World History Connected Home    
Home List journal issues Table of contents
Printer-friendly format  Article citation        

Finding Music for World History Classes

Tom Laichas


     Next week, my students will listen to their next text: Tropicalia, a 2-CD anthology from Brazil's 1960s. Here they'll find Tom Ze and Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso and Gal Costa, Os Mutantes and Jorge Ben. They'll also find a 50-page booklet that puts the music in its contexts: mid-century Brazil's regional, racial, and economic tensions, its relationships with global pop culture, and its rapid social change – all playing out in the shadow of military dictatorship. Of all the sources I require, this remains the most popular and among the most provocative.1

     It's not news that music can appeal powerfully to students and illuminate otherwise obscure world-historical connections. Workshops at NCSS, AHA and other venues regularly make this point. So too do articles in teaching journals.2

     Once I decided to systematically incorporate music into my curriculum, I had to actually find the right music. This was not as easy as downloading a track from iTunes. In fact, I ended up spending a good long time leafing through music encyclopedias, sniffing out web sites, browsing magazine racks and scanning recording company catalogues. I've spoken to other teachers who have done the same.

     This article aims to others the trouble of reinventing the wheel. I begin with two stories, illustrating two approaches to searching for music. I then offer two lists: the first of world music reference resources, and the second of music retailers, labels, promoters, websites and radio broadcasts.

     Two cautions are in order. First, much of the music useful in world history classrooms lives in a catch-all genre called "world music". Obviously, there are plenty of genres that overlap "world music". This can be confusing. Browsing the world music bin, you might run across "The Mexican Revolution: Corridos" (Arhoolie Records 1997). But if you want contemporary corridos on Mexican politics, you're more likely to find them (at least in the United States) under "Latin". Calypso is world music, but Reggae has its own section. 18th century Greek popular music is in the "world" or "international" section but 11th century Byzantine hymns show up in the "Classical" section behind the "Early Music" tab. Once common among brick-and-mortar music retailers, such inconsistencies persist online.

     Second, little of the music available from the sources below dates back further than the 15th century. An article on finding recordings of ancient, classical and postclassical compositions will appear in a future issue of WHC.

Searching For Music: Two Curricular Anecdotes

The Accidental Curriculum: Music and the Afro-Atlantic

A lot of musical connections to classroom are serendipitous: aimless browsing rewards patience. Luckily, Amoeba Records, one of the last surviving big brick-and-mortar music retailers, has its Los Angeles store just a half hour from my door. Spending the better part of an evening there a few years ago, I found a promising CD in the Caribbean bin: "Drums of Defiance: Maroon Music from the Earliest Free Black Communities of Jamaica" (Smithsonian Folkways). As much as I considered possible curricular connections (the 18th c. Atlantic world, slavery, the African diaspora), it was the Smithsonian label itself that caught my attention: Smithsonian packages extensive notes – these can include translations, historical background and musical notation – into all its albums, whether in CDs or downloads. As a stand-alone musical illustration, "Drums of Defiance" ornamented a couple of class sessions that year.

     The following year, scanning titles on Second Spin's World Music page (; find world music under "browse CDs"), I found another Smithsonian CD, "Capoiera Angola." A couple of years before, a student had introduced me to capoeira, a Afro-Brazilian song-dance-martial arts music, but I hadn't sought it out. $7.99 later, I cracked open the case and – what luck! – the first track turned out to be "Rei Zumbi dos Palmares." Palmares was the largest and most resilient of the 17th century quilombos (communities established by escaped slaves in Brazil) and King Zumbi was its preeminent, and now mythic, personality. At a friend's suggestion, I added the Gilberto Gil's soundtrack Carlos Diegues's film "Quilombo" (1984). Meanwhile, listening to PRI's "The World", I heard a story about an the Garifuna, a Caribbean islands people descended from both escaped slaves and indigenous Caribs and Arawaks: following several rebellions, the British had exiled them to Central American coastal settlements. That led me to a Garifuna band, the Lebeha Boys.

     These finds culminated in a much richer unit on the 17th - 18th century Afro-Atlantic. Now I needed to put the music into a deeper context, both for myself and my students. I started fleshing it out with George Reid Andrews, Afro Latin-America: 1800-2000.3

     The central strategy here is aimless rummaging. The web sites listed below, including Second Spin, the Smithsonian, MondoMix, National Geographic, and iTunes are great for rummaging. with CDs on their way out, the market is flooded with them. I may be alone in the pleasure I take in physically thumbing through a bin of plastic cases, but I am happy to live in a city that still has a few second-hand music stores around.

The Purposeful Curriculum: Modern India Beyond Gandhi

I had long wanted to plan a few lessons on 20th century India. Rather than wait until I happened upon the appropriate music, I planned my research in advance.

     Most of the curricular materials I have place Gandhi in the center of the story. I like one package in particular [National Ctr for Hist in Schools], which does a good job leading students through comparison of the two. While some students have a decent grasp of their careers, many do not, and this source meets their needs.

     However, I believe that letting Gandhi speak for modern India leaves students with some grossly distorted ideas about the country. These distortions develop because Gandhi, as an international culture hero, pushes nearly everyone else in 20th century history off the stage. To show students what's happening, I needed music.

     First, I wanted music that the generic Indian identity Gandhi has come for many people to represent. Gandhi was, after all, influenced by his readings of Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, as well as with the Bengal Enlightenment and the works of Rabindranath Tagore. This is the Gandhi of Richard Attenborough's film, leading tens of thousands on the salt march. The music for this version of India Gandhi, composed by Ravi Shankar. Shankar's body of work has, of course, practically defined "Indian" music since the late 1950s – which is exactly why his work fit the film. The music of India's own film industry in the 1930s and 1940s would not have worked.4

     Second, I wanted music that would capture the idea that, for some people worldwide, Gandhi transcended his Indian-ness to become an International Holy Man, a secular saint arrived to remind the world of its material sins. This particular narrative draws its power from Gandhi's place in the history of nonviolent theory, a delivering the ideas of Tagore, Thoreau and Tolstoy to Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela. This Gandhi, belonging to us all, is front and center in Philip Glass's opera Satyagraha (recently revived in New York to critical acclaim). Gandhi himself might have drawn pleasure from Glass's recursive tensions and drone-like meditations. However, they say far more about Gandhi as metaphor than Gandhi as political actor.5

     The Shankar and Glass recordings are widely available and easy to locate. The same is not true for the rest of the music on my list. For instance, I wanted music to Gandhi himself enjoyed. Buried in the hundreds of Gandhi anthologies and biographies are undoubtedly references which would lead me in the right direction, but because I did not have the time for that research, I decided I'd have to do without. Still, without expecting to find anything, I ran a Google search for "Mohandas K. Gandhi's music". To my surprise, I found a reference, "Google Book Result" for Nicholas F. Gier's Virtue of Nonviolence. There Gier mentions that Gandhi eulogized one Pandit Khare "who taught music in [Gandhi's ashram" and composed the prayers and hymns known as shlokas. I couldn't find any recordings by Khare himself, but I had no trouble finding other shlokas on iTunes.6

     So: I now had the musical documentation for lessons on the ways people worldwide have constructed Gandhi's biography. I could, for instance, have students read some of Gandhi's work, play an excerpt Glass, and ask how Glass represented Gandhi differently from Shankar. I could compare Shankar's score against more typical shlokas and, for that matter, against Indian film music of the mid-20th century (I have a small collection of that too). What, students might consider, is the "essence" of Gandhi? 20th century political leader? Nonviolent theorist? Spiritual ascetic? Crafty political virtuoso? Which musics best served these purposes?

     I next needed music that would challenge the whole idea of defining India's 20th century around Gandhi's legacy. Typically, a student learning about Gandhi's nonviolence will learn next to nothing at all about Subhas Chandra Bose's nationalist militance, M. N. Roy's revolutionary communism, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Islamic separatism, Vināyak Sāvarkar's Hindutva communitarianism, Arana Asaf Ali's Communism and feminism, or B.R. Ambedkar's anti-caste egalitarianism. Even Nehru shrinks in Gandhi's shadow, becoming, in some accounts, little more than Gandhi's better-dressed socialist sidekick. Too sharp a focus on Gandhi also encourages students to dismiss South Asian history since 1947 as a betrayal of Gandhi's principles by his lesser heirs, as though every Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Sri Lankan leader had taken a pledge to Gandhi's vision. To reduce India to Gandhi-Land does violence not just to India's past but to world history generally. It encourages students to see other independence struggles with pity or contempt: why didn't they produced a Gandhi? What was wrong with them?

     Since Google had taken me to Gandhi's music, I started with another search, this time for for "Jawaharlal Nehru" and "favorite music". In a discussion list I found a reference to a song, "Ae mere watan ke logo" which "made Nehru cry."7 What was "Ae mere watan ke logo"? To find out, I went to Wikipedia, where someone had posted a history of the song and a translation of its lyrics. It turns out that the song, composed in 1962, commemorated India's soldiers in the Sino-Indian war of that year. It is difficult to imagine Gandhi shedding tears (at least, tears of pride) over a patriotic hymn celebrating war. But then, it is difficult to imagine Gandhi enthusing over most of Nehru's policies.

     So much for Nehru. What else might be useful? At a conference, I ran into an Indian scholar in the lunch line who suggested I add the song "Vande Mataram". Composed in the late 19th century around an anticolonial slogan, "Vande Mataram" (Hail to the Motherland!) references Hindu divinities and, due to Muslim sensitivities, did not become the national anthem. India's Hindutva (literally "Hinduness") nationalists have long seen taken umbrage at this decision, and have sometimes used it as a wedge issue in Indian elections. In short, Vande Mataram is a text that introduces a strain of nationalism far removed from that of Gandhi.

     Finally, I wanted to suggest the sheer diversity of contemporary South Asian. This is not something I have time to explicitly teach. Yet a playlist consisting of Bollywood song (I like the rain dance from the widely available film "Lagaan"), Bhangra numbers, Carnatic chant, Sufi Quwwali devotional music, "tribal" and Baul music provides a backdrop for a handout summarizing that complexity.8

     Bringing the music together is, of course, only the beginning: I then have to construct lessons. The default: If it's a song, I distribute the lyrics and have students stand and sing. Unless it's particularly somber, after some encouragement (we do not sit again until we've sung) we ultimately find our voices: they are very loud and charmingly off-key. Then, with lyrics in hand, I ask students some leading questions. For instance, which lyrics of Vande Mataram (if any) would Gandhi, Nehru, and Ambikar have endorsed? What lyrics might various movements have added? Which ideas are particular to India? Which are comparable to music of other 20th century independence-movements?

Resources: Learning More About the Music

Whether constructed out of music found by happenstance or by purposeful search, lessons incorporating music ultimately benefit from a greater understanding of composition, performance, audience, and social context. The following make an excellent start:

  • The Rough Guide to World Music (Rough Guides, 1994-2006). The Rough Guide is the go-to reference for world music afficianados. Edited by Songlines editor Simon Broughton, The Rough Guide's 1300 pages dissect unfamiliar genres, profile the best performers, and describe the music's political and social contexts. Rough Guides, which also publishes lively guides to everything from the opera to the Velvet Underground, recently published vol. 1 of a prospective 3-volume 3rd edition to the Guide to World Music. Older editions are widely available and, while we await the full third addition, remain invaluable.

  • Chris Nickson, The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to World Music (Perigree, 2004) covers the same ground as The Rough Guide, but in just a fraction of the bulk. Given the subject's breadth and the book's brevity, Nickson's approach is impressionistic rather than pointilist. Teachers who use the blues, popular standards, American folk music and most other genres can find useful volumes in The NPR Curious Listener series.

  • Philip V. Bohlman, World Music: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2002). Bohlman surveys world music as a genre, tracing its roots to volk nationalism and ethnography of the 19th and 20th centuries. Bohlman's is a provocative introduction to the concept of "world music".

  • Ethnomusicological Texts. As ethnomusicology has morphed into "world music," college courses have proliferated and publishers have fired up their presses. Among the recent titles marketed for course adoption: Terry Miller, World Music: A Global Journey, 2nd ed. (Routledge, 2008); Michael Bakin, World Music: Traditions and Transformations (McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2007). Any of them will serve as a solid reference source. Those who want to get deeper into ethnomusicological theory might start with Bruno Nettl, The Study of Ethnomusicology: Thirty-one Issues and Concepts (University of Illinois Press, 2005) or with Nettl's edited volume Comparative Musicology and the Anthropology of Music: Essays in the History of Ethnomusicology (University of Chicago Press, 1991). Also useful: Jennifer C. Post, Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader (Routledge, 2005) and Alan P. Merriam's classic, The Anthropology of Music (Northwestern University Press, 1964).

  • Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Oxford University). Each of the more than twenty volumes in this series focus on a particular region or country, among them China, Central Java, South India, and Mexico. Each of the paperback editions, currently priced at just over $20, include audio CDs. These are very accessible volumes whose insights can work as well in middle school and college classrooms. The series introduction by Patricia Shehan Campell and Bonnie C. Wade, Teaching Music Globally (OUP, 2004), is an especially useful overview.

  • Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology (University of Chicago Press). Now running to twenty volumes, each priced at about $35 in paper, the Chicago Studies are not as useful in a classroom as Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. Still, they are terrific reference works. Making them even more valuable are accompanying audio CDs (most volumes), packed with 20-30 examples each. Chicago also has published fascinating works on European classical music – for instance, Esteban Buch, Beethoven's Ninth: A Political History.

  • Yale University Press. Yale's online catalogue ( offers numerous works useful in thinking about music and history. To get at opera's political agendas, for instance, compare John Bokina, Opera and Politics (Yale University Press, 1997) to Anthony Arblaster, Viva la Libertà! Politics in Opera (Verso, 1997).

  • New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Oxford University Press, 29 vols). The Grove Dictionary has been around since the late 19th century when it focused on European musical traditions. The "New Grove," published in 1980, expanded its ethnomusicology listings; the most recent edition is even more cosmopolitan. Listed at $1,500, the "New Grove II" is far beyond the book-buying budget of all but a few of us. Fortunately, it is available from libraries both in print and online ( who get really deeply into music-in-the-classroom will revel in the Dictionary's exhaustive historical, biographical and critical resources.

  • Songlines is a glossy bimonthly British-based world music magazine edited by Simon Broughton, who also edits the Rough Guide to World Music. I have found Songlines invaluable for learning about the politics and history behind the music. A story in the November/December 2008 issue, for instance, guided me to a video of South African politician Jacob Zuma singing an ANC anthem with supporters – a bit of footage that angered Zuma's ANC opponents. Another linked me to the Kenyan Luo group Kenge Kenge and its performance of a praise song for Barack Obama. From a third article, eulogizing Egyptian simsimiyya musician Mohamed Waziery, I learned that Anwar Sadat's succession to Gamel Nasser brought substantive cultural as well as political change. Having read those three articles, I still had a hundred more pages of essays, interviews, reviews and (best of all) a CD sampler ahead of me. The web site,, offers additional content. Subscriptions are not cheap, but are well worth it.

  • fRoots ( covers "roots music" in Britain and around the world. Though there is much overlap with Songlines, there is more emphasis on traditional lyrics, performance styles and instrumentation, and less on contemporary "world music". fRoots appears monthly.

  • Music and Politics (, published at UC Santa Barbara, is an online and subscription-free journal. The articles, written in academic prose, are rarely appropriate for classroom use. However, I've learned much from reading them. The Winter 2009 issue, for instance, features essays on Polish hip hop, UNESCO's relation to "national" music, and (my favorite) the politics of Bulgarian wedding bands.

  • Inside World Music ( Paula Kirman and Matthew Forss are world music enthusiasts whose blog offers extensive reviews and resources.

  • Oxfam ( offers an exceptional set of lessons linking music and history. On lesson focuses on the "influence of Japanese ceremonial music on the music of (British composer) Benjamin Britten." Another looks at "Songs of Slavery" drawn from Africa, Europe and the Americas.

  • World Music Central ( is, like Inside World Music, a portal to extensive content resources: genres, labels, press contacts, upcoming concert dates, and much more.

  • Wikipedia. With most of its articles written and edited anonymously, Wikipedia has generated controversy since its inception in 2001. While I believe that warnings about Wikipedia's inaccuracies are overplayed, they are not out of place. When it comes to reference works generally, Ronald Reagan had it right: trust, but verify.

     That said, I find Wikipedia an absolutely essential resource. Among its nearly three million English-language articles are thousands that profile contemporary performers, songs, styles, and aesthetic movements, information I can not easily find anywhere else. If I want to know more about the Baroque, I'll go to the New Grove Dictionary. If I want to know more about the roots of tango, I'll read about it in the Rough Guide. But if I want English-language lyrics to the Indian anthem Vande Mataram, I can find them fastest in Wikipedia – and not just in English, but in the Devanagari and Bengali scripts adopted by the Indian National Congress in 1905. Wikipedia is also my first stop if I want some guidance to illustrate a point about cultural globalization with a recent K-pop hit (K-pop is South Korean music popular in East and Southeast Asia).

Resources: Where to Find Recordings

First, a word on the CD. The compact disc is, of course, a dying media, increasingly displaced by MP3 downloads, podcasts, and a dozen other technologies.

     Even so: when it comes to music for classroom use, I prefer a CD. Why? Because, before I play a track for students, I want to know something about it. Few downloads come packaged with lyrics and explanatory liner notes (those from Smithsonian/Folkways are exceptional in this regard). Most CDs do. Though I can find the information I need in the references listed above, a detailed booklet will often teah me much more.

     That's true even if the liner notes are in a language I can't read. A few years ago, rummaging a Salvation Army store for old CDs, I found a Korean album. Only the title was in a Roman font: everything else was Korea's Hangul script. Without a clue what I'd bought, I asked a Korean student to translate. It turned out that I'd found a recording of "Simcheong-Ga" (Song of the Filial Daughter).9 Simcheongga is a pansori, story performed as song and accompanied by drum. Popular in 19th century Korea, revived during the Japanese occupation, and considered pansori performances can last several hours. My translator told me that she and her friends have no interest in pansori: some of my émigré Korean students hadn't heard of the genre. A web search led me to a Korean government site lamenting that Korea's "rapid modernization" nearly extinguished audience interest, prompting the government to declare pansori "National Intangible Cultural Property" and draft a "national action plan" for its survival. Wanting to know more, I attended a summer seminar in Korean history which in turn, introduced me to the film "Chunhyang" which dramatizes the longest of the pansori, intercutting the narrative with an actual stage performance. A lovely film: one which touched on class, gender, politics and philosophy.10

     Had I found a Simcheongga online, I would have found its sound both compelling and challenging, but would not have investigated much further. The liner notes drove me to learn much more than I would have otherwise.

     To compile this list, I have put aside my prejudice against downloads: the sources below sell CDs, downloads, or both.

Music Retailers

  • Amazon ( Though Amazon has dramatically expanded its stock of MP3 downloads, its CD offerings remain extensive. "Customer reviews" are often well-informed, providing information on the music unavailable elsewhere.

  • iTunes (via the iTunes Store on iTunes). iTunes offers music unavailable elsewhere. New pricing agreements with recording labels have reduced prices for some tracks below 99¢, while increasing the price for some albums above $10.00. No matter: far fewer usage restrictions encumber iTune downloads than once did. As is true of Amazon, iTunes customer reviews and playlists are often quite valuable.

  • Smithsonian Global Sound ( My music wish: that every online commercial music service would imitate the Smithsonian!

Over the past seven decades, the Smithsonian has assembled a titanic archive of world music. Though much of this is the fruit of three generations of anthropological fieldwork, the museum added much more when it acquired Folkways catalogue in 1986. It was from the Smithsonian that I found a Philippine recording, in Tagalog, of "Internasyonal" (The International), which I have occasionally used when discussing mid-20th century third world Communism.11

     Apart from the depth of its catalogue, what's so impressive about the Smithsonian? You can download specific tracks or entire albums. You can find the liner notes and, where they were packaged with the original, translated lyrics. And the cost is very reasonable: a typical 12-song album costs about $15 for the CD (imports can run up to $25) and $10 for the download – again, with the printed material.

     Finally, an outstanding search engine will reveal undiscovered gems: Lebanese funeral laments, Kalimantan festival music, 19th century Australian folk songs, Angolan revolutionary anthems, ballads of the War of 1812, and 17th century English political satires.


To discover music you never new existed – and get ideas for the way that music fits into the bigger political, cultural and economic picture – try listening to the following sources:

  • BBC. BBC's Radio 3 ( The site is a portal to Radio 3's music broadcasts (available online) and to audio archives, extensive British and European world music links, and artist profiles. The BBC also maintains a separate world music site at The same site provides links to similar pages on blues/soul/reggae, classical, folk/country, and urban. Charlie Gillett's Sound of the World, broadcast on BBC World Service, provides a web page ( with wide resources.

  • FLY: FLY: :Global Music Culture ( is an online music magazine and store offering podcasts, interviews, reviews and video.

  • Liveplasma ( will invite you to type in the name of an artist or album. It will then surround your choice with the names of artists and albums others have purchased. It's a great way to expand musical horizons. For instance, I've played the Depression-era Greek underground music called rebetika (also rebetica) in my classes. Type "rebetica" into Liveplasma and it will display a link to Markos Vamvakaris, a mid-century Greek perfomer whose work is again available on CD. Before Liveplasma I'd never heard of Vamvakaris. It turns out that he was born into a small Roman Catholic community that the Greeks call "Franco-Syrian". I may use his love song, "Frankosyriani," to illustrate contemporary Greek diversity in a future lesson on the Greek Mediterranean or on the Balkans.

  • Mondomix Music ( A French online music magazine, Mondomix recently merged with the US world music outfit Calabash. The music extends from the traditional to pop genres, with broad selections from every region of the world.

  • National Geographic ( Interviews, live performance videos and artist profiles make National Geographic a site worth visiting. Its explanations of world music traditions are better and more authoritative than most online.

  • Netradio: Includes a number of stations with radio (MP3 and Realaudio) Includes folk, celtic, chant, and other stations with some world music content.

  • National Public Radio. NPR's World Music page ( offers interviews, email updates, downloads, reviews, and more. A recent offering: the Chinese band Rebuilding the Rights of Statues and its song "Hang the Police." Tabs link to NPR's coverage of Jazz and Blues, Classical, Rock/Pop/Folk and Urban musics.

  • Pandora Internet Radio ( creates an online "radio station" based on the user's list of favorite works. For instance, type in "Caetano Veloso" (central to Brazil's "tropicalia" movement of the 1960s) and the site will create "Caetano Veloso Radio". When I last listened, I was particularly struck by Vinícius De Moraes' "Tristeza": it's a lovely way to start a class even without a lesson attached to it. Pandora knows popular and alternative musics best, but its knowledge of world music has grown in recent months.

  • Rootsworld ( is an umbrella site for Rootsradio, and CD Roots. Visitors can listen to the current playlist free, but the site encourages a $20 annual subscription in exchange for a CD and email newsletter. I have found music here that I would have otherwise missed.

  • Thistle & Shamrock ( is the website for Fionna Ritchie's weekly NPR broadcast showcasing Celtic music from Ireland, Scotland and beyond. A good deal of this music works with historical and political themes.

  • The World ( The World is an hour-long Public Radio newsmagazine based in Boston. Each hour ends with Marko Werman's world music reports, providing ample historical and political context to artists and genres he profiles. The website offers a complete archive of Werman's reports. A recent sample: an "audio postcard from a Lagos, Nigeria slum called Bariga" where "the music and words of Afrobeat king Fela Kuti still has relevance."

  • World Music Network ( provides content from the Rough Guides: MP3 files, criticism, and (like the two volume Rough Guide to World Music), a monthly radio show.

  • YouTube/Google Video ( hosts thousands of performance videos. As for all online video, quality (and legality) varies considerably. That said, it's not difficult to find a performance of Thai court dance, Tuva throat singing or Chassidic Jewish chant. For every lesson we taught in a world history classroom, there is likely to be a video of some related musical example.

Tom Laichas teaches at Crossroads School in Santa Monica, California. He is the author, for the National Center for History in the Schools, of "Infinite Patience, Indomitable Will: Ralph Bunche and his Struggle for Peace and Justice" and writes regularly on world history education for World History Connected and other publications. Contact him at



1 "Tropicalia" (Soul Jazz Records, 2006). For more on Tropicalia and politics, see Christopher Dunn, Brutality Garden: Tropicalia and the Emergence of a Brazilian Counterculture (University of North Carolina Press, 2000) and Caetano Veloso, Tropical Truth: A Story of Music and Revolution in Brazil (Da Capo Press, 2003).

2 For a list of articles appearing in World History Connected on music in the classroom, search the site for "music".

3 Various artists, "Drums of Defiance: Maroon Music from the Earliest Free Black Communities in Jaimaica" (Smithsonian Folkways, 1993); Grupo Capoeira Angola Pelourinho, "Capoeira Angola from Salvador Brazil" (Smithsonian Folkways, 1996); Gilberto Gil, "Quilombo" (Warner, 1984); LeBeha Boys Garifuna Youth, "LeBeha Drumming: Traditional Garifuna Music" (Innova Recordings, 2005); George Reid Andrews, Afro Latin-America: 1800-2000 (Oxford University Press, 2004).

4 Richard Attenborough (dir.), "Gandhi" (1982).

5 In class, I use Christopher Keene, conducting the New York City Opera Orchestra and the New York City Symphony Orchestra, "Satyagraha" (Sony, 1990). Excerpts of various performances are also available on YouTube and Google Video.

6 Nicholas F. Gier, The Virtue of Nonviolence (SUNY Press, 2004), 110; Mohandas K. Gandhi, "Prayer in Gandhi's Ashram" at

7 Message posted by Saki on October 15 2008 on Hamara Forums. A popular album of shlokas: Semmangudi R. Shrinivasa Iyer and M. S. Subbulakshmi, "Moulav Ganga (sloka)" (Saregama, 2004).

8 For instance: George E. Ruckert, Music in North India (Oxford University Press, 2003); T. Viswanathan and Matthew Harp Allen, Music in South India: The Karnatak Concert Tradition and Beyond (Oxford university Press, 1995); and Rough Guide to World Music, 2nd ed., vol. 2 (Rough Guides, 2000).

9 Dongjin Park and Ilsup Han, "Pansori Simcheong-Ga" (Jigu Records, 1980). In 1980, Jigu released 50 albums of traditional Korean music. For more on this, see the PDF file Keith Howard, "Recording Pansori" at

10 Kwon-taek Im (dir.), "Chunhyang" (2000) 133 minutes. For more on the pansori, see the Korea National Tourist Organization, "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" (

11 "Internasyonal" is on the album "Philippines: Bangon! (Arise!)," originally on Paradon Records and available from Smithsonian Global Sound.



Home | List Journal Issues | Table of Contents
© 2009 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
Content in World History Connected is intended for personal, noncommercial use only. You may not reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, modify, create derivative works from, display, or in any way exploit the World History Connected database in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Terms and Conditions of Use