamond's Gun, Germs & Steel thesis. Restall highlighted
indigenous allies and the Spanish and their settler colonists as reasons for
conquest, not the inevitability of guns, germs and steel.
Other digital resources:
Wim Klooster, "Communities of Port Jews and their contacts in the
Dutch Atlantic," Jewish History, 20, (2006), 129-145 seen in Researchgate.net.
In the late 16th century, Jews and conversos created a trading network that
tied together ports in Portugal, Brazil and the Netherlands. In the 17th
century Dutch colonies of Recife in Brazil and Willemstad in Curacao became
profitable Jewish settler merchant port colonies. This article focused on that
17th century history.
Nicole Jean Magie, "A Pearl in a
World on the Move: Italians and
Brazilians in Caxias, Brazil (1870-1910)," PhD dissertation, History,
Michigan State University, 2014. Italian settler colonialism in Caxias, Brazil
and a description of the settlement process and effects on Italians and
Benjamin W. Goossen, History Department, Harvard University,
"Religious Nationalism in an Age of Globalization: The Case of Paraguay's 'Mennonite
state,'" Almanack, no. 14, Guarulhos, (Sept/December 2016). Dr.
Goossen described a case study of Mennonite "nation building,"
settler colonialism in Paraguay in the 1920's and 1930's to argue that state
formation is not inherently modernist. Goossen traced 19th and early 20th
century discourses of Mennonite colonies in Imperial Russia, Canada, and
elsewhere as a "state within a state."
Karin Zbinden Gysin, "Re-Creating an Alpine Way of Life: Tyrolean Settlers in the Peruvian
Jungle," Journal of Alpine Research, 104, 3, (2016). This paper showed
how an ethnic group in Pozuzo, an old colony founded by Tyrolean and German
settlers in the Peruvian jungle, recreated an alpine way of life. This case
study, which is based on evidence from the field in Pozuzo and in Tyrol,
illustrated how cultural resources linked to 'alpine' ways of life are
constructed and claimed within the multi-ethnic rural community of Pozuzo as
well as in Tyrolean NGOs.
Richard Gott, "Latin America at the Dawn of the 21st Century," Alternative Museum-Thy Brother's Keeper, December 2005. Gott described
Evangelical Protestants, Pentecostals and Indigenous people beginning new
movements aimed at old Catholic hierarchies of Latin America. Pope John Paul II
denounced Progressive Liberation theology which was aimed at helping the poor,
the oppressed and the indigenous and many in Latin America did not like that
criticism. Gott claimed, "Most outsiders still imagine a continent of
confident white settlers from Europe, living in a society made secure by the
authoritarian military traditions of Spain and the narrow ideology and morality
of Rome." But, new movements as indicated by 2005 saw Indigenous peoples,
Evangelicals and Pentecostals changing this picture.
Richard Gott, "Latin America is preparing to settle accounts with
its White Settler Elite," The Guardian, November 14, 2006. Richard
Gott described Latino political, racial and class uprisings throughout Latin
America to white settler colonialism from Venezuela to Bolivia. Gott is author of Latin America as a
White Settler Society, 2007.
Ben Kiernan, Yale University, History, Wall of Silence: The Field of Genocide Studies and
the Guatemalan Genocide," Dreyers Forlag Oslo, 2016, seen in
researchgate.net. 1981-1983 genocide against indigenous Guatemalan peoples
conducted by state government that can be defined as a settler state.
Nancy D. Wadsworth, Political Science, University of Denver,
"Unsettling Lessons: Teaching
Indigenous Politics and Settler Colonialism in Political Science," For
PS: Political Science and Politics
class, "The Teacher," University of Denver, September 16, 2013.
Uploaded to Academia by Nancy D. Wadsworth. Article written in context of
2012-2013 "Idle No More" movement led by Canadian First Nation groups
who confronted contemporary settler colonial states. Dr. Wadsworth compared
state power and indigenous rights in the United States, Australia, and Latin
America in historical context and aimed her discussion at undergraduate
students in political science courses.
European Settler Colonialism
Benedikt Stuchtey, "Colonialism and Imperialism, 1450-1950,"
EGO, European History Online, January 24, 2011. An overview, introduction to
European settler colonialism.
Reinhard Wendt, "European Overseas Rule," EGO, European
History Online, December 3, 2010. Another overview, introduction to European
global settler colonialism.
Margaret Kohn, "Colonialism," Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy, 2012. This encyclopedia entry focused on relationship between
Western political theory and colonialism divided into sections: Definitions, Natural Law and Age of
Discovery, Liberalism and Empire, Marxism-Leninism, and Post-Colonial Theory.
Christopher Lloyd and Jacob Metzer, Chapter 1, "Settler Colonialism
in World History: Patterns and
Concepts," seen in Lloyd, Metzer, and Richard Sutch, eds., "Settler
Economies in World History," Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013. Lloyd and Metzer in this
first chapter of Settler Economies in World History described the
similarities of "Neo-European" settler colonialism worldwide.
Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson, "The Colonial
Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," Harvard-MIT web, June 22, 2000. Paper
describing how European colonizer mortality rates in a colony effected European
Andrea Smith, Media and Culture Studies, University of California,
Riverside, "Indigeneity, Settler Colonialism, White Supremacy," keep
ypsi black website, Washtenaw County, Michigan, February 19, 2016. Andrea Smith drew pattern for settler
colonialism, especially by Europeans, around the focus of slavery and white
Martin W. Lewis, "Delusional Mapping and the invisible Comanche
Empire," Geocurrents, March 11, 2011. Historical maps of North and South
America are often misleading. Many
cartographers portrayed vague claims to sovereignty by European powers, vast
areas they did not control, such as the Comanche empire, i.e., which may give
credence to original European settler colonial claims that the land was without
Zahir Kolia, "Colonial Theology: John Locke, Jean-Jacque Rousseau,
Charles Darwin and the Emergence of the Colonial-Capitalist World System,
1500-1900," PhD Dissertation, York University, Toronto, Canada, December
2015. Zahir Kolia analyzed European theology, political economy, and philosophy
for constituting the colonial-capitalist world system.
Mirjana Morokvasic, "'Settled in mobility': engendering post-wall migration in
Europe," feminist review, 77, (2004), 7-25. The end of the bi-polar
world and collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe saw many of those
former communist citizens migrating and settling in new environments especially
in Western Europe. Mirjana Morokvasic developed her thoughts on settler
colonialism, migration and gender networks as early as 1984.
Source of Dutch Imperial Image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Empire
||Figure 4: Dutch imperial imagery by Johan Braakensiek representing the Dutch East Indies,
1916. The caption says: The most precious jewel of the Netherlands,
alluding to Multatuli's designation "the emerald
belt" for the Dutch East Indies. Wikipedia.
Emma Keizer, "Multatuli's Max Havelaar through Postccolonial
Theory," Utrecht University Working Paper, November 1, 2015. Uploaded to
Academia by Emma Keizer. Ms. Keizer described Dutch Dutch East India official,
Eduard Douwes Dekker, who wrote under the pseudonym Multatuli, and his novel Max
Havelaar, 1859-1860, which criticized Dutch settler colonialism and
corruption in Java which began a colonial reform movement in the Dutch
Netherlands. It was Multatuli who coined the phrase "the emerald
belt" for the Dutch East Indies.
Dutch or Netherland settler colonialism digital resources can be seen in
SE Asian section, i.e., Indonesia, Papua and African section, South Africa.
Jessica Achberger, PhD candidate at University of Texas, Austin residing
in Zambia, Africa, "Belgian Colonial Education Policy: A Poor Foundation for Stability," The
Ultimate History Project, nd. Belgian settler colonialism's education policies
described as a reason the Democratic Republic of the Congo struggles today.
"Belgium's Imperialist Rape of Africa," World Socialist Web
Site, September 6, 1999. Review of Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost, Macmillan, 1998, gives Leftist perspective to settler colonialism in Belgian
David Prochaska, "The Political Culture of Settler Colonialism in
Algeria: politics in Bone
(1870-1920)," Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee, Vol. 48, no. 1, (Annee 1988), 293-311, seen in Persee, French research site. In
1911 the population of Bone, Algeria was 40,000 with 29% being native Algerian.
Book Review. Ms. Kelsey Suggitt, University of Portsmouth, review of
Sung-Eun Choi, "Decolonisation and the French of Algeria: Bringing the Settler Colony Home,"
London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015,
232 pages in Reviews of History, UK, January 2017.
Jim House, University of Leeds, UK, "The colonial and post-colonial
dimensions of Algerian migrations to France," History in Focus, UK,
Issue 11, Migration, (Autumn 2006). Would the migration of colonized
Arab-Berbers from Algeria to the French mainland be migration studies or
settler colonialism? Algeria was France's major settler colony. Algeria became
independent in 1962 yet Algerian migration to France was most extensive of all
colonial migration to Western Europe before 1960's. Late 19th century saw Algerian Arab-Berbers
flowing to work in French factories and serve in the French army during WW I.
Phyllis Taoua, University of Arizona, "The Effects of Censorship on
the Emergence of Anti-Colonial Protest in France," South Central Review,
Vol. 32, no. 1, (Spring 2015), 43-55. Uploaded to Academia by Phyllis Taoua.
Dr. Taoua discussed censorship and repression in Paris which hindered the
emergence of anti-colonial and settler colonialism protest during the 1920's
and shaped the beginning the Negritude movement in French West Africa. Note reference to Rene Maran's novel, Batouala, 1921.
William Clarence Smith, School of African and Oriental Studies, Review
of Tony Chafer, "Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Vision of Empire in
France," Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2001, 260 pages, Reviews in
History, accessed March 5, 2017. Tony Chafer described and analyzed French
propaganda promoting settler colonialism and colonialism as a 'new patriotism'
in late 19th and early 20th century France.
Elodie Saubatte, "French Algeria in Comparative Perspective: A Specific Form of Settler
Colonialism?" H-World post, May 2, 2016. Announcement for French workshop,
June 2016 with definition of settler colonialism as a new historiography and
research field, Bibliography of important Settler Colonial historians and
workshop schedule with presenter topics.
Musab Younis, "Racism, Pure and Simple, London Review of Books blog, August 24, 2016. Younis compared French attempts to unveil Algerian women
in 1958 Algeria and 2016 French police harassment of French Muslim women
citizens. Note reference to Frantz Fanon's "Algeria Unveiled," 1959.
Unveiling settler colonialism in Algeria.
Mirjana Morokvasic-Muller, et. al., "Immigrant France: Colonial heritage, labour (im)migration
and settlement," IDEA, Working Paper No. 2, December 2008. Paper
described French need for foreign labor and demographic deficit of the late
19th century. This population decline forced France to rely on foreign labor
and adopt foreigners as "future citizens in order to survive as a
nation." "Foreigner" as a census category was seen as early as
1851 with 381,000 "foreigners" settling in France with 1 million by
1881. As of 2008 twenty five percent of the French population claimed,
"foreign status" dating back only two generations.
Leopold Lambert, "State Misogyny: France's Colonial Unveiling
History," The Funambulist, August 14, 2016. Cannes Mayor David
Lisnard pushed formal ban on full-body swimsuits worn by some Muslim women on
city's beaches and 2010 French ban on face covering, i.e., hijab and niqab.
Some would say settler colonial unveiling policies continued in 2010 and 2016
Ramses Amer, "French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam-A
Study of Migration and Colonial Response," Moussons, 16, (2010),
57-80. Focus of research article was description of French colonial responses
and policies to increased Chinese settler colonialism, migration in to French
Julia Alayne Grenier Burlette, MA Thesis, History, "French
Influence Overseas: The Rise and
Fall of Colonial Indochina," Louisiana State University, December 2007.
Paper's focus is on French Vietnam.
"French Angry at Law to teach glory of colonialism," The
Guardian, April 15, 2005. More than 1,000 French historians, writers and
intellectuals signed a petition demanding the repeal of 2005 law requiring
school history teachers to stress the glory of French settler colonialism.
Jerry Frank, amateur genealogist, born in Southern Manitoba and
Volhynian German, FEEFHS, Foundation of Eastern European Family History
Studies, Vol. 17, no. 1, 2, (Spring/Summer 1999). Article on German
migrations/settler colonialism in Eastern Europe. See Home Page for FEEFHS with tabs at
top of page for maps, regions, religions, resources: http://feefhs.org/
See Forum featuring three essays on German settler colonialism military
campaigns, 1904-1908, in Southwest Africa and Hereros' genocide, German
Historical Institute, Washington DC, Bulletin, Issue 37, Fall 2005. Scroll down
to page 39 to see the essays: Isabel V. Hull, Cornell University, "The Military Campaign in
German Southwest Africa, 1904-1907," Gesine Kruger, University of Zurich,
"Coming to Terms with the Past," colonial war crime in Germany, and
Jurgen Zimmerer, University of Sheffield, "Annihilation in Africa: The Race War in German Southwest Africa,
1904-1908, and Its Significance for a Global History of Genocide."
Jens-Uwe Guettel,( "The US Frontier as rationale for the Nazi east
Settler Colonialism and Genocide of occupied Eastern Europe and the American West," Journal
of Genocide Research, Vol. 15, no. 4, 2013), 401-419, published online
December 9, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Jens-Uwe Guettel. Many scholars of
German and Native-American history and the field of genocide studies argue that
during World War II the Nazi's genocidal attempt to turn vast portions of
Eastern Europe into 'Lebensraum' [living space] for Aryan settlers was
connected to the near-extinction of American Native Peoples during the
'conquest' of the American West by the US. Dr. Guettel denied this
"straight link" between the settler colonial model of the American
West and Nazi Germany. Guettel stated flatly that the Nazis did not use the
American settler colonial model.
Jens-Uwe Guettel, "From the Frontier to German South-West
Africa: German Colonialism,
Indians, and American Westward Expansion," Modern Intellectual History,
Vol. 7, no. 3, (2010), 523-552 published by Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Uploaded to Academia by Jens-Uwe Guettel. This article argued that positive
perceptions of American westward expansion played a major (and so far,
overlooked) role for both the domestic German debate about the necessity of
overseas expansion and for concrete German colonial during the late 19th and
early 20th centuries.
Patrick Bernhard, "Borrowing from Mussolini: Nazi Germany's Colonial Aspirations in
the Shadow of Italian Expansionism," The Journal of Imperial and
Commonwealth History, Vol. 41, no. 4, (2013), 617-643. Uploaded to Academia
by Patrick Bernhard. Dr. Bernhard referenced scholars Benjamin Madley and
Jurgen Zimmerer for supporting the thesis that German crimes in Southwest
Africa were blueprints for German occupation and settler colonial designs on
Slavic Eastern Europe during WW II. Bernhard disagreed taking a European
regional approach by claiming that it was Mussolini's Fascist settler
colonialism and expansionist policies that was inspiration for Nazi Germany
Matthew N. Lyons, "Matthijs Krul on Nazi Settler colonialism,"
Three Way Fight blog, May 18, 2013. Matthew Lyons' anti-fascist blog cited
Independent Marxist Matthijs Krul and his works on Nazi settler colonialism in
Cnaan Liphshiz, "'White Jews', not, 'good Nazis': How Germany rejected Holland's settler
farmers," Haaretz, August 12, 2010, accessed in Haaretz, March 13, 2017. New research showed how a group of Dutch farmers that trekked
to Ukraine and Lithuania in WW II were spurned as 'White Jews."
Alexander Morrison, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, Nazarbayev
University, "Russian Settler Colonialism," Chapter in Lorenzo
Veracini and Ed Cavanagh, eds., The Routledge Handbook of the History of
Settler Colonialism, Abingdon: Routledge Publishing, (2017), 313-326. This chapter offered a brief
introduction to Russian settler colonialism in the European and Asian steppe,
Siberia and Central Asia from 16th to the 20th centuries.
J. Otto Pohl, History, University of Ghana, "The Deportation of the
Crimean Tatars in the Context of Settler Colonialism," International Crimes and History,
Issue 16, (2015) (Uluslararasi Suclarve Jarih, 2015, Sayi: 16), The
Soviet ethnic cleansing of the Crimean Tatars, the subsequent settlement of
their lands with Russian and Ukrainians, and the de-Tatarization of the
Margaret Dikovitskaya, "Central Asia in Early Photography: Russian Colonial Attitudes and Visual
Culture." Margaret Dikovitskaya was a 2003 Columbia University Kluge
Fellow who researched the Prokudin-Gorskii Photograph collection and produced
these works and research as a Kluge Center Project including this paper with
sample photographs at the end. Dikovitskaya described how Russian early color photographs of Central
Asian "Others" created a museum on the Russian screen and paper
resources which played a role in delaying the response to early 20th century
Central Asian nationalist demands because the Russian perspective shaped by
these exotic images portrayed the Central Asian as a "clown" and not
Yuri Smelyanski, "Russian Policy in Crimea is a colonization," Maidan of Foreign Affairs, Ukrainain Foreign Affairs website, September 19,
2016. Mr. Smelyanski described recent Russian occupation of the Crimea and
Ukraine as a settler colonial issue.
Kyle Hardy, University Do Porto, Portugal, "Unsettling Hope: Settler-Colonialism and
Utopianism," An Electronic Journal, 2nd series, no. 1, (2012),
123-136. Kyle Hardy linked Thomas More's Utopia and Utopianism philosophy
to British and European settler colonialism.
Terra Diana Walston Joseph, PhD Dissertation, English, "A 'Greater
Britain': Colonial Kin in Fictions
of Settlement, 1850-1890," University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
2011. Ms. Joseph described 19th century fictional narratives of white
settlement which represented "family" and a homogeneous British
settler empire, an Anglo-Saxon racial identity. That identity was viewed in
19th century travel narratives and fiction writings in context of mass
emigration of settler colonists from the British isles to US, Canada, New
Zealand and Australia. Joseph noted the contradictions seen in Irish Catholic
"families," but especially the absence of indigenous families from
Jerod Ra'Del Hollyfield, "Framing Empire: Victorian Literature, Hollywood
International, and Postcolonial Film Adaptation," PhD Dissertation
submitted to Graduate Faculty in English at Louisiana State University, May
2011. Mr. Hollyfield researched how adaptions of Victorian Literature made in
Hollywood by postcolonial filmmakers contend with the legacy of British
Imperialism and Settler Colonial Studies within Hollywood's role as a
multinational corporate entity. Chapters include analysis of Gunga Din,
Guy Maddin's Dracula, Peter Pan, Vanity Fair, Four
Feathers, Boy Called Twist, and Slumdog Millionaire.
"British Empire," Women in World History, George Mason
University, Module 8. Importance of women-both British women and women from
British colonies. How women helped define racial purity and proper gender roles
in settler colonies and back home in England.
Robert D. Woodberry, "The Shadow of Empire: Christian Missions, Colonial Policy, and
Democracy in Post Colonial Societies," PhD dissertation, Sociology,
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2004. Woodberry described the role
of Protestant missionaries in British settler colonies and their effect on
colonial policies as bridges between the indigenous people, settler colonists and
the British government.
Colonial Film Database: Moving Images of the British Empire. This website holds detailed information
on over 6000 films showing images of life in the British colonies. See by date or topic.
Ian Willis, Law, "'Just like England,' a colonial settler
landscape," uploaded to Academia by Ian Willis. Short paper with
photographs illustrating how early European settlers were key actors in a
place-making exercise that constructed an English style landscape aesthetic on
the colonial stage in the cow pastures district of New South Wales. Willis
described Duke and Duchess of York's 1927 visit to Menangle in that vein as an
example of the goal of settler colonialists which was to make the
"colony" like the homeland.
Jared van Duinen, Charles Sturt University, "Project MUSE-The
Borderlands of the British World," Review, Journal of Colonialism and
Colonial History, Vol. 15, no. 1, (Spring 2014). Six books reviewed which
use theoretical frameworks of British World and Borderland's Theory in studying
British empire migration and identity in the British world.
James Farr, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, "Locke,
Natural Law, and New World Slavery," Political Theory, Vol. 36, no.
4, (August 2008), 495-522, Sage Publications. Locke as agent of British
colonialism and settler colonialism and used by Southern apologists for
David Armitage, Harvard University, "John Locke: Theorist of Empire?" in Sankar
Muthu, ed., "Empire and Modern Political Thought,"
Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, (2012), 84-111. Seen in Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard.
Armitage's chapter described John Locke's relationship to settler colonialism
in North America and beyond.
Book Review. Dr. Stuart Ward, University of Copenhagen, Magee and
Thompson, "Empire and Globalisation: Networks of People, Goods and Capital in
the British World, c. 1850-1914," Cambridge University Press, 2010 in Reviews
of History, UK, December 2010. Magee and Thompson described the British
world of settler colonialism and imperialism which ended with WW I.
Pamela Clayton, "Imperialism and Colonialism, " Chapter 1 in Enemies
and Passing Friends: Settler
Ideologies in Twentieth Century Ulster," London and East Haven,
CT: Pluto Press, 1996, 9-32.
Google Book. Bernard Semmel, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism:
Classical Political Economy, the Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism,
1750-1850, Cambridge University Press, 1970. Bernard Semmel sought to
uncover some of the intellectual origins of the imperialism of the classic
period, the sources from which later theories of imperialism were constructed,
and the character of the ideology which underlay settler colonialism and
British expansion overseas.
Dr. Anna Ritchie, "Ancient History in Depth: Viking Colonists," BBC-History,
February 17, 2011. Early Viking settler colonialism in England.
Peter Skold, etc. al, "Infant Mortality of Sami and Settlers in
Northern Sweden: The Era of
Colonization," Global Health Action, 4:8441, (2011). Indigenous
Sami Infant mortality compared to Swedish settlers in Northern Sweden during
the era of colonization, 1750-1900.
Hakan Forsell, "Modernizing the Economic Landscapes of the
North. Resource Extraction, Town
Building and Education Reform in the Process of Internal Colonization in
Swedish Norrbotten," International Journal for History, Culture and
Modernity, Vol. 3, No. 2, (September 3, 2015), 195-211. The process of
internal settler colonization of Norrbotten before industrialization through
"Indigenous Resistance against Mining in Sabme and Culture as a
Decolonial Tool," Indigeneity, Language, and Authenticity blog
posts by Johan Sandberg McGuinne, August 19, 2013. Swedish indigenous Saami
people resist British and Swedish mining in northern Sweden with clever use of
music, art and language.
North America Settler Colonialism
Earliest North American Settler colonists' debate:
Brigit Katz, "Found: One of the Oldest North American Settlements," Smithsonian, April 5, 2017. Heiltsuk Indigenous peoples from central coast of British
Columbia, Canada origin and migration beliefs claim earliest people arrived in
North America from the coast.
"Archaeologist Challenged Historians," Smithsonian, March 12, 2017. In 1970's and 1980's Canadian Archaeologist Jacques Cing-Mars
found fossil evidence in Bluefish caves in northern Yukon as to possibility
that Siberians may have arrived in North America earlier than mainstream
historical belief as to Clovis culture 13,000 yrs. ago. See same article in Hakai Magazine: https://www.hakaimagazine.com/article-long/vilified-vindicated-story-jacques-cinq-mars?xid=PS_smithsonian
Kelsey Wrightson, "Two Row Wampum Treaty," Women Suffrage
and Beyond, January 7, 2013. One of the earliest North American European
settler colonist and indigenous treaties was the Two Row Wampum Treaty between
the Dutch government and settlers and the Iroquois in 1613. The treaty had
language as to land in the southeast Great Lakes region, much of which is
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, "Settler Colonialism and Genocide,"
2:00:38 Video Lecture, Simon Fraser University Video Library, British Columbia,
Canada, November 27, 2015. Dr. Dunbar-Ortiz is author of many Indigenous
American histories, but most recently authored "Indigenous Peoples'
History of the United States."
1:12:00 Video Lecture. Dr. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, "The Columbus
Myth: Settler Colonialism &
Genocide," Type Host, October 15, 2015. Vimeo
Video lecture at Fairhaven
College on her history, An Indigenous People's History of the US. See
many other resources as to Settler Colonialism in North America and article
posted by Type Host.
Michael E. Weaver, Gratz College, "Genocide of Native
Americans: Did the United States
and Canadian Governments Commit Cultural Genocide?" MA Thesis, Gratz
College, 2016 uploaded to Academia by Michael Weaver.
John Mack Faragher, Yale University, "When French Settlers Were the
Victims of Ethnic Cleansing," History News Network, April 17, 2006.
French Acadian settler colonists in Nova Scotia removed under orders of British
Sean Carleton, "'We Meant War Not Murder': A Punk Rock History Of Klatsassin and
the Tsilhqot'in War of 1864," Active History, Canada, October 23,
2016. Vancouver Punk Rock group, The Rebel Spell, had a British Columbia
settler colonial historic event as a theme for one of their songs.
Peter d'Errico, Review, "Christian Colonialism Challenged in Smart,
Provocative Book," Indian Country Media Network, August 9, 2014.
Steve Heinrichs, ed., "Buffalo Shout, Salmon Cry," Herald
Press, 2013, which presented a thesis of Christian settler colonialism in North
America, specifically, Canada, as a "torturous history" which
continues to damage indigenous people today. Steve Heinrichs is Director of
Indigenous Relations for the Canadian Mennonite Church. See Study Guide for Buffalo
Shout, Salmon Cry, below:
John and Steve Heinrichs, "Buffalo Shout, Salmon Cry Study
Guide," MennoMedia, Herald press. Conversations on Creation, Land Justice,
and Life Together.
Owen Toews, PhD dissertation, Earth and Environment Sciences, Graduate
Center, City University of New York, CUNY, "Resettling the City? Settler Colonialism, Neoliberalism, and
Urban Land in Winnipeg, Canada," 2015. Owen Toews' thesis described
analyzing the making of a 21st century city, Winnipeg, Canada, and longstanding
power relations that have shaped Canada's Prairie West and settler colonial
history for 150 years. Those relationships being neoliberal city developers and
encounters with Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in the region.
Malissa Phung, PhD candidate, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontaria,
Canada, "Are People of Colour Settlers Too?" Speaking My Truth,
Canada. This slim article on Canadian settler colonialism is part of other
articles seen on right hand side of this page.
Candida Hadley, Interview, article and audio podcast, "In Canada
every system of oppression is organized around settler colonialism," Halifax
Media Co-op, Nova Scotia's grass roots media, February 22, 2014. Interview
with Vancouver feminist Harsha Walia who believed that settler colonialism
organized all oppression, especially misogyny.
Ken Coates, Book Review, Jennifer Henderson, Settler Feminism and
Race in Making of Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003, in The American Historical Review, Vol. 110, Issue 5, December 2005, seen in Oxford University Press. Jennifer
Henderson focused on three "feminist" writings from 1839, 1885 and
Janey Canuck Books to examine role of white women in shaping settler societies
in Canada, especially race relations, British Imperialism and role of women in
society. See Janey Canuck in the West Book by Emily Ferguson, 1910:
Cindy Holmes, Simon Fraser University, Sarah Hunt, University of British
Columbia, and Amy Piedalue, University of Washington, "Violence,
Colonialism and Space: Towards a
Decolonizing Dialogue," ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, Vol. 14, no. 2,
(2015). How European settler colonists in British Columbia, Canada used law,
"legal rationale," to seize land and silence violence.
Jaskivan K. Dhillon, The New School, New York, "Indigenous Girls
and the Violence of Settler Colonialism," Decolonization: Indigenety,
Education and Society, Vol. 4, No. 2, (2015), 1-31. Canadian exemplar as to
settler colonialism and violence against indigenous women.
John Ahni Schertow, "Colonialism, Genocide, and Gender
Violence: Indigenous Women," Intercontinental
Cry, December 15, 2006. See revealing essay about the reality of Indigenous
People, particularly Women and what they have faced due to settler colonialism
in colonial North America.
Jennifer Henderson, Settler Feminism and Race, Academic Henderson cited
three Canadian feminist works and their comments as to settler colonialism in
Jared Sexton, University of California, Irvine, "The Veil of
Slavery: Tracking the Figure of the
Unsovereign," planetarities web, posted January 2015, originally in Critical
Sociology, 2014. North American context as to settler colonialism history
in Canada and USA and that history's effects on post-racism and decolonization
with a scan of recent literature on settler colonialism.
Gerald Taiaiako Alfred, PhD, "Colonialism and State
Dependency," Journal of Aboriginal Health, November 2009. Paper
describing Indigenous perspective and analysis of effects of colonization on
First Nations in Canada. Focus of 19-page paper was fundamental roots of the
psychological crisis and dependency of First Nations upon the state due to
Jody Berland, "Weathering the North: Chapter of North of Empire,"
Chapter 7 in North of Empire: Essays on the Cultural Technology of Space, Durham: Duke University Press, 2009, published
on-line Pro Quest elibrary web, November 2016. Chapter which addressed Canadian
colonial history, technical mediation and cultural discourses contributing to
Canadian representations of identity in terms of weather. Berland discussed the
successive waves of colonization, including today, and how those colonists
Scott L. Morgensen, "White Settlers and Indigenous Solidarity: Confronting White Supremacy, answering
decolonial alliances,"Decolonization, May 26, 2014. Description of
white supremacist attitude and settler colonialism in Canada. Note article
available in mp3 format in 16:34 audio podcast.
Jasmine Chorley, "The Green Ghost Over Red River: White Dudes Co-opting Indigenous
Resistance Since 1871," Decolonization blog, March 6, 2015. Discussion
about allies in activism, namely bad allies and how to be a good ally within
Canadian historical context of settler colonialism.
Sean Graham, "History Slam Episode Ninety-Three: Towards a Prairie Atonement," History
Slam podcast, Active History, Canada, 49:27, February 1, 2017. Canadian author
Trevor Herriot, Toward a Prairie Atonement, University of Regina Press,
2016, 110 pages, is interviewed by Sean Graham in this podcast which described
how the Regina region landscape was altered and changed by settler colonists
and how that environment can be salvaged today. Herriot, a descendent of
Canadian settlers, works with a Metis indigenous man toward solving and
improving the land.
Toby Rollo, "Feral Children: Settler Colonialism, Progress, and the Figure of the Child," Settler
Colonial Studies, (June 2016), published online July 2016. Uploaded to
Academia by Toby Rollo. Settler colonialism is structured in part according to
the principle of civilizational progress. Toby Rollo's thesis in this paper
stated that European empire settler colonialism depicted indigenous peoples as
children, i.e., savage/civilized binaries.
Anne Janhunen, "'Colonization Road' and Challenging Settler
Colonialism in Canada," Active History, Canada, History
Matters, November 3, 2016. Note review of Canadian film on settler colonialism, Colonization Road.
Joshua Ostroff, "'Colonization Road' is a Film. It's Also An Actual Road," Huffington
Post, Canada, October 23, 2016. Review of film, Colonization Road, hosted by Anishinaabe/Metis comedian and activist Ryan McMahon as to the
settler colonialism in southern Ontario, Canada.
Cameron Greensmith, "Pathologizing the Indigeneity in the Caledonia
Crisis, 2006-2007," PhD paper, Sociology and Equity Studies in Education,
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canadian
Journal of Disability Studies, Vol. 1, No 2, 2012. Settler colonial land
struggles and the news media in the Caledonia crisis.
Brian Bienkowski, Environmental Health News, "Pacific Northwest
Tribes Fight to Protect the Centerpiece of their Culture," Truth out,
Nov. 24, 2016. That centerpiece
being salmon threatened by development, pavement, pollution, farming and
European Colonization and the Native Peoples, Site for Language
Management in Canada, SLMC, uOttawa, Canada. History of European colonization
in Canada. Look to left of this
page to see other resources for Canadian colonial history.
David Gramit, University of Alberta, in Edmonton, Canada, Musicology,
"The Transnational History of Settler Colonialism and the music of the
Urban West: Resituating a Local
Music History," American Music, Vol. 32, No. 3, (Fall 2014),
272-291. Music as settler colonial propaganda in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,
early 20th century. Preview and abstract only. Gramit had mentioned in other
works that an 1897 Edmonton Celebration included native drummers, but by 1905
those were excluded from the city's celebration and included only European
Sarah Emily MacKenzie, PhD Thesis, "White Settler Colonialism and
(Re)presentations of Gendered Violence in Indigenous Women's Theatre,"
Institute of Feminist and Gender Studies, University of Ottawa, Canada, 2016.
Sarah E. MacKenzie's dissertation focused on three indigenous Canadian writers
and their plays which displayed female resistance and collective solidarity and
coalition against white Canadian settler colonialism and gendered violence.
"Sonny Assu Uses Graffiti to Reassert Native Culture," Smithsonian,
November 25, 2016. Sonny Assu, 41-year-old British Columbia native artist
mashes decades-old depictions of indigenous people with modern day art style.
Scott Kouri and Hans Skott-Myhre, School of Child and Youth Care,
University of Victoria and Brock University, St. Catherine's, Ontario, Canada,
"Catastrophe: A Transversal
Mapping of Colonialism and Settler Subjectivity," Settler Colonial
Studies, 2015, downloaded by University of Victoria, September 8,
2015. Uploaded to Academia by Scott
Kouri. Freudian/Lacanian unconscious effects on 21st century North America due
to settler colonial history.
Adam J. Barker, University of Leicester, UK, Carceral Archipelago
Project, School of History, Politics and International Relations, Post-Doc.
Studies, Collection/Bibliography of papers, articles on Canadian settler
colonialism, uploaded to Academia by Adam J. Barker. Barker stated he is
"a Settler Canadian who studies settler colonialism" and social
change in support of anti-colonial and resurgent Indigenous struggles. See more
articles and papers from Adam Barker Carceral Archipelago Project below:
Settler Colonial Studies articles and papers, University of Leicester,
UK, Carceral Archipelago Project, School of History by Adam J. Barker, Simon
Springer, Anthony Ince, Gavin Brown, and Emma Battell Lowman. Focus on Canadian
||Figure 5: John Gast painting (1872) depicting the philosophy of manifest destiny which
was the initial enactment of settler colonialism in the US. Photo courtesy
Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain. Introduction: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6iQeuzP2guk
1953 USIS, United States Information Service, 28:16 video documentary,
"Pt. 1, Scenes from American History: The New World," YouTube video. Colonial History of the United
States as to original settler colonialism in the New World. This would be a
European and United States Exceptionalist historiography as to settler
colonialism in North America.
5 part Documentary You Tube films, "We Shall Remain: America Through Native Eyes," Zinn
Project. 300 years of Native American history originally produced in 2009. Five
90-minute documentaries highlighting the American indigenous peoples before and
after European settler colonialism.
Layli Long Soldier, "The Freedom of Real Apologies," On Being
with Krista Tippett, April 1, 2017. The US gave an official apology to native
peoples for settler colonial abuses in 2009 but practically in secret. See
video and transcript of Oglala Lakota poet Layli Long Soldier interview with
Krista Tippett and her poem reacting to the 2009-2010 Department of Defense
Appropriations Act which "housed" the apology.
Other digital resources:
"New Mexico Pueblo Revolt," Archaeology Magazine. Pueblo Revolt, 1694, in northern New Mexico where indigenous people withstood a
Spanish siege. Early native stand against Spanish settler colonialism in North
Book Review. Ragina Johnson and Brian Ward, "Settler Colonialism
and its victims," International Socialist Review, Issue #97,
(Summer 2015). Review of Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoples'
History of the United States, Beacon Press, 2014, 296 pages.
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, historian, "US Settler-Colonialism and
Genocide Policies Against the Native American," brewminate, May 19, 2016. US policies and actions related to
indigenous peoples, though often termed "racist" or "discriminatory,"
are rarely depicted as what they are: classic cases of genocide. See reference to Gary Clayton Anderson,
"Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian-The Crime That Should Haunt
Layli Long Soldier, "38," On Being, April 8,
2017. Oglala poet honored 38 Dakota men hung under orders of President Abraham
Lincoln, which is the largest mass hanging in American history, with this poem.
Reflections and Resources for DeConstructing Colonial Mentality,
Sourcebook compiled by Unsettling Minnesota, September 2009. Texts and guides
from Andrea Smith, Waziyatawin, Dee Brown, Ward Churchill, Elizabeth Martinez,
Denise Breton, University of Minnesota collective members, and others. 211 page
coursebook for Minnesota focused resources as to settler colonialism.
Book Review. Annette Gordon-Reed, "The Captive Aliens Who Remain
Our Shame," NY Review of Books, January 17, 2017. Gordon-Reed
reviewed Robert Parkinson, The Common Cause: Creating Race and Nation in the American
Revolution, U. of North Carolina Press, 2016, 742 pages. Founding Fathers
set ideals which were refined over generations with a notion of progress linked
to settler colonialism which did not include native Americans and African
Americans. The notion of progress for example was the Westward movement which
removed the natives from their land and a plantation economy which would
Ethan Blue, "Finding Margins and Borders: Shipping Firms and Immigration Control
Across Settler Space," Arcade, Stanford University. Blue described
how "steamships and people who boarded them shed(s) light on the
financial, corporate, and migratory connections between settler regimes in the
late 19th century" by controlling or limiting Chinese or other immigrants.
Australia and US focus.
Arun Kundnani and Deepa Kumar, "Race, Surveillance, and
Empire," International Socialist Review, Issue 96, (Spring 2015).
Article began with Snowden 2013 NSA spying revelations and 2014 Greenwald and
Hussain's article as to specific targets of NSA spying followed by description
of 'settler colonialism' and racial security over time in US history.
Dylan A.T. Miner, Metis artist and scholar, Director of American Indian
Studies Program, Michigan State University, "Makataimeshekiakiak, Settler
Colonialism, and the Spector of Indigenous Liberation," seen in Nicholas
Brown and Sarah Kanouse, "Re-Collecting Black Hawk. Landscape,
Memory, and Power in the American Midwest," University of Pittsburgh
Press, 2015, Chapter 8, 219-235. Uploaded to Academia by Dylan A.T. Miner. See
University of Pittsburgh ad as to that book by Brown and Kanouse with sample
chapter, table of contents, description:
Primary Sources, Smithsonian Source. Three pages of digital Primary sources
for teaching American History. Primary source documents from American colonial
settlers and Indigenous people.
Daniel R. Mandell, "Shifting Boundaries of Race and Ethnicity: Indian-Black Intermarriage in southern
New England, 1760-1880," The Journal of American History, Vol. 85,
Issue 2, (1998), 466-501. Seen in Academic Room. Challenges and hardships from
settler colonists, native Americans inter-married with the settler
Oana Godeanu-Kenworthy, "Creole Frontiers: Imperial Ambiguities in John
Richardson's and James Fenimore Cooper's Fiction," Early American
Literature, Vol. 49, No. 3, (2014), 741-770. Uploaded to Academia by Oana
Godeanu-Kenworthy. Dr. Godeanu-Kenworthy claimed that utilizing settler
colonial theory to study early American literature can move us away from the
binary, traditional Empire versus resistance historiography pattern.
Evelyn Nakano Glenn, "Settler Colonialism as Structure: A Framework for Comparative Studies of
US Race and Gender Formation," Sociology of Race and Ethnicity,
Vol. 1, Issue 1, (2015), 54-74. Evelyn Nakano Glenn used a sociological lens to
theorize that "understanding settler colonialism as an ongoing structure
rather than a past historical event serves as...basis for analysis of US race
and gender formation."
Maile Arvin, Eve Tuck, and Angie Morrill, "Project
MUSE-Decolonizing Feminism: Challenging Connections between Settler Colonialism and
Heteropatriarchy," Feminine Formations, Vol. 25, Issue 1, (Spring
2013). Thesis of this article indicated a belief that the US is a settler
colonial nation and that settler colonialism continues to be a gendered
process. Note inclusion of
indigenous gender examples.
David T. Ratcliffe, "US Settler Colonialism-Driven by Genocide and
Land Theft," ratical.org, June 7, 2015, last updated July 2, 2015. Note
references to Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, historian and author of American
Indigenous People's History of the United States," Beacon Press, 2014.
Page is reaction to historiography of American Exceptionalism.
Sam Spurrell, "Indigenous Erasure in Plain Sight: Place Names in New England," Truth
out, January 22, 2017. Settler colonial history, desecration of place names
throughout most of New England, some advancements in recent decades leave room
Emilie Cameron, Carleton College, Geography and Environmental Studies,
Review, Glen Sean Coulthard, "Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of
Recognition," Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2014, 256 pages, AAG Review of Books,
Vol. 4, Issue 2, (2016), 111-120, published online March 21, 2016. Note settler
colonial historiography evident in this book and review.
Dwanna L. Robertson, Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Book Review,
"Decolonizing the Academy with Subversive Acts of Indigenous
Research: A Review of 'Yakama
Rising' and 'Bad Indians," American Sociological Association, Society of Race and Ethnicity, (2016), 1-5. Settler Colonialism.
Claudio Saunt, "How were 1.5 billion acres of land so rapidly
stolen," Aeon, Dec. 1, 2016.
Institute of Native American Studies, University of Georgia. Change over time, historiography,
Steven F. Riley, "1661: The First 'Mixed-Race' Milestone," Mixed Race Studies, March
12, 2012. Settler colonists in early British America defined racial laws,
especially as to marriage.
Patricia Engle, "Johnson v. M'Intosh Supreme Court Case,
1823," The Literature of Justification, Lehigh University student ongoing
project, January 2004. This Lehigh
University website dedicated to Washington Irving's 1809 "Gigantic
Question," as to what right the first discoverers (settler colonists) of
America had to the land and how could they take the land and country without
asking consent of the original Indigenous peoples or give them compensation?
Johnson v. M'Intosh, a John Marshall court decision, decided that the
"Indians" had no right to transfer land title by sale to private
citizens, in this case, 12,000 acres in southern Illinois. Ruling secured a
monopoly for the Federal government to do "business" with the natives. Note use of the Discovery Doctrine by
the 1823 Marshall Supreme Court.
John Ross, "Letter from Ross defending the Cherokees' right to
their land," Teaching US History. Primary source document, letter,
Cherokee chief, John Ross, defending the Cherokee nation and their land rights
in the face of settler colonialism, Washington City, July 2, 1836. See slim
biography and other Cherokee resources below:
Chief John Ross, Cherokee Nation website. Note other Cherokee resources
to left of this page.
"This Land Is Ours," Teaching Tolerance, Southern
Poverty Law Center, 2017. Ponca indigenous peoples lose their Nebraska land to
white settlers and US government during 18th and 19th centuries. See Discussion
questions with sample answers at bottom of this essay.
Beenash Jafri, "Desire, Settler Colonialism and the Racialized
Cowboy," American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 37, no.
2, (2013), uploaded to Academia by Beenash Jafri. Using the film, Indian
Country, Beenash Jafri discussed settler colonialism in North America
through race and the masculine cowboy.
Ato Quayson, "What Lies Beneath 'The Revenant,'" The
Guardian, February 22, 2016. Review of the Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu's
film, "The Revenant" placed in context of US settler
"Mormons and Natives Month at the JI," Juvenile Instructor
blog, November 2013. Mormon
blog, Juvenile Instructor, JI, posted several "essays" as to Native Americans and Mormon
settler colonialism in the Great Basin and Pacific Coast.
"Songs of the Mormons and Songs of the West," ed. Duncan
Emrich, From the Archive of Folk Song, Library of Congress, Washington, 1952.
Side A of "Songs of the Mormons" are secular and historical as to
their settler colonialism of Utah and the West.
Alysa Landry, "How Mormons Assimilated Native Children," Indian Country Media Network, January 11, 2016. This 2nd in a 3 part series on the
Latter Day Saints' Indian Student Placement Program which educated 40,000
native youth from 60 indigenous nations who were placed with Mormon families
Ojibwa, "Mormons and Indians in Early Utah," Native
American Netroots, September 11, 2010. Native writer's perspective as to
early Mormon settler colonialism in Utah, beginning in 1847, and effects on the
Paul Putz, "Religion in the American West: New Books Update, Religion in American
History, November 2014. Two book reviews by Paul Putz. Tash Smith, Capture
These Indians for the Lord: Indians, Methodism, and Oklahomans 1844-1939, University of Arizona
Press, 2014 and Anne Martinez, "Catholic Borderlands: Mapping Catholicism onto American
Empire, 1905-1935," University of Nebraska Press, 2014. Religion and
settler colonialism in the American "West" with Martinez's book being
more explicit on connecting empire and religion, specifically Catholicism in
the Southwest and Mexican borderlands.
Damon Sajnani, "HipHop's Origins as Organic Decolonization," Decolonization-Indigeneity,
Education, & Society, April 2, 2015. "HipHop culture at its
origins, is an organic decolonization of local urban space by internally
colonized people in post-industrial 1970's New York." HipHop globally as
reaction to settler colonial states?
Christie Toth, "Review-Seeing Settler Colonialism," College
English, Vol. 78, no. 5, (May 2016). Christie Toth in context of teaching
English and writing on a Navajo reservation considered the book reviews she
received from her students and decided to review the historical legacy and
persistent structures of ongoing US settler colonialism through 4 book reviews
on that topic.
Evelyn Nakano Glenn, "Settler Colonialism as Structure: A Framework for Comparative Studies of
Race and Gender Formation," Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, Vol.
1, No. 1, (2014), 54-74, American Sociological Association. 21 page pdf article
described how White Settler US state and political economy shaped race and
gender formation of Whites, Native Americans, African-Americans,
Mexican-Americans, and Chinese Americans.
Rachel Kuo, "Why Racial Justice Work Needs to Address Settler
Colonialism and Native Rights," Everyday Feminism, August 16, 2015.
Rachel Kuo as a second generation Taiwanese American included ideas from
Mniconjou Lakota journalist Tate Walker. Rachel Kuo described how settler
colonialism can be included in our work and fight against racism.
Iyko Day, Mt. Holyoke College, English and Critical Social Thought,
"Being or Nothingness: Indigeneity, Antiblackness, and Settler Colonial Critique," Critical
Ethnic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, (Fall 2015), 102-121. Dr. Day focused
article on race and American settler studies, specifically settler colonialism
and black studies.
Adam J. Dahl, PhD thesis, "Empire of the People: The Ideology of Democratic Empire in the
Antebellum United States," University of Minnesota, History Department,
July 2014. 320 page PhD thesis
which argued that "settler colonialism played a constitutive role in the
construction of democratic culture in the antebellum US." In other words,
"American democratic values realized through settler conquest and
Craig Fortier, Sociology, York University, Toronto, Canada,
"Stealing home: decolonizing
baseball's origin stories and their relations to settler colonialism," Settler
Colonial Studies, published online January 28, 2015. Uploaded to Academia
by Craig Fortier. The sport of baseball has played an integral role in
constructing a national identity in the American settler state. This essay analyzed baseball's
popularization as America's national pastime and its interconnections with the
formation of a settler society.
Michael Adas, "From Settler Colony to Global Hegemon: Integrating the Exceptionalist Narrative
of the American Experience into World History," Panel on Cultural
Encounters between the Continents over the Centuries, 19th International
Congress of Historical Sciences, University of Oslo, August 6-13, 2000. Note
comment in paper for American history and historians to use more global
perspectives in American historiography.
Gregg French, Western University, Review, Walter L. Hixson, American
Settler Colonialism: A History, New
York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 253
pages, seen in H-Net, H-USA, May 2014. See another version uploaded to Academia
by Gregg French: https://www.academia.edu/6600976/_American_Settler_Colonialism_A_History_
Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque, Unsettling America blog, "Settler
Colonialism Primer, UK," Films for Action, posted July 4, 2015. Perspectives
on American settler colonialism effects on the indigenous people of North
Alexander Lesser, "Cultural Significance of the Ghost Dance,"
American Anthropologist Association and the American Folk Lore Society,
Andover, MASS., December 29, 1931. 1890-1896 sympathetic account of American
native Ghost Dance religious reaction to overwhelming settler colonialism by
Joshua L. Reid, University of Mass., Boston, "The Sea is My
Country: The Maritime World of the
Makahs," New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2015, 400 pages. Reid described the maritime world of the
most extreme northwest US indigenous tribal nation, the Makahs, from 1788 to
the Present and their dealing with European settler colonists. Note effect of
settler colonialism on the maritime Makah, 2008 gray whale court case described
Paul Shukovsky, "Makah 'Treaty Warriors': Heroes or Criminals? Seattle pi,
March 16, 2008. See 4 images at beginning of article. Five Makah whalers took a gray whale
under their mid 19th century treaty rights and are sued by the government for
doing so. Example of settler
colonialism history on indigenous peoples in current times. See Makah Tribal
Council website: http://makah.com/makah-tribal-info/
Wayiyatwin, "Understanding Colonizer Status," Unsettling
America blog-Decolonization in Theory and Practice, September 6, 2011.
Wayiyatwin, a Dakota, described "colonizer status" in context of
Albert Memmi's ideas on that topic and took issue with some of Memmi's points
and defended the Dakota people's rights to their ancestoral lands taken by
Kat Eschner, "The Little House on the Prairie was built on
Native American Land," Smithsonian, February 7, 2017. Laura Ingalls
Wilder's life as a white settler family on the American prairie was serialized
by novels and a television series. First published in 1935, Little House became
a popular best seller. Recent historical research has found that the Wilders
were part of a squatter group of white settlers on Osage Diminished Reserve
From Standing Rock, Taking Things Back on Thingstaken, telesur TV, Nov.
24, 2014. Bettina Castagno of the Mohawk nation, stated, "We are all
united here for life, for water." Natives protesting the oil pipeline near
the Dakota Standing Rock reservation think in terms of settler colonialism.
Kayla DeVault, Navajo Perspective. "Four Ways to Look at Standing Rock: An Indigenous Perspective," Truth
out, November 25, 2016. Navajo perspective as the environment and earth in
context of the Dakotas Standing Rock oil pipeline protests and the continued
21st century threat of settler colonialism.
Tim Scott, "The Dakota Access Pipeline and the Doctrine of Native
Genocide," Truth out, December 6, 2016. The treatment of Native
Water Protectors at Standing Rock harks back to white settler colonial
attitudes predating Columbus.
Anne Spicer, "Interrupting Industrial and Academic Extraction on
Native Land," Cultural Anthropology, December 22, 2016. Part of
Standing Rock series.
Native American perspective on settler colonialism and industrial and
academic theft by Europeans since they entered "Turtle Island," which
is the Americas, specifically North America.
Kyle T. Mays, Black/Saginaw Anishinaabe historian, urban history,
Afro-Indigenous and Indigenous Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill, "The #FlintWaterCrisis is Not just a Black Issue, it is also an
indigenous issue," Decolonization blog, January 20, 2016. Framing,
contextualizing the Flint War poisoning in indigenous and settler colonial
Claire Urbanski, UC Santa Cruz, "Genocidal Intimacies: Settler Desire and Carceral
Geographies," paper presented at American Studies Association conference,
2016. Dr. Urbanski expressed gratitude for Black Studies on Whiteness and
racism which flowed into her work on Indigenous studies in the United States
and claimed her presentation was in context of the Standing Rock Access
Pipeline protests in the Dakotas.
Sarah Maddison, University of Melbourne, Social and Political Sciences,
"Indigenous reconciliation in face of settler colonialism in the US shows
how sovereignty and constitutional recognition work together," The
Conversation, May 16, 2016. See Vox article specific to US and Standing
Rock Dakota fight:
German Lopez, The big, nearly 200-year-old legal issue at the heart of
the Dakota Access pipeline fight," Vox.com, March 13, 2017. Tribal
sovereignty originating out of three treaties in the 1820's-1830's are focus of
Indigenous Dakota in their battle to protect water near their lands.
See other articles in The Conversation series below:
See articles on Indigenous reconciliation as to US, Sami in northern
Finland, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, The Conversation, May 2016.
Series in line with Settler colonialism in Sarah Maddison article above.
Previous Digital Resource Articles in World History Connected with relevance to this subject:
"Digital Resources for Visualizing the Invisible Other through Art,
Photography and Film," World History Connected, Vol. 9, Issue 2,
"Digital Resources for the Other in World History," World
History Connected, Vol. 9, Issue 3, October 2012.
"Digital Resources for Port Cities in World History," World
History Connected, Vol. 13, no. 1, February 2016. Part of Forum on Port
Cities in World History WHC edition. See that edition:
"Digital Resources for Travel Writing and Travel Narratives in
World History," World History Connected, Vol. 10, no. 2, June 2013.
Travel writing and narratives were used by governments, religion, and settler
colonists as propaganda, advertisement, and history. Perhaps some of these
digital resources, lessons, could fit into the settler colonial field.
John Maunu is Digital Resources Editor for WHC, AP College Board World
History consultant, and APWH consultant for Grosse Ile High School and
Cranbrook/Kingswood School, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.