Bentley, Jerry and Herbert F. Ziegler. Traditions & Encounters: A
Global Perspective on the Past, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill,
2003). 1169 pp, 2 Instructor's CDs (PC or Mac), online supplements for instructor
and students, map transparencies available for purchase, $96.25 both volumes.
I read the first edition of Traditions
and Encounters with great pleasure. I have now read the second edition
of this magnificent textbook with equal pleasure, taking voluminous notes.
In spite of this reviewer's grumbling and mumbling and criticism later on
- only to be expected - I am truly overwhelmed by the scope and the excitement
of this book. There is a grandeur to it. There is responsibility. There
is an ongoing sense of the very wonder of the human epic. Unfortunately,
it is also very long and very heavy.
I want to make it clear from the beginning
that my review is focused upon the book and the electronic supplements as
teaching tools. I never wrote a world history text, and I am not an historian.
I was a history teacher, and books were tools. While I never taught with
synchronized supplements, I was, in the last five or six years, using the
internet with a full-time, on-screen, in-class projection capability.
This textbook is - deservedly - one of the
most widely used and most important world history texts, both for college
survey courses and for Advanced Placement courses taught at various levels
in high school. This second edition has been updated to include far more
non-European material, more on migrations and on environment, on globalization
of the Cold War, and on more recent globalization as well as terrorism and
the AIDS crisis. A glossary of unfamiliar terms has been added.
Traditions & Encounters has several
distinctly different, commendable, and deserving peers, but this review
will be descriptive rather than comparative. For information on a variety
other such textbooks, I would recommend an instructive article by Tom Laichas
in the May edition (Vol. 1, No. 2) of this journal.1
The distinct dichotomy of student audiences
contributes a measure of schizophrenia to all of these survey textbooks.
Because high school Advanced Placement tests place a certain premium on
coverage - if only because students benefit from breadth in choosing and
designing essays - there is a certain tendency to jam in Theravada Buddhism
or Aristotelianism or the Olmecs or Omdurman whether you are very interested
in them or not, or whether you have sufficient space to do them justice.
On the other hand, college survey courses are intended to attract
a few students to the profession and to provide them with background. At
the same time, they are also supposed to give most of the other students
- potential engineers, soldiers, lawyers, business managers, technicians
and chemists - a sense of the sweep, drama, insight, and utility of a field
which can both serve them and protect them as they go through life.
No survey text can even begin to do "everything."
Even a book this size represents but the tiniest tip of a most gargantuan
iceberg. Authors choose what they will do. This is a book that focuses upon
trade as the most important connection among "complex societies"—and
thus trade features largely as the stimulus that created the global interdependencies
with which we are confronted today. This means that the book is, primarily,
a book about people living in cities and towns or traveling among them.
Although the authors try their very best to include the impact of cities
upon gathering/hunting peoples and pastoralists and peasant villages - those
people who were the vast majority of human beings in history - they inevitably
devote the greatest space to urban events and concerns. Economic enterprise
and diffusion and competition, as well as foreign policy, states, empires
and warfare, dominate. There are significant sections in each chapter on
culture and society, but they often seem isolated from the main themes.
On the other hand, Bentley and Ziegler try
to deliberately minimize the usual mythic anthropomorphization of states
and empires, and to maximize biographical data about real, human decision-makers
and the causes of their specific decisions. This is a laudable contribution
to a revolution long needed in the profession. I felt a sense of engagement
and energy in this text, a vital perception of the constant activity and
energy of individual humans. The book has shortcomings, but dryness is not
one, and I was not bored. Given the time and inclination to read carefully,
I would trust the average student to be caught up in the drama of the human
adventure, and the pragmatic need for a self-interested individual to explore
it. Each chapter begins with a human vignette, usually superbly chosen and
crafted. The illustrations were equally well chosen and presented, and the
document excerpts were very carefully selected to both provoke discussion
and to link them to the point of the chapter.
The shortcomings of the book stem not from
its scholarship, which is superb, nor from its design and structure. They
come simply from the previously noted need to focus and to edit. Once one
decides upon the centrality of trade, one necessarily decides what must
be marginalized. I would not send a student to this book for its description
of world religions, or to watch their divergence and elaboration and diffusion
and philosophical maturation. Science and technology are dealt with far
more, but even these lack space for adequate explanation of important theoretical
complexities or revolutionary impacts. The unprecedented and radical effect
of Indian numerals—and zero—upon European thought does not come
through, nor does the explosive and revolutionary impact of instantaneous,
long-distance electronic communication for the illiterate peoples within
towns and cities.
Neither—surprisingly—would I send
a student here for a clear sense of geographical determinants. Most of the
maps are political, mercantile or military rather than physical. This is
not a book to leave a student with a deep and abiding sense that literate
people were few and far between in the history of our species, or that,
to this day, "indigenous cultures" strive to organize nationally and globally
to lessen the devastating impact which trade and "civilization" still have
upon their languages, cultures, rituals, and values. This is primarily the
story of a small, select urban, literate elite. It is no accident that "civilization"
came from civitas, civitatis - the citizen of a town or city. However, the
history of civilizations is not by any means coterminus with the history
In the execution of its chosen task,
the book is magnificent. "Trade" does not begin to capture the complexity
of products and movements and migrations and ports and fleets and caravans
which emerge with clarity, with precision, and with the excitement
of a human drama. Economics can never again seem dull or dry after reading
this superb account. It captures, documents and dramatizes what is often
conceived of as wearying. While doing this, the authors demonstrate the
centrality of trade in any analysis of how humanity has come to be where
it is today.
I was enchanted—virtually overwhelmed
by—the supplements. The teacher's discs offer a manual which, for
each chapter, provides an overview, a guide to discussion, and a lecture
strategy. They contain photographs. They allow the editing of quizzes and
tests. My impression was that these would be of immense value to a newly-appointed
instructor terrified at confronting 40,000 years of human history. There
are PowerPoint maps and lecture outlines. Overhead map transparencies are
available for purchase if computer projection is not available.
The Student Center Online provides chapter
overviews, marvelously detailed chapter outlines, study questions, and interactive
maps. There are elaborate internet activities, providing the chance to work
with a wealth of documents online, as well as a section of "weblinks" which
directs students to an unimaginable variety of text, graphic and other sites
dealing with entire societies and periods. To test oneself, there are short
answer essay questions, multiple-choice quizzes, matching quizzes and a
relatively simplistic "Who Am I?" quiz. My impression from teachers and
instructors is that more of them use these as extra-credit exercises, or
as intellectual games to engage a computer generation, rather than to rely
upon them as major determinants of grades. (There is the capacity to have
the results sent directly to the teacher's computer). This may not be true
of college instructors facing a course with, perhaps, 500 students. For
them, these supplements might well mean survival.
I am certain that Traditions and Encounters
will continue to be a leader among world history survey textbooks. It simply
cannot fail to be. It challenges students to move beyond simple chronologies
to confront the fascinating, serious and exciting analytical and interpretive
questions and skills which are not only the discipline at its best, but
the discipline at its most necessary for ordinary citizens.
Emma Willard School
Tom Laichas, "On My Desk: History and the Textbooks" World History
Connected May 2004 <http://www.worldhistoryconnected.org/1.2/laichas.html>(13