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Digital Resources for The Other in World History

John Maunu


Strangers on a hill has not been good news over time. Perhaps our DNA shudders at others due to thousands of years of migrations and invasion. Similarily, men in a mill, sometimes, bode bad news for natives globally exemplified in this article on miner's massacre of Yanomami:
"Resource Wars Connect Yanomami Massacre and Shell's Arctic Drilling,", 8/2012.

Foreigner, stranger, outcast, shunned, and the marginalized has bred alterity, binary and Otherness studies. Last issue of World History Connected, Volume 9, Number 2, June 2012, saw an article on "Visualizing the Invisible Other in Art, Film and Photography in World History

This article is an attempt to enlarge that scope to include definitions, regional historical examples including articles and links over time, books, book reviews, syllabi, bibliography, Film and Lessons on the Other in World History. Each section attempts to include digital resources in chronological order. Note the full AP World History style DBQ (Document Based Essay Question) "Travel Writers and the Other along Trade Routes" by Ryba Epstein in the Lessons section at the very end of this article.

Otherness in World History: Definitions

Otherness/Alterity defined in the Centre For Otherness website:
Jean-Francois Staszak, "Other/Otherness," Publie dans International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2008, Elsevier. Seven page pdf defining Otherness including it's place in human geography.
Lilia Melani, English Department, Brooklyn College of NY, defines otherness in her website last updated Feb. 4, 2009.
Joshua Wexler, "Alterity," U. of Chicago:: Theories of Media:: Keywords Glossary, 2004. Wexler defines alterity as a synonym for otherness.
Caste in world history, Wikipedia.
Outcast in ancient times, Wikipedia.
Ken Barger, "Ethnocentrism," Anthropology course, July 1, 2008, Indiana University @ Ken Barger 2011.

East and SE Asia/Japan
Brian R. Dott, Whitman College, "Un-Othering Minorities in Chinese History," Teaching About Asia,
AsiaNetwork Exchange, Winter 2005, pp. 23-25.
Hyunjin Kim, "Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China," Gerald Duckwort (publisher): May 20, 2009. Dr. Kim (Auckland University) unravels a comparative study of attitudes toward foreigners in ancient Greece and early Han China finding the Han were as assertive as the Greeks in claiming their ethnic superiority over non-Chinese.
Steven Coutinho, "Getting Beyond the Boundaries: Zhuangzi's ethic of Otherness: (Zhuangzi and the Early Chinese Philosophy: Vagueness, Transformation and Paradox," Chinese Review International, September 22, 2005. Reviewed by Shaobo Xia. Access via Project Muse. "Zuangzi (389-298 BCE)," Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy."
Tamara T. Chin, "Defamiliarizing the Foreigner: Sima Qian's Ethnography and Han-Xiongnu Marriage Diplomacy," Harvard-Yenching Institute, Harvard Journal of Asian Studies, 70.1 (2010): 311-354. Project Muse pdf..
Autumn Oakley, Yahoo!voices, November 15, 2005. Sima Qian on the Xiongnu. Who are the Xiongnu, who the Han referred to as "illegitimate sons of slaves?" See University of Washington site:
"Culture: Seen Ways to Say 'Foreigner,'" Chinese language and the use of "laowai"--meaning it insulting or not? A listserve discussion seen on
The Mongol as Other critiqued, East Asia website and resources, Columbia University.
Mongol website, East Asia website and resources, Columbia University.
"Mongolian History-Online Resources," The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York, compiled by Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in 2004.

Many great links and digital resources with some primary sources and to non-Asian culture's Points of View as to the Mongol Other. See Excerpts from Jack Weatherford, "Genghis Khan & Making of the Modern World," Crown Publishers, Random House, 2004, esp. excerpt from pp. 254-255 as to "Development of European anti-Asian and anti-Mongol Views During the Enlightenment" included below.

Development of European Anti-Asian & Anti-Mongol Views During the Enlightenment Period

Whereas the Renaissance writers and explorers treated Genghis Khan and the Mongols with open adulation, the eighteenth-century Enlightenment in Europe produced a growing anti-Asian spirit that often focused on the Mongols, in particular, as the symbol of everything evil or defective in that massive continent. As early as 1748, the French philosopher Montesquieu set the tone in his treatise The Spirit of the Laws, holding the Asian in haughty contempt and blaming much of their detestable qualities on the Mongols, whom he labeled, "the most singular people on earth." He described them as both servile slaves and cruel masters. He attributed to them all the major attacks on civilization from ancient Greece to Persia: "They have destroyed Asia, from India even to the Mediterranean; and all the country which forms the east of Persia they have rendered a desert." Montesquieu glorified the tribal origins of Europeans as the harbingers of democracy while he condemned the tribal people of Asia: "The Tartars who destroyed the Grecian Empire established in the conquered countries slavery and despotic power: the Goths, after subduing the Roman Empire, founded monarchy and liberty." Based on this history, he summarily dismissed all of Asian civilization: "There reigns in Asia a servile spirit, which they have never been able to shake off, and it is impossible to find in all the histories of that country a single passage which discovers a freedom of spirit; we shall never see anything there but the excess of slavery."

Genghis Khan became the central figure of attack. Voltaire adapted a Mongol dynasty play, The Orphan of Chao, by Chi Chün-hsiang, to fit his personal political and social agenda by portraying Genghis Khan, whom Voltaire used as a substitute for the French king, as an ignorant and cruel villain. The Orphan of China, as he renamed it, debuted on the Paris stage in 1755 while Voltaire enjoyed safe exile in Switzerland. "I have confined my plan to the grand epoch of Genghis Khan," he explained. "I have endeavored to describe the manners of the Tartars and Chinese: the most interesting events are nothing when they do not paint the manners; and this painting, which is one of the greatest secrets of the art, is no more than an idle amusement, when it does not tend to inspire notions of honor and virtue." Voltaire described Genghis Khan as "The king of kings, the fiery Genghis Khan/Who lays the fertile fields of Asia waste." He called him "a wild Scythian soldier bred to arms/And practiced in the trade of blood." In Voltaire's revisionist history, the Mongols warriors were no more than the "wild sons of rapine, who live in tents, in chariots, and in the fields." They "detest our arts, our customs, and our laws; and therefore mean to change them all; to make this splendid seat of empire one vast desert, like their own."

Genghis Khan's only redeeming quality, in Voltaire's play, was that he reluctantly recognized the moral superiority of the better educated. "The more I see," Voltaire quoted Genghis Khan as saying, "the more I admire this wondrous people, great in arts and arms, in learning and in manners great; their kings on wisdom's basis founded all their power." Genghis Khans ended the play with a question: "…what have I gained by all my victories, by all my guilty laurels stained with blood?" To which Voltaire answered: "…the tears, the sighs, the curses of mankind." With these words, Voltaire himself began the
Excerpt from pages 254 and 255
Clark, "Western Missionary Icongraphy was misinterpreted and misrepresented by native Chinese elites," SEAsian Review of Asian Studies, Volume 30 (2008), pp. 5-22. The policies to thwart the Christian Other in China.
Maurizio Peleggi, "The Turbaned and the Hatted: Figures of Alterity in Early Modern Thai Visual Culture," Visual images of early modern Thai culture.
"Genocidal Massacre in Early Modern Europe, Asia and the Americas," Workshop Centre for Diaspora & Transnational Studies & Department of History, University of Toronto conference 3 pp. pdf, September 29, 2012. Note workshop topics dealing with otherness and violence in all three regions of the world.
Poowin Bunyavejchewin (University of Hull, UK), "Constructing the 'Red' Otherness: The Role and Implications of Thainess on Polarised Politics," Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies, 3 (2), 241-248, 2010 posted on Red Shirts, Yellow Shirts protest in Thailand. Who is Thai and who are the Other?
Red Shirt protests, 2010, Global Voices online, May 18, 2010.

{Mid-19th century commentary on Chinese view of Europeans} Thomas Taylor Meadows, Google digitized full text of "The Chinese and Their Rebellions, Viewed in Connection With Their Nation, Philosophies, Ethics, Legislation, and Administration. To Which is Added an Essay on Civilization & its Present State in the East and West," London: Smith, Elder & Co., Cornhill and Bombay: Smith, Taylor ft. CO. 1856 seen on Internet Archive. T. T. Meadows was a British missionary who is archived in the "Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany," and quoted as saying (in 1852), "The Chinese do habitually call and consider Europeans 'barbarians,' meaning by that term peoples in a rude, uncivilized state, morally and intellectually uncultivated...I do not recollect conversing with one, and I have conversed with many, whose notions of us were not [similar] to those we entertain of short that we live otherwise than as a herd of cattle." Quoted in Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast by J.K. Fairbank. Boston: Harvard U. Press 1953, Vol. I, p. 19 and seen in Rhoades Murphey, "China Meets the West: The Treaty Ports," Ronald Posner Inquiry Materials, New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., Inc., 1975, p. 18.
"Sinocentrism or Paranoia?" China in Transition, RIETA-Research Institute of Economics, Trade and Industry, August 1, 2003. The Japanese refer to Chinese arrogance as sinocentrism and this brief article explains Chinese feelings of superiority and paranoia toward the West and Japan.
Gotelin Muller-Saini, editor, "Designing History in East Asian Textbooks: Identity Politics and Transnational Aspirations," Routledge, January 27, 2011.
"Human Rights Education in Asian Schools, Volume Two," Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Center, Osaka, Japan, March 1999, copyright @Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Center, 1999. Part of Electronic Resource Center for Human Rights Education. This volume cites educators from all regions of Asia as to their curriculum on human rights education.
Jean D. Lotz, "Asian Wood Puppets,", @1996, last updated 6/13/2001. Note section two, Puppets and "Otherness."
Kallie Szczepanski, "14 Facts About Class Identity in Feudal Japan," (Tokugawa Shogunate) nd.
Kallie Szczepanski, "The Four-Tiered Class System of Feudal Japan," nd.
Kallie Szczepanski, "Who are the Burakumin?", nd. Japan's four tier feudal social system's Outcasts.
Kallie Szczepanski, "The Crushed Ones and the Filthy Masses-Outcasts in India and Japan,", nd.. Dalits and Burakumin in India and Japan.
Ariko Kawabata (Assistant Professor of English Literature, Aichi Prefectural University in Nagoya-city, Japan), "'Oni,' a Kind of Ogre, an Ultimate Symbol of Otherness in Japanese Fairy Tales Both Traditional and Literary," SCILS Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Anthropology Archives-Sub Racial Anthropology, "The Ainu in Japan," July 26, 2011.
University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Native Peoples site, "Ainu."
Suvendrini Kakuchi, "Ainu Discrimination Defies the Law," Asian Times on-line, May 19, 2000. Japan continues to discriminate against Ainu. 1899 Ainu Law these northern "white" Japanese (Hokkaido) aborigines which continued through 1990's.
Julia Obinger (PhD candidate LMU Munich University), "Working on the Margins: Japan's Precariat and Working Poor," 2009 seen in Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies (ejcjs) 2/25/2009. Worker as other in Japan and globalization effects on low income workers.
Mika Ko, "Japanese Cinema and Otherness: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and the Problem of Japaneseness," Routledge 2001. Mika Ko attempts to describe modern
Japanese film from the 1980's-2000 and how it describes/features "Others," ie., ethnic minorities, foreigners, and Okinawans.
Koichi Iwabuchi, "Complicit Exoticism: Japan and it's Other--Who Imagines 'Japaneseness?': Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Self-Orientalism," Critical Multiculturalism-
The Australian Journal of Media and Culture, ed., Tom O'Regan, Vol. 8, no. 2, 1994. See other articles from this edition, some having to do with otherness and alterity:
koichi, "The 'No-Gaijin' Allowed Mentality," blog, 7/24/2008. See videos as to "Japanese Only" mentality and otherness of non-Japanese.
Japanese word for foreigner, alien is "gaijin."
"Gaijin Hanzai Magazine and Hate Speech in Japan," The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. See discussion on Japan Focus blogsite.
Todd A. Henry, "Sanitizing Empire: Japanese view of Korea 1905 ff.," Colorado Statue University.
Mary Angeline Da-anoy, "Living Together" in Kasugai City: Community Life of Filipino Residents and Their Participation in the Tabunka Kyosei Plan," prepared for presentation at Kita Kyshi University Symposium on Intermarriage and Tabunka Kyosei, 1/22/2011. Based on research entitled: Beyond Otherness and Marginalization: Repositioning Filipino Transnational Migrants in "Multicultural Japan." 2 pp. pdf.
ISE Masaomi, "Genius Jews and Masterful Japanese (part 1): The Successful Outsiders," from Ben-Ami Shillony, "The Jews and Japanese: The Successful Outsiders," Charles E. Rutland, VT and Tokoyo: Tuttle Co., Inc., 1991. pdf.
Translated from "Japan on the Globe," No. 531 (January 20, 2008). Two Peoples dragged out into the International Community in the 19th century.
"Lumad," Indigenous peoples of the Philippines, Note description of all indigenous folk in Philippines islands.
Rashaan Meneses, "Hmong: An Endangered People," UCLA International Institute, July 7, 2004. Economically marginalized in SE Asia, the Hmong face assimilation and loss of culture in the United States.
David Lamb, "Children of the Vietnam War," Smithsonian, June 2009. Interracial children of Vietnamese women and American soldiers at bottom of Vietnamese social hiearchy...the other.
Alexa Olson, "Tibet Protestors: China Calls Immolators Criminals, Outcasts, Mentally Ill," Huffington Post, World, March 27, 2012.
Uyghur Human Rights Project website. China's Other, Uighurs of northwest China, Muslim Turks.
Breffni O'Rourke, "China's Uyghurs-A Minority in Their Own Land," July 8, 2009. Posted on Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty site March 7, 2012.
Kuan-Hsing Chen, "Notes on Han Chinese Racism,", 2005. In response to a lecture by Immanuel Wallerstein in Hong Kong, 2000, Chen and other Asians discussed the topic of Chinese racism. This is one in pdf format (14 pp.).
Erin Chung, "Anti-Black Racism in China," Modern Tribalist, April 12, 2005. Chung begins with the December 1988-January 1989 student violent protests in Nanjing, China against visiting African students and relates Chinese racism against "dark" people. Note many comments to her article.
"How Vietnam Sees China," The Diplomat, 10/18/2011. Vietnamese and Chinese have traditionally viewed each other with distrust....a vassal relationship.
Heather Streets (Washington State University), "Race-ing Soldiers Across Imperial Boundaries," World History Connected, October 2007 seen in History
Cooperative. Dr. Streets' short article focuses on colonial soldiers, mainly in SE Asia, and their relations and attitudes to the other in those countries.
G.E. Gallas (screenwriter and author), "The Hero as Other," 3/18/2012. Mr. Gallas's essay is based on his courses at Gallatin School of Individualized Study, New York University where he enjoyed 19th century Japanese literature and film and comparing it to European works on Heroes as Other. Gallas cites 2 classes at Gallatinwhich inspired him.
"Yellow Peril: Documentation and Understanding Xenophobia." This link is Jack (John Kuo Wei) Tchen's spring 2011 syllabus for that course. "Globalization: Promises and Discontents,"was the other course.
This link is Ritty Lukose's syllabus and readings, Fall 2011, Gallatin School of Individualized Study.
Child Labor Photo Project, Children as Other....note region with largest child labor is Asia.
Anup Shah, "Poverty Around the World," Global Issues, last updated November 12, 2011. World Bank statistics, graphs, charts and articles on global poverty and inequality. Note China impact on fall of poverty since 1981, from 85% to 15.9% within China.
Bryan Kay, "Ditch Nationalism," The Korean Times, 10/6/2009. Racism (nationalism) will be a major problem for Korea and Koreans as Korea becomes more integrated into the global industrial society says Mr. Kay.
"Stereotypes of East Asians in the Western World,"
"Chinese Contemporary Art," The Pandorian, @ Bethan Troakes, February 2010. As globalisation allows images to flow across the world, the West's fascination with a nation they view as the Other, fascination with Chinese contemporary art grows. Note discussions of hybridity and otherness in this analysis of modern Chinese art and it's attempts to come to grip with a post Mao society.

South Asia/India

The position of women under Hinduism is well-known. Some idea of this position could be gleaned from the classic Hindu Dharmashâstras of which the Manu-smirthi, popularly known as the "Laws of Manu", is the best known. This work describes the duties of women as follows"
"By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent". (Laws of Manu, V, 147-8).
Women were prevented from performing religious rites, and even the knowledge of the Vedas was to be kept away from them (IX, 18).
Vinay Lal (Associate Professor of History, UCLA), "India and It's Neighbors," MANAS website created in 1998 by Dr. Lal.
"Xenophobia--Examples in world history," Medindia website, an Indian medical source, cites some examples of xenophobia-fear of the other in current world history.
"Public vs. Hijras or Khusras," The Outcasts, Eunuchs, April 3. 2009. Note 5 minute video.
"Islam and Other Religions' Stance on Transgenders," The Outcasts blogspot, March 24, 2009.
"American Islam and the Marginalization of South Asian Culture Pt. 4, More Manifestations of the Marginalization," Mind, Body and Soul blog, June 26, 2007. Arabizing South Asian Muslims and confusion as to identity. Note podcast at bottom of this short article, "Wahabi Arabic Hegemony and the Andalusian Ideal."
Adam Bernstein, "Baba Amte-son of privilege devoted to India's lepers and outcasts," San Francisco Chronicle, February 22, 2008. Amte died at 93. Baba Amte had fled his privileged life in India and followed in Gandhi's path to help the Other, lepers and outcasts.
Jackie Assayag, ed., "The Resources of History: Tradition, Narration, and Nation in South Asia," Ecole Francaise Dextreme, paperback 1999 seen in Exotic India Art website. Difference (otherness) and sameness exhibited in the contrasting regions of South Asia.
Representation of South Asia in European texts and images, University of Chicago Library.
South Asian website list of films many dealing with the Other and marginalized peoples, The South Asian archives.
"Poverty of Democracy," Asia360, April 6, 2012. Asia360 article summarizes by saying, "The poverty
of India's marginalised people is the poverty of democracy itself." See 5 minute video

"Living as an Outcast in India," Note other 5 minute video clips on similar topics at the end of this clip. This video clip hints at the poor, the other, accepting their role due to religious teachings. Note Ashok Bagriya, "Modi's Book Karmayog Offends Dalits," IBN Live, India, November 26, 2007. Northern regional governor, a fundamentalist Hindutva, Modi, rationalizes Dalit role due to religious beliefs:
Stephanie Nolen, "The Goal is to See How Far a Mushahar Girl Can Go Armed with Dreams and Hope," Globe and Mail, Videos, individual examples of Dalits given a chance to acheive from Breaking Caste Project.
"Untouchables Still India's Outcasts." Independent (UK), India's Dalits.
India's Dalit (Untouchables) human rights advocate website,
Every day, 1.3 million people in India (of which more than 80% are Dalit women) are forced to clean human excrement with their bare hands for little to no wages, a practice called manual scavenging. On June 17, 2011, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India referred to manual scavenging as "one of the darkest blots on [India's] development process" and asked all state ministers in his country to pledge to eliminate this scourge from every corner of India in the next six months, by the end of 2011.
Farzana Islam, "Dalit Women in Bangladesh: Multiple Exclusion," Indianet, March 2011. Dalit women in India and Bangladesh work at "cleaning" bathroom, urinals, etc. al..
Tom O'Neill, "India's Untouchables,", excerpt, June 2003.
Thousands of Untouchables (Dalits) convert to Buddhism, Buddhism Today, November 2001.
"Dalit/Adivasi," Dalit Issues archive, Many articles on Dalits and Adivasi persecution in India and Pakistan with newest article from March 24, 2012., "Living as an Outcast in India," 4 min. 43 sec. clip and see related 5 min. videos at the end of this segment.
C. R. Bijoy,"The Adivasis of India-A History of Discrimination, Conflict, and Resistance," Core Committee of the All India Coordinating Forum of Adivasis/Indigenous Peoples, PUCL Bulletin, February 2003. India's 67.7 million indigenous "tribes" suffer as other.
Doctoral Thesis in English: Tesis Doctoral Presentada por Elena Oliete Aldea Dirigida por la Dra, "Filmic Representations of the British Raj in the 1980's: Cultural Identity, Otherness, and Hybridity," U. of Zaragosa, March 2009. 502 pp. pdf with bibliography and Film list at end of paper.
Vijay Prashad, "An Afro-Dalit Story," Z Magazine, March 2000. Prashad discusses V.T. Rajshekhar's "Dalit: The Black Untouchables of India," originally published 1979 which linked Africans and Dalits genetically.
Sonya Fatah, "Aurat Raj: the Story of Unsung Brigade of South Asian Iron Ladies," The Times of India, March 6, 2012. Fatah discusses the strong women of South Asia in context of satirical film, "Aurat Raj," depicts a world taken over by women leaders.
Partha Basu, "The Other Sex," India Times on-line, posted 2/14/2012. Eunuchs, hermaphrodites, transgenders, castrati convention in Nand Nagri, suburb of North Dehli, India suffers from fire leading Partha Basu to claim these "others" had celebrated presence in India, China, Ottoman histories.
"Where women have everything as long as they can dance," Jeremy Lybarger interview with Sonia Faleiro, author of "Beautiful Thing: Inside Bombay's Secret Dance Clubs," Mother Jones, March 14, 2012.
Dan Hutt, "Outsiders, Outcasts, and Outlaws: Post Modernism and Rock Music as Countercultural Forces in Salman Rushdie's The Ground Beneath Her Feet." A Thesis for MA Degree, Department of English, College of Arts and Sciences, Kansas State University, 2011. (84 pp. pdf)
Jonathan Kay, "Nazanin Afshin-Jam, Aruna Papp, and the Scourge of Misogny in the Developing World," National Post, Canada, May 24, 2012. Mr. Kay discusses two new books by Canadian women born and raised in Punjab, India and Iran and their otherness. "Two Ways to Belong in America," Bharati Mukherjee book analyzed by an Advanced Placement (AP) English blog site as to tone, comparative, etc.
Oakland University blog site as to Mukherjee and her sister's view on "belonging"
Who is Bharati Mukherjee?
Akbar Ahmed, "The Rohingya: Myanmar's Outcasts," Al Jazeera, 1/30/2012. The Rohingya may be one of the most persecuted people on earth according to Ahmed. They are Muslim people of the coastal Rakhine state of western Myanmar. He defines them as "a stateless Muslim minority." Muslim Others in a Buddhist state.
Jocelyn Gecker, "Suu Kyi's Silence: Nobel Winner Faces Rare Criticism for Failing to Defend Muslim Minority," Times Colonist (Victoria and Vancouver Island, Canada), 8/16/2012. Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi will not discuss Burma/Myanamar's persecution of Muslim minority, the Rohingya."
Muslim Outcast Rohingya not even welcome in Muslim Bangladesh. "Burma Rohingya Refuges in Bangladesh," Guardian, June 29, 2012.
Asia Sentinel, "Rohingya Say They Are Being Terrorized," The Irrawaddy (Burmese version), July 3, 2012.
V.G. Julie Rajan and Atreyee Phukan, editors, "South Asia and Its Others: Reading the Exotic," Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. (33 pp. pdf)

Ayesha K. Khan, "God, Government and Outsiders: The Influence of Religious Beliefs on Depositor Behavior in an Emerging Market." Pakistan...January 1, 2010.
"USA Working Together Drawing Together/Ahmadi Muslim Group Sponsors Interfaith Conference," Ahmadiyya Times, 6/2/2012. Seen in Sun Sentinel, June 1, 2012. Ahmadi Muslims of Pakistan...Persecuted and killed for their beliefs in a 19th century Messiah....
"Who are the Ahmadis?,"
Lauren Freyer, "Pakistani Televangelist is back on Air Raising Fears," NPR, August 20, 2012. Popular televangelist has "blood on his hands" from allowing Muslim cleric to demand the murder of Ahmadis in Pakistan.
"Bhutanese Refuges," wikipedia seen in eNotes, nd.. Lhotshampas, Kirat, and Gurung peoples are refugees in Nepal and treated as the Other.
K. N. Panikkar, "Outsider as Enemy: Politics of Rewriting History in India," Standford University, nd., 14 pp. pdf.
Sathianathan Clarke (Professor United Theological College, Bangalore, India), "Hindutva, Religion and Ethnocultural Minorities and Indian Christian Theology," Religion on-line a part of the Claremont school of Theology, nd. Dr. Clarke see Hindutva nationalism as a threat to all religious minorities in India...all non-Hindus are Other.
Pankaj Mishra, "Ruins of Empire: Asia's emergence from western imperialism," Guardian, July 27, 2012. Mishra summarizes his own book, "From the Ruins of Empire: The Revolt Against the West and the Remaking of Asia," demonstrating, in this Guardian article, the many examples of Western imperial dominance in the last centuries showing the colonial peoples treated as Other, pawns in a game for valuable resources.

"Oceania," Urban Indigeous Studies website begun in 2010 which displays literature on urban indigenous peoples/mobility/issues. This is Oceania section of massive site.
"Slavery in Hawaii: Did Hawaii Ever Have African Slaves?" Answer is No....Hawaii had their own slave class called "kauwa."
"Hawaiian Culture and Society: Kapu System and Caste System of Ancient Hawaii," Mythic

Center for Pacific Islands Studies U. of Hawaii at Manoa. Note Teaching section with syllabi and Bibliographies 2007-Present See links/tabs on left of page for pre-2007 syllabi and bibliographies and Internet resources. Example of teaching syllabi from Dr. Bill Rodman, "Peoples of the Pacific-Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontaria, Canada 1999:
Other resources, film, etc.
"Identity Matters: Movement and Place," The Oceania Project, 2002-2007 research project studying current Oceania peoples to theorize their earlier identities, culture, linguistics, history and interaction with Europeans.
"Oceania: Captivity, Cannibalism and Colonialism in the Pacific-Pt. 2,", revised 23, June 2009. This article focuses on how Europeans portrayed and interpreted the "body" of the Pacific other. In this following section the author discusses portrayal of Pacific Islanders as cannibals.
Kathryn Roundtree, "Maori Bodies in European Eyes: Representations of the Maori Body on Cook's Voyages," The Journal of the Pacific Society, Vol. 107, 1998, No. 1.
"Indigenous People of Kalimantan and Their Marginalization," ADBInstitute discussion paper, February 21, 2005. ADBI is an Asia and Pacific website.
"Re-Imagining Oceania," City Gallery New Zealand. 3 pp. pdf summary of Deane Gallery 2011 exhibit of Pacific/Oceania art depicting the Islanders (Maori specifically) as the Orientalist motif. See "Oceania: Pacific Island Art and Culture"
New Zealand site for examples.
Scroll down to bottom of these Oceania art museum links to see links to many world Art sites.
Patricia Johnston and Leonie Pihama, "The Marginalization of Maori Women," Hecate, October 1994 seen on Business Library,
1994 Film, "Once We Were Warriors," Rotten Tomatoes. Describes Maori decline in New Zealand and their being viewed as outcasts, ie., the Other.
Nicholas Thomas for Jim Vivieaere, "From Exhibit to Exhibitionism: Recent Polynesian Presentations of 'Otherness,'" The Contemporary Pacific, Vol. 8, No. 2, Fall 1996, 319-348 @ 1996 by University of Hawai'i Press. Thomas discusses exhibitions of Polynesian migrant's art in New Zealand with comments on exoticism and difference (otherness) esp, the Maori Renaissance.
"Asian and Other Ethnic Groups," New Zealand NEON (National Equal Opportunities Network 2012) website outlining difficulties of Asian and Pacific Islanders receiving job opportunities, etc. in New Zealand. "Maori" progress since 1990:
"A Postmaster's opinion on the education of Chinese, 1888," Timespanner blog, 9/3/2009. Mr. J.P. Vause letter to Auckland Education Board exhibiting his disgust over a Chinese boy in an Auckland school and community reaction to that letter.
"Indigenous People: Australia and WW I,", Australians and aborignes.
John Pilger, "How the Chosen Ones Ended Australia's Sporting Powress and Revealed its Secret Past," Information Clearing House, 8/10/2012. Australia's treatment of the Aboriginal Other., "About Indigenous Australia," July 28, 2007. Statistics and information on Australian indigenous people's health and land.
Professor Marcia Langton, "Homeland: Sacred Visions and the Settler State," Artlink, Vol. 20, no. 1, 2000. Langton discusses Otherness of Aboriginal Art in Western canons.
Noel Pearson, "When Outsiders Stir up Tensions in Tribal Societies," The Australian, 9/10/2011. Pearson's short rambling article begins with the horrors of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 1997 described in Jason Stearns book, "Dancing in the Glory of Monsters," then moving
to Italian and French outsiders causing tensions in strife in Africa, then a bit on corporations in Australia interfering in aborigne life and finishes with a stab at environmental groups as Australian outsiders.

James Roy MacBean, "Degrees of Otherness: A Close Reading of First Contact, Joe Leahy's Neighbors and Black Harvest," Visual Anthropology Review, anthrosource 56, Vol. 10, Nov. 2 Fall 1994. The Highland Trilogy on first contact with Europeans in New Guinea. (see reviews and 9 min. video clip below in Film section).
Lamont White, "Oceania: Islands, Land, People," Cultural Survival, March 16. 2010. Threats to Oceania culture and 6. 5 million people.

Rob Wilson, (University California, Santa Cruz) "Doing Cultural Studies Inside APEC: Literature, Cultural Identity, and Global/Local Dynamics in the American Pacific," @ 2012. Dr Wilson's essay discusses Globalization's effects on Pacific peoples and how marginalization can be seen in Pacific comparative literature, poetry, and literary journals. He mentions journals such as Bamboo Ridge , Hybolics (see co-editor and his pidgin poetry)
Tinfish Oiwi, a native Hawaiian journal and novels like Milton Murayama's, "All I Asking For is My Body."
a 100 pp. novella and realistic portrayal of sugar plantation life in Hawaii and the nisei experience.
"Brief Guide to Kanaka Maoli (native Hawaiian) Poetry," See themes on Otherness.
Frank Blythe, Prod., "Storyteller of the Pacific: Self Determination," 1996, 240 minutes. Two part series of one hour documentaries on Pacific and Pacific Rim peoples with some discussions on marginalizing of Pacific peoples.
Helen Gardner book review in Reviews in History site of Doug Munro, "The Ivory Tower and Beyond: Participant Historians of the Pacific, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Publishing, 2009. Historiography of Pacific Peoples and their being portrayed as Other, in some cases.
Gwenola Ricordeau Review of Monique Mironesco and Kathy Ferguson, ed. Gender and Globalization in Asia and the Pacific: Method, Practice, Theory (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2008) 420 pp.
Deborah Gewertz and Frederick Errington, "Cheap Meat: Flap Food Nations in the Pacific Islands (Berkeley: U. of Calif. Press, 2010). 224 pp. Cheap Meat follows the controversial trade in inexpensive fatty cuts of lamb or mutton, called "flaps," from the farms of New Zealand and Australia to their primary markets in the Pacific islands of Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Fiji. Deborah Gewertz and Frederick Errington address the evolution of the meat trade itself along with the changing practices of exchange in Papua New Guinea. They show that flaps--which are taken from the animals' bellies and are often 50 percent fat--are not mere market transactions but evidence of the social nature of nutrition policies, illustrating and reinforcing Pacific Islanders' presumed second-class status relative to the white populations of Australia and New Zealand.
Pacific Island Ranger, "Living as an Outcast," The National Parks of the Pacific Islands website, February 24, 2010. Over 8000 Pacific Islanders banned to an Island due to leprosy.
"Miss Fiji Stripped of Beauty Crown Following Race Row," Herald Sun (Australia), May 13, 2012. Ms. Watters, Miss Fiji winner--too young (16) or too white?
"Resources for Hawaii in World History," (note Oceania resources also) World History Connected, Vol. 8, No. 3, October 2011 found in
Guest editor Christine Skwiot, Forum on Hawaii in World History.

Latin America/Caribbean
Joao Feres Jr., (Instituto Universitario de Pesquisas do Rio (IUPERJ), abstract, "Representing Latin America Through Pre-Columbian Art: Political Correctness and the Semantics of Othering,"
Yoselin Roman, "Survey of Latin-American Culture Through Literature," Yale-New Haven Teacher's
Institute, 1997. See three lessons involving film and bibliography of sources.
Juan Pablo Gonzalez, "The Chilean Way to the Andes: Music, Politics and Otherness," (Instituto de Musica Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile) 2006. Gonzalez analyzes development of "neuva cancion" or "new song" in Chile from 1950's into early 1970's.

"America's Racial and Ethnic Divides," 5 pt. series of articles and graphs, Washington Post, 1998.
"Mexico and Peru: The Black Grandma in the Closet, " PBS Black in Latin America, 2011. Professor Henry Louise-Gates narrates 51 minute and 25 second Video. Far more Black slaves came to Mexico and Peru, together, than in the entire history of the US slave trade. Gates sites Black History in Latin America as one of "Death and Invisibility." See home site, "Black in Latin America" with other
videos on Brazil, Cuba, Haiti and Dominican Republic
"Racism in Peru: TAKE ACTION to Stop offensive 'Negro Mama' character in Peruvian TV," Peruanista, May 14, 2011. Professor Henry Louise-Gates sees "Negro Mama" as the worst racist character he has seen.
Leonardo and Clodovis Boff, "A Concise History of Liberation Theology," from the correspondence course website, Liberation Theology and Land Reform of the Henry George Institute. The Boffs explain how Liberation theology came to be, especially in Latin America, where priests did not agree with the policies of the institutional Catholic Church as to land use which increased the poverty and misery of the farmers and natives.

"Art of Mexico-Latin American Art," website, copyright The Incredible Art Department (Princeton On-Line), Ken Rohrer @ 2011. Links to Mexican and Latin American art over time with many examples of outcasts, the other, marginalized peoples.
Associated Press, "US: Mexican Stamp Fuels 'Racial Stereotypes,'", 6/30/2005. Mexican stamp, "Memin Pinguin," displays black racial stereotypes causing Jesse Jackson to visit Vincente Fox (President of Mexico) to protest. Some Mexican sources claim US cartoon character, "Speedy Gonzalez," originating in 1953, amongst many showing US racial stereotyping.,2933,161216,00.html
The comic book character goes back to 1940.
Miriam Jimenez Rom'an, "Boricuas vs. Nuyoricans-Indeed! A Look at Afro-Latinos," ReVista, Harvard Journal of Latin America, Spring 2008. Rom'an takes a look at Afro-Latinas in Puerto Rico and their portrayal as Other.
Siv Elin Aanestad, "The social construction of whiteness and blackness in contemporary Cuba--a note on social sovereignty and the order of Otherness," National Institute of Consumer Research (SIFO), Norway, June 2011, 8 pp. pdf..
Kenneth Maxwell review of Michel-Rolph Trouillot's "Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History," Foreign Affairs, July/August, 1996. The battle within the battle of the Haitian Civil War against the French to silence and control African ex-slaves within the Haitian revolutionary armies.
Review of Michel-Rolph Trouillot's "Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History." Beacon Press, 1995.
Bob Corbett review of Madison Smartt Bell's, "All Souls Rising," Pantheon Books, New York, 1995. More information on Haitian Civil War.
Deepa Panchang, "Waiting For Helicopters? Cholera, Prejudices and the Right to Water in Haiti,, July 4, 2012.
"Rastafari (1998)," A brief history for "Caribbean Beat," 2 pp. pdf. Rastafari music sings of the Otherness of Haitian peoples.
Violet Showers Johnson, "Racial Frontiers in Jamaica's Nonracial Nationhood," Agnes Scott College, nd. Ms. Johnson analyzes Jamaican racial divides in their "nonracial" state.

Romina A. Green (Tufts University), "Unearthing Violetta Parra: Art as Multilayered Discourse and Manifestations of Anti-(Neo) Colonialism, Anti-Modernism, Nationalism and Otherness,", nd.. Ms. Green examines Chilean communist, artist, feminist Violetta Parra's efforts to stand against
colonialism through her art in the mid-20th century.
Eduardo Ibarra-Colado (abstract), "Organizational Studies and Epistemic Coloniality in Latin America: Thinking Otherness from the
Margins," Duke University, Worlds & Knowledges Otherwise, Fall 2007, 24 pp. pdf.
John Gledhill (University of Manchester), "Autonomy and Alterity: The Dilemmas of Mexican Anthropology," Anthropology blogspot, July 7, 2008. Dr. Gledhill discusses Latin American anthropology and it's struggle with North American anthropology.
Patricia Mohammed, "Imaging the Caribbean: Culture and Visual Translation," Palgrave Macmillan, May 2010. Dr. Mohammed paints a word and image picture of Caribbean iconography, historically analyzing visual representations of the region as perceived by outsider and insider over 500 years. She covers the entire region, yet focuses on Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados within colonial and gender encounters.
Mimi Sheller (Lancaster University, UK), "Oraliteracy and Opacity: Resisting Metropolitan Consumption of Caribbean Creole," Paper Presented to Franklin College Conference on Caribbean Literature and Culture-"The Caribbean Unbound" 9th-11th, April 2003. Mimi Sheller quotes bell hooks on otherness and uses cannibal metaphors and images wondering how folk can eat Caribbean food yet not wonder or worry about Caribbean otherness, marginalization and poverty.
Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan, Post Colonial Literary Criticism course-Stuart Hall, "Cultural Identity and Diaspora." Hall uses Derrida's theory of difference to explore Caribbean diaspora identity which is a syncretic mixing of African, European and American identities. Derrida's theory of difference from Lucie Guillemette and Josiane Cossette (2006) Deconstruction and Difference in Louis Herbert (dir.) Signo (online) Rimouski (Quebec)
Ernesto Che Guevara, "This is What Imperialism Does to Men," speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations, New York city, December 11, 1964. Guevara's POV, mid-twentieth century context, and examples as to US and European ("Western civilization") enslaving colonial others.
Charles C. Mann and Susanna Hecht, "Maroon People: Where Slaves Ruled," National Geographic, April 2012. Brazilian secret slave societies.
Brittany Jenkins, "Favelas: Cultural Otherness and the Perpetuation of Exclusionary Public Policy," ColorWise Magazine, April 20, 2012. Jenkins reviews Janice Perlman's, "Favela: Four Decades of Living on the Edge in Rio de Janeiro," North Carolina: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Maria de Jesus, trans. David St. Clair, "Child of the Dark: The Diary of Caroline Maria de Jesus," Penguin 2003. See study guides and lessons
Maria de Jesus raised three children in the slums of Sao Paulo, Brazil, writing her diary on scraps of paper, daily. A poignant primary source on what is feels like to be poverty-stricken, the Other.
Paola Bernstein Jacques, "The Aesthetics of the Favela," Buala-African Contemporary Culture, April, 27, 2011. Jacques as an architect is willing to analyze the aesthetics of the Brazilian slum defending that analysis in that cultural historians celebrate the samba and Carnival which also emanated from favelas. He is really discussing patterns of urbanization.
Kathryn Lehman (University of Auckland), "Argentine Workers' Documentaries as Counter-Information: Implications for Alternative Media," Global Media Journal (Australian Edition). Review of diverse documentaries, films, and internet articles on Argentinean Crisis 2001 with focus on workers. "We are nobodies."

Lorenza Belinda Fontana, "The Indigenous Peasant 'Other:' Land Conflicts, Identity-shaping and State Building in Contemporary Bolivia,", nd. (10 page pdf) Prepared for Mansfield College, Oxford UK, 5th Global Conference-Multiculturalism and Belonging.
Thomas Benjamin, "A Time of Reconquest: History, The Maya Revival and the Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas," The American Historical Review, April 2000.
"African-Native American Lives in the Americas," InDIVISIBLE website, Smithsonian Native Museum of the American Indian.

"Aves de Paraiso: Theatre of the Oppressed in Cali, Columbia," Nottingham Critical Pedagogy, December 26, 2010. Afro-Columbian Women as Other.
John E. Kicza (Washington State University), "Recent Collections of Latin American Historical Documents," Rocky Mountain Review, Spring 2000. Dr. Kicza reviews three Latin American books using primary source documents, for example, James E. Hahner, ed., "Women Through Women's Eyes: Latin American Women in 19th century Travel Accounts," Wilmington, DE: Scholary Resources, 1998.
Ana M. Lopez, "An 'Other' History: The New Latin American Cinema," Radical History Review, Spring 1988 (41), pp. 93-116.

Donald F. Stevens, ed., "True Story: Latin American History at the Movies," Scholarly Resources Inc. 1997. Google book.
Rick Warner, Guest Editor, "Latin America in World History" forum, World History Connected, 2010. Articles, resources many dealing with Latin American poverty, revolution, rebellion.

Dr. Mike Parker-Pearson, "The Practice of Human Sacrifice,", British prehistory, updated 2/28/2011. Parker-Pearson asks the question, "were human sacrifices outcasts, the other, or people who surrendered themselves in a bid to woo supernatural powers?" He supplies evidence and examples from the Iron Age in Europe, Roman evidence as to the Celts, Viking funeral in Russia, China and the Americas.
Aristotle, "The Polis," Fordham Primary Source Documents. Artistotle defines barbarians and humans without a state, without a polis as "outcast," the other.
Herodotus: From the History of the Persian Wars, c. 430 BCE, "Greek Reports of India and Aryavarta," Ancient History Sourcebook, Fordham University (Paul Halsall), 1998. Herodotus camly claims, "All the like the brute beasts."

Francis Hartog, trans. Janet Lloyd, "The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History (The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Poetics), University of California Press, 1988. See brief analysis of book and reviews and comments on website.
Dr. Loyd Llewellyn-Jones, "Herodotus: father of history, father of lies, or a tourist? Greek Concept of Otherness," Ancient History 1 lesson and brief bibliography. (5 pp. pdf)
"The Fourth Book of the Histories called Melpomene," The History of Herodotus, translated by G. C. Macaulay, last updated Jan. 12, 2011 for ebooks @ Adelaide. Herodutus describes the Scythians.
James Redfield, "Herodotus the Tourist," Classical Philology, Vol. 80, No. 2 (April 1985) pp. 97-118. Redfield may be Herodotus' biggest critic as to his views of Others as inferior.
Candace Cedar says Redfield is wrong. Herodotus was NOT ethnocentric nor speaking about Others as inferior. Columbia. edu website by Ruben Gallo highlighting ancient texts and writings:
Froma I. Zeitlin, "Playing the Other: gender and society in classical Greek Literature," University of Chicago Press, 1996, 474 pp.. Woman as the Other in Greek society--google book.
Dustin Simmons, "Perceptions as Reality: The Intersection of Genre and Ethnic Identity in Classical History," Studia Antiqua: A Student Journal For the Study of the Ancient World, Vol. 9, No. 1, Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Spring 2011. Greeks and Roman writings display evidence that they viewed all foreigners as other.
Lorna Hardwick, "Ancient Amazons-Heroes, Outsiders, or Women," (JStor) Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser., Vol. 37, No. 1 (Apr. 1990), 14-36. Ancient Greeks view Amazons as Other.
Thomas Harrison (editor), Greeks and Barbarians, Routledge, 2002. Harrison compiles list of authors who claim the Greeks viewed all civilizations as the Other.

Maggie Thompson (Macalester College), "Primitive or Ideal? Gender and Ethnocentrism in Roman Accounts of Germany," Studies in Mediteranean Antiquity and Classics, Vol. I, Imperial Women, Issue 1, Article 6, 4/24/2007.
James Mannion, "Plato's Republic," netplaces (NY Times Company), nd. Plato's republic would have a strict caste sytem. Of course, context may have been Plato's horror at the "execution" of his beloved Socrates by the "democratic hordes" of Athens.
Plato's Republic as mold for perfect society...a Philosopher King and the Other, Wikipedia.
Gilda Lehrman Center For the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition at the MacMillan Center. "St. Patrick's Letter to Crociticus,".....British as the Other according to Irish point of view. Yale. edu. archive.
Karim .A.H.A. Hasan's Blog-Independent Kurdish Scholar/Academic, "Genealogy of Identity and Otherness: The Construction of Racism," written winter 2001, posted 2/20/2011. Hasan begins otherness with the Greeks, "us vs. them," and moves the theme to modern times.
"Ostracism," wikipedia article seen on The process of ostracism in Greek society.
"Jews in Medieval Christendom," links and articles from 2003 NEH Summer Institute on "Representations of the 'Other': Jews in Medieval Christendom," held at Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, 9 July-13 August, 2003. Director: Irven M. Resnick. This webpage designed by Barbara Stevenson, Professor of English, Kennesaw State University.
"Otherness," Documenta, Ecclesiastical Images, Novemember, 2011. Jewish and Muslim otherness in Christian lands by 14th century.
Sirpa Aalto, "Encountering Otherness in the Heimskringla," 12-13th century...Ennen ja nyt, 4/2004.
Martin Blum Fuller, "Body Politics: otherness and the representation of bodies in late medieval writings,", May 23, 2009. PhD Dissertation University of British Columbia, 1997.
"Marginality and Community in Medieval Europe," Designed by History 84 students at Kenyon College directed by Mary Suydam. Note sites on Jews, Witches, etc..
"Animals and Otherness in the Medieval Ages," Annual Meeting of the Medieval Animal Data-Network, Feb. 7, 2011. This is the Meeting Program
with abstracts from all the speakers from which one could glean more information as to animal symbols, imagery and Otherness in medieval history.
Albrecht Durer's 1514 image, "Melencolia 1," Tenger Research, 2008. Durer's etching is analyzed by David Finkelstein as to the objects in the image, esp. the "hidden" object of the Turk. Displays Durer's fear of Turkish invasions and threat to Western civilization..
Timeline of Witch attacks aimed at women in Europe...Part of the impeturs for the furor was a book, "The Hammer of Witches (Malleus Maleficarum), published in 1487 by two extraordinarily misogynist authors, Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer. The Liz Library.
Malleus Maleficarum website. Note other witchcraft articles as you scroll down page.
Sandra Misel, "Who Burned the Witches?" Catholic Education Resource Center. Ms Misel says, " Since the Enlightenment, rationalists have liked to cite witch-burning as...medieval ignorance and religious (usually Catholic) bigotry run amok...and (Leftists today still denounce it as a cynical plot by the strong against the weak.)
Daniel Linder, Famous Trials, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2012. See Salem Witchcraft trials.
Guido Abbattista, "Trophying Human 'otherness' From Christopher Columbus to contemporary ethno-ecology (fifteenth-twenty first centuries)." Cyber Review of Modern Historiography, (32 slides). Found in Guido Abbattista, ed., "Encountering Otherness. Diversities and Transcultural Experiences in Early Modern European Culture," a series of essays delivered as papers at final conferenceof the Miur-Interlink 2006-2008 research project, "EUO-Europe Cultures and the Understanding of Otherness, copy. Edizioni Universita di Trieste 2011.
"Britishness & Otherness," Humanities Research, Vol. XIII, No. 1, 2006 Note seven essays dealing with the British identity and empire including Canada, Ireland, Scotland, and South Africa.
"RES ANTIQUITATIS," Journal of Ancient History, ed. Francisco Carmelo. Website for this Portuguese journal and note emphasis on cultural otherness, example, Orientalism as Europeans encountered all parts of the globe.
David Haney (Appalachian State University), "Coleridge's 'Historic Race': Ethical and Political Otherness," published as second chapter in Levinas and Nineteenth- Century Literature, University of Delaware Press 2009.
Arthur de Gobineau, Racial Inequality (1853)," Arthur de Gobineau was classic French racist who discussed the "ranking" of races. Note his writing "Three Years in Asia 1855-1858" seen in the Athenaeum Library of Philosophy:
Amy Verner, "Freak Shows and Human Zoos: the Selling of 'the Savage,'" Globe and Mail, January 20, 2012. Verner describes the French exhibit at Paris's Musee du quai Branly which examines racism-otherness- by exploring the historical and cultural factors that shaped attitudes. Art, photos,
sculpture was collected from all over Europe for this exhibit. See that exhibit advertisement, "Human Zoos--The Invention of the Savage:"
Matthew T. Powell (Walsh University), "Bestial Representations of Otherness: Kafka's Animal Stories," Journal of Modern Literature Vol. 32, Number 1 @ Indiana University Press, nd.
Jenee Desmond Harris, "Crazy Talk: 'Racist Circumcision' Cake," The Root, April 17, 2012. Sweden's Minister of Culture cuts racist stereotypical image (cake)
opening World Art Day at Stocklholm's Moderna Museet. More on Black Cake and the Blonde Lady:,%20The%20Artist%20as%20Outlaw,%20Lambert.pdf
"Artist as Outlaw," excerpted from Gilles Lambert, "Carravagio." Koln: Taschen, 2000, 6-17, 92-94. Seen in Mr. Ed Williams AP Art
Judith Johnson, U. of Albany, website for course "Chaos and Order: Emily Dickinson: A Reconsideration," Johnson dedicates a page within her site to "Some Notes on Alterity" in which she describes otherness/alterity outside the "order" of the Enlightenment in Europe.
Maeve Tynan (University of Limerick), "Approaching Otherness," Double Dialogues, Issue Ten, Summer 2009. Tynan discusses the nature of otherness as defined by Continental (Europe) philosophers over time in this short essay.
Irene Gaddo, "Snapshotting the 'Other': images of the 'otherness' in Samuel Butler's life and work (1835-1902), Cyber Review of Modern Historiography, 2011, 16 page pdf.
The Ecology of a Slum, Pt. 1, Affordable Housing Institute, 2/2009. Where the Other lives. Focus on Victorian England in part 1 and 2.
Elaine Lomax (University of Bedfordshire), "The Making of Society's Outcasts: Discourses of Alterity in the Work of Hesba Stretton," Working Papers on the Web, nd.. Victorian author Hesba Stretton (1832-1911), famous for her 'waif' narratives and best selling novel, "Jessica's First Prayer," often delved into otherness involving issues of class, race, gender and generation. Elaine Lomax analyzes her works in this perspective. Note extensive bibliography.
Rebecca Freedman and Danielle Jackson, "Pirates in Peter Pan: Examing the Categorization of Adults as the 'Other,'" Children's Literature Archives 2011, Posted November 17, 2011. Note contextualization of English history and Peter Pan and analysis of child versus adult with adult as the Other. For Peter Pan fans see short Bibliography at end of this blog post.
Excerpts from Garrison Smith's "When Jim Crow Met John Bull," (London: I.B. Taurus, 1987) in (Heretical Press) especially quotes from British soldiers concerning American Black GI's.
Ane Larsen, Sonja Salinovic, and Courtney Sender, "Whose Story is History? History Education and Minority Students," Humanity in Action, Denmark 2010. Teaching History when "The Other" is in the classroom.
Kalwant Bhopal, "identity, empathy and 'otherness': Asian women, education and dowries in the UK," University of Southampton, abstract seen on
Helene Sinnreich, "Using the Past to Confront the Present: Teaching Minority History in Present-Day Poland," Sinnreich taught Jewish studies in Lodz, Poland and found an anti-Roma sentiment in her classes. Her answer to to teaching minority history...comparative studies.
Roger Morier interview with Gypsy/Roma filmmaker Tony Gatlit, "History's Scapegoats," New Internationalist Magazine, Issue 266, 1995. Tony Gatlit discusses his search for Roma identity through his films.

Erik R. Scott (Ph.D. candidate-U. of Calif. Berkeley) "The Nineteenth-Century Russian Gypsy Choir and the Performance of Otherness," Summer 2008.
Scott discusses the Gypsy Craze that swept Moscow and St. Petersburg in 19th century Russia and how the gypsy music, as separate and distinct from
that of their Russian audiences, thrilled the viewers.
"Europe invents the Gypsies: The dark side of modernity"..."Social segregation, cultural appropriation: the six-hundred-year history of the European Roma, as recorded in literature and art, represents the underside of the European subject's self-invention as agent of civilising
progress in the world, writes Klaus-Michael Bogdal" in Eurozine. Professor of German Literary Science at the University of Bielfeld.
His book Europa erfindet die Zigeuner [Europe invents the Gypsies] is published by Suhrkamp Verlag (2011). Thanks to David Fahey for posting on H-World.
Roger Morier, "Urban Marginalized People," New International Magazine, Issue 266, Roma film maker famous in Europe for "Latcho Dom," 1993 highlights plight of the Roma other in Europe.
Newsletter of the Institut Fur Die Wissenschaften Vom Menschen, Vienna and of the Institute For Human Sciences at Boston, University, No. 96, July-December 2007. (In German and English) See especially, p. 22 ff. "Outcasts: The Roma of Slovakia," photo essay by Julia Denesha and p. 20 ff. "Who Is A Partner, And Who is An Alien?" Germany and Austria Policy Debates.
Jagoda Romanowska, "Us and Them. An Intricate History of Otherness." A short review of "Us and Them. An Intricate History of Otherness." International Cultural Centre Gallery, Krakow. Curated by: Anna Olszewska. 16 March-5 June 2011.
Mukal Saxena (University of Warwick,UK), "Construction & Deconstruction of Linguistic Otherness: Conflict and Cooperative code-Switching in (English) bilingual classrooms," English Teaching: Practice & Critique, September 2009, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.167-187.
Amy Sicilliano, Department of Geography, University of Toronto, "La Haine: Framing the 'Urban Outcasts,'' @ACME Editorial Collective, 2007. The Hate, La Haine, (1995) an analysis of the film portraying riots in the French banlieue outside of Paris.
"We don't exist, nobody sees us," A youth from a banlieue outside of Paris 1992. (Laperyronnie, 1992; quoted in Wacquant, 1993, 377 (scroll down to see video clip of La Haine and analysis in Film section).
Sociologist Dr. Sigurd N. Skirbekk (University of Oslo, Norway), "The Image of Others-False and Real Fears in Arab-European Relations," manuscript presented at Arab-European Sociological Conference in Hammamet, Tunisia, March 29-31, 1993 (arranged by UNESCO and the Arab Sociological Association).
Zaman Stanizal, "Disowning 'Otherness' in Norwegian Nightmare and Europe's Long Past of Cultural Intolerance," Articlesbase, posted July 30, 2011. Stanizal cites Europe's new counter-culture as intertwined with intolerance and anguishes how "multi-culturalism" education was a welcoming light for immigrants into Europe. That multi-culturalism is now defamed by a growing Right wing who clearly defines the Other, ie., non-Europeans.
James Kirchik, "A Perverse Quid Pro Quo," Haaretz, 8/24/2012. German Right has co-opted German Politics and the NPD "meeting" August, 2012 attended by Mr. Kirchik gives indications of their message with examples of the NPD and their anti-Jewish and anti-immigrant messages.
David Morely, "Fortress Europe," Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 23, No. 3 (1998). Morely discusses European unifying efforts and problems of nationalism and alienation. See section "Geographies of Exclusion" where he highlights this marginalizing of certain states and peoples.
Michael Sandelson and Lyndsey Smith, "Rising Popularity for anti-Islam Group," The Foreigner, Norwegian News in English, March 11, 2012. News article defining SIAN or Stop Islamisation of Norway.
Geert Wilders, Chairman, Party for Freedom speech at the Four Seasons in NY sponsored by Hudson Institute on September 25, 2009 seen on
Note Wilder's blogsite from which he pontificates against the Other in the Netherlands and throughout the West....the current other is Islam.

"Language and Otherness: English Language as Law," The Atlantic, April 1997.
"Other," Art & Popular Culture website.
Meta Grossman, U. of Ljubljana, Slovenia, "Cross Cultural Awareness: Focusing on Otherness," lecture/article, 1993, found in Cay Dollerup and Annette Lindegaard, editors, Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: insights, aims, visions. Vol. 2, Netherlands: John Benjamins B.V., @ 1994.

K.O.L. Burridge, "Claude Levi-Strauss, fieldwork, Explanation and experience," Theory and Society, Vol. 2. No.4 (winter, 1975) 563-586, Springer. Accessed: 27/10/2008. Burridge discusses Levi-Strauss, anthropological field work and otherness of the primitive found in the "field."
Cynthia Cockburn, "Drawing Lines and Marking Otherness: Women, Gender and 'the Cyprus Problem," Paper presented at Conference on Gender in the Mediterranean: emerging Discourses and Practices, March 5-7, 2004, Intercollege, Nicosia, Cyprus. Seen on Hands Across the Divide website.
Erika Eichelberger, "Men Defining Rape: A History," Mother Jones, August 27, 2012. Context of Congressman Todd Aiken's comments on Rape leads Ms. Eichelberger to look at women and rape over time beginning with Hammurabi's Code and moving into mostly European and American definitions.
Robi Kroflic' (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia), "How to Domesticate Otherness: Three Metaphors of Otherness in European Cultural Tradition," Paideusis, Vol. 16 (2007), No. 3, pp. 33-43. Kroflic' identifies "The Leper, the Court Fool and the Noble Savage" as three metaphors used as Other in European cultural traditions.
"The Image of the Other in History Teaching," Education and Language-History Teaching, Counseil de l'Europe website. Multiculturalism in the European History curriculum.
Girma Berhanu, "Teaching in Higher Education: A Personal Account Seen Through a Perspective of 'Otherness" at a Swedish University," Education Research and Review, Vol. 1 (8), pp. 272-285, November 2006 @ academic Journals. The other from a university professor's perspective.
Giles Perring, "Art and Otherness," University of East London, visual art and birth of the 'Outsider' Art School including a look at Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa and French surrealists.
Disabled artists.
"What is Outsider Art?" Description and definitions of Art Brut, Insane Art and Outsider Art as described by French painter Jean Dubuffet after WW II.
Lidia Kyzlinkova, "Ruth Rendell/Barbara Vine: Racial Otherness and Conservative Englishness," SBORNIK PRACI FILOZOFICKE FAKULTY BRNESKE UNIVERSATA STUDIA MINORA FACULTATIS PHILOSOPHICAE UNIVERSITATIS BRUNESIS S 9, 2003--BRNO Studies in Eng 29.
British contemporary Psychological crime novels expose the other.
Bill Bigelow, "Hunger: The Real Irish American Story Not Taught in Schools," Huffington Post, March 15, 2012, seen on Information Clearing House website.
Irish History--HUNGER! During the first winter of famine, 1846-47, as perhaps 400,000 Irish peasants starved, landlords exported 17 million pounds sterling worth of grain, cattle, pigs, flour, eggs, and poultry -- food that could have prevented those deaths.
Preview in, "Jews, Aliens and Outcasts in British History," The Historical Journal, 37, 4 (1994), Cambridge University Press, pp. 959-969.
"The Jew as Other: A Century of English Caricatures 1730-1830," presented by the Library of JTS (Jewish Theological Seminary) from a 1995 exhibition. Note example/images of English Caricature "drawings" portraying Jews as the OTHER.
Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota,
Center For Holocaust & Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota, "Visualizing Otherness II: Belgrade's Anti-Masonic Exhibition of 1941-42,"
Images. Scroll down to Related Links for more on Nazis, Roma and Sinti (Gypsies) and Native Americans.
Suzanne Fields, "The Newest Jewish Voices From Germany,", 4/13/2012. See new on-line
journal, Jewish Voice From Germany.
James Kirchick, "Free Speech Hypocrisy in Europe," Tablet: A New Read in Jewish Life, August 14, 2012.

Kirchick defends Denmark's Jyllands Posten newspaper which published the infamous Muhammad cartoons and critiques new German art exhibit in Copenhagen, "Pavilon for Revolutionary Free Speech" by German artist Thomas Kilpper. Killper's art works criticizes 33 individuals who have been responsible for promoting censhorship, social exclusion or intolerance, including the Pope, Jyullands Posten culture editor, French right wing politician Marine Le Pen, etc.. You can see the art work(s) here:
Max Shmookler, "Jews , Front and Center? Scrambling for Jewish Identity in the Mainstream," New Voices, December 14, 2005. Example of marginalization from perspective of the marginalized.
"Plan b, a second look at his protest song," Independent, 3/21/2012. British young musician's music criticizes treatment of the Other and growing poverty in England.
[E]Coco Papy, "Privilege and Otherness: Art to Stand on," posted Feb. 10, 2011 in Perspectives, see on Persephone Magazine website. Papy defines privilege in art and gives examples of European artists who depicted the Other in this short article.
Jeremy Williams, "Britain's Unequal Society,", 1/27/2010
cites National Equality Panel 427 pp. pdf report as evidence for growing poverty in Britain.
"An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in the UK," National Equality Panel, UK, January 2010.

"As journalist Fareed Zakaria recently noted in CNN, "Of the 294 terror attacks committed in Europe in 2009, only one was conducted by Islamists. That's a third of one percent. There were 249 terror attacks in Europe in 2010. Only three of those attacks were carried out by Islamist terrorists. Again, that's about one percent. Most of the attacks were carried out by the separatist groups or anarchists." Statistics have made it clear that the laws targeting Muslims in Europe are not based on terrorism. What then, other than the liturgical unison of the media, can explain the cabalism that generates the hierarchy of otherness?" (seen in: Shohini Kundu, Huffington Post, discusses otherness for Muslims and Indians in England.
Arlene Goldbard, "Varieties of Otherness (of the niqab or Hasidic gear or baggy pants)," Motion Magazine, Oct. 22, 2006. Goldbard begins her article with quote from British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, as to British immigrants wearing the veil or niqab, "It is a mark of separation."
See Tony Blair article: Alan Cowell, NY Times, Oct. 18, 2006.
Maria Beville and Matthias Stephan, editors, "Otherness Essays & Studies," The Centre for Studies in Otherness, revised 12/1/2010. See articles and essays on Otherness, especially, in Europe.
Francisco A. Ortegao, " Historical Interpretation and Ethics: Notes on the Role of Alterity," Sharing Values-A Hermeneatics for Global Ethics,
Geneva, Switzerland @ 2011
Frank Heidemann (Berlin) and Alfonso de Toro (Leipzig), "Introduction Rethinking Post Colonialism and Hybridity," University of Leipzig, 2006.
Tony Karon, "Scoring the Goals that Sank Germany, Balotelli Says it Loud: He's Black, Italian and Proud," Entertainment-Keeping Score blog, Time, June 29, 2012. The Italian right wing and racist Italian football/soccer fans have to learn to live with the other.
John Lyle, Department of English Language & Literature (Brock University), "Some Issues in Postcolonial Theory," 1997, 1998. Issues discussed by Dr. Lyle on this page include Otherness, Orientalism and hybridity.

Europe and Orientalism

Orientalism has two meanings in our world, perhaps more. One, a 19th century European art movement that portrays a Romantic view of the Mid-East and East, ie.,
Pin-up art for Europeans in the East? The Oriental mystical women are often portrayed lounging around "ottomans" and bedrooms and look very European. AP World History's new Curriculum
module "Zones of Interaction: Long Distance Trade and Long-Term Connections Across Afro-Eurasia" includes a discussion of the "Other" in it's curriculum.
Orientalism art would be an example of that theme. Note a feminist POV (Jessica) on Orientalism and links exhibiting Oriental Art below. Second, Orientalism refers, also, to a historiographical debate best seen in the Edward Said and Bernard Lewis exchanges. Dr. Said claimed that only regional, ethnic educators should teach specific regional histories and culture studies because they have more of an intuitive "feel" for the region, while the non-regional historians and educators may be biased in their approach and paint a picture of "otherness" of that "foreign" culture.
"Orientalism," Silk Road Encyclopedia
University of Ulster, "Postcolonial Logic: Binarism and Alterity," (nd) Lectures explaining the two terms in context of Edward Said's Orientalist argument.
Larry Portis, "Otherness, Orientalism and Objectivity in the United States," Divergences, June 2009.
Daniel Sered, "Orientalism," Postcolonial Studies at Emory University website, Fall 1996.
John Gibbs, (Stantonbury campus UK), "'Otherness and 'Orientalism,' " one module of Postcolonialism website.

Hamid Dabashi, "Native Informers," Al Ahram (Egypt), Weekly On-line Issue No. 797, June 1-7, 2006. Hamid Dabashi discusses Edward Said's

Orientalism. See more:
Native informers in US search for empire. (Also, note lower right, Orientalist paintings).
Postcards, etc. and original photo for "Reading Lolita in Teheran"
Nineteenth-century artworks often shunned for their stereotypical portrayals of the Arab World have been gaining a new luster of late. Both the NY Times (above) and Saudi Aramco magazines have recently published reports on rising interest and auction prices of Orientalist art, driven in part by Arab art collectors and others who see historical and artistic merit in the works. is Middle East art and news site with a review of Orientalism art, "Behind Orientalism's Veil," Saudi Aramco World.
The 2nd definition of Orientalism could be a comparative lesson idea (Historical Argumentation, even historiography) which pits Dr. Edward Said (Palestinian American) vs. Princeton professor Bernard Lewis. Robert Irwin takes Lewis' side in "Dangerous Knowledge." Dr. Said claimed that Western curriculum teaching the "Orient" which in Western eyes was everything from the Levant through China and Japan was as racist, untrue and stereotypical as Orientalist art.

See summary of historical argumentation (historiography) in this NY Times review of Robt. Irwin's "Dangerous Knowledge." 2006
Another review of Dangerous Knowledge, Irwin. The Moor Next Door blog, September 2, 2009.
Orientalism debate between Palestinian-American scholar/writer Edward Said and Princeton's Bernard Lewis is a heated one. Wikepedia.
Wiki project blog on Edward Said Orientalist debate.

Orientalist Art: A feminist's POV (July 2007 e-mail exchange) sent to John Maunu.
I had mentioned something about Orientalism Art and how a colleague (POV) hated it.
Jessica is my dear friend and a feminist and this is her statement on Orientalist art:

"Arrrr.... I can't stand Orientalist art!! As one of the sites said, it was
and did function as propaganda for imperialism. Many of us STILL get caught
up in the idea of the female form as the epitome of beauty, but I despise
the sub-text of many of these paintings, especially the ones of women, quite
often depicted as very pale and European, lounging about the harem with
come-hither eyes, or bored expressions, or as objects of desire for some
dark-skinned, mustache-twirling sultan. I always feel like I'm looking at
eighteenth or nineteenth-century porn, created by a bunch of pasty, nerdy,
frustrated wanna-be painters. Especially some on the following site, which
I encountered a few years ago in the process of working up a minor
presentation on Edward Said:
This one, listed in your mail below, is the same one I looked at a few years
ago, typos and all -- and I could swear, although I didn't double-check,
that the author has some statement somewhere in there regarding the slave
market paintings as romantic and beautiful. Maybe the siteowner has removed
it by now -- I hope so. There is nothing beautiful or romantic about these
depictions of young women (sans pubic hair, of course!) having their teeth
checked or cowering down naked on some platform in a market (see images by
Gerome). These pictures are some of the most egregious, repelllent and
misleading images ever to popularize a cultural stereotype. I really do
hate them. Also, they inspired and reinforced Victorian notions propagated
on and to women, of wealth, lassitude, lack of freedom -- and lack of desire
for it. The idea that any of this was anything ever to aspire to is
horrifying and destructive and reinforces masculine privilege and
Rant over!! Or maybe not.
By the way, you know, this whole notion is not dead -- far from it. I
believe you saw some of Kohi's pictures of the sufi music festival -- if you
didn't get them, I will forward them to you. I decided to have four of them
enlarged to put up in my apartment next year. They depicted 1) a group of
men drumming, 2) a group of three whirling dervishes (men), 3) a male Sufi
dancer in a beautiful shining costume, and 4) a woman with long hair dancing
in a red dress. Guess which one is the most popular? Guess which one of
the four has people oohing and ahhing EVERY TIME, with absolutely no
exception, NONE? Guess which one everyone looks at, while ignoring the
other three? You bet -- the woman in the red dress. Every time. Never
mind that the drumming picture has an excellent composition. Never mind
that the dervishes have amazing costumes. Never mind that the man dancing
(my personal favorite) has an amazing composition, beautiful use of light,
is entranced, and throwing his hair in a magnificent motion over his
shoulder. It's the woman who gets the approving commentary every time, to
the exclusion of everything else. I almost didn't print her -- I knew what
would happen, and it pisses me off. People generally subscribe to very
narrow definitions of beauty. She went well with the other three, and will
round out the composition on my walls, and so I'm keeping her. But it's so
disappointing that everyone misses the beauty in these other subjects,
because female form = art, or so we've been taught. At least the red woman
has clothes on.
I've always been a big fan of these folks:
If you haven't seen their site, they are fun (and serious about what they
do.) Thanks for the info, John. And thanks for letting me blow off some steam!
Orientalist artists, Orientalist Art website, last updated January 2009.

See harem paintings:
Harem Paintings.
Rick Fink, "Orientalist Art of 19th century: European Painters in the Middle East," @ 2000. "Berber Woman" is beautiful. Also, note "music" tab....

Also see:
Victorian painter, Carl Haag, mid-19th century, first European to paint Dome of the Rock, etc. Middle East art, watercolor.
Other European Orientalist artists, and song "Terra."
"Re-Valuation Romantic Orientalism," eCognoscente New York, 2010. More on Orientalist art.

Paul Zeleza, "Africa, Idea of," New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, 2005, seen in Dr. Zeleza explains the derivation of the term "Africa" and how westerners have viewed the continent geographically, ethnically, etc., many times with a sense of otherness.
George Heffernan, "Augustine of Africa: Contemporary Lessons From his postcolonial Struggle against Roman Imperialism and Donatist Fundamentalism," The Interenational Journal of the Humanities. Short introduction to Heffernan's book highlighting Augustine as African and an Outsider.
Susan Preston Blier (Harvard University African and African American Studies), "Imaging Otherness in Ivory: African Portrayals of the Portuguese. ca. 1492,"
The Art Bulletin, September 1993, Vol. LXXV, Number 3. pdf.
Note Blier's website and her bibliography of African
Jedi Shemsu Jehewty (a.k.a. Jacob H. Carruthers), "'The Invention of Africa' and Intellectual Neocolonialism," winter 1996. Jehewty analyzes V.Y. Mudimbe's "The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge."
"Mysteries of Greater Zimbabwe," NOVA, European archaeology and falsification agenda. Greater Zimbabwe was an advanced medieval center, thus Black Africans could not have built it. Not until Gertrude Caton-Thompson's all-women archaeology team used air photography to find the entrance was evidence found to prove the truth about African origins.

Chinweizu, "Chinweizu: Lugardism, UN Imperialism and the Prospect of African Power," Assata Shakur Forums. This is from a public lecture delivered at Agip Recital Hall, Muson Centre, Onikan, Lagos, 2/18/2006. Chinweizu rails against Arab-European power specifically in Nigeria and like Assata Shakur
supports revolution of the Other in the Haitian model against powers that manufactured aids to kill Africans. Chinweizu is author of the classic, "The West and the Rest of US: White Predators, Black Slavers and the African Elite," Vintage Books, 1975
Ali A. Mazrui, "Re-Invention of Africa: Edward Said, V. Y. Mudimbe, and Beyond," Research in African Literatures, 36.3 (2005) 68-82 in Discussion in Black People Open Forum, March 18, 2007" from thread-"Black People: The Re-Invention of Africa." Said and Mudimbe's interpretation of Otherness.
Nah Dove (Temple University), "African Womanism/An Afrocentric Theory," Journal of Black Studies, May 1998, Vol. 28, No. 5, 515-539, seen in Sage Publications. See links to complete article pdf.. Nah Dove focuses on racialization of world, specifically Africa and African women through European domination and White Supremacy.
Rembold, Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" analysis especially the breakdown of clan in the face of Christian missionaries. Did Igbo outcasts, the other, become the first to disrupt the Igbo system and become Christian converts?
Criticism of George back-to-roots African Village democracy and European perception of colonial Africa as other and distorted. University of Texas.
"The Herero and Namaqua," Gallery Ezakwautu displaying Central and South African Tribal Art, last updated 2012. Images of the Herero and Namaqua genocide in early 20th century perpetrated by German colonizers. Use of concentration camps may have been a German strategy continued in Hitler's Germany.
Ikhide R. Ikheloa, Email From America blogsite, "The Empire Talks Back," Ikheola, citing the Economist's review of Binyavanga Wainaina's "One day I Will Write About This Place," Graywolf Press, critiques African writers in America and the West subsidized by the West who cash in on "African misery."

Pius Adesanmi, "Wole Soyinka, Igbo Cyber-Discourse, and the Myth of the Good Yoruba," African Writer, July 27, 2009. Adesanmi writes, "the production of otherness...has to do with how people, voices, or forces who perceive themselves as normative...have represented those who do not look like them as anamalous, primitive and inferior...the other." Seen also in Nigerian Village Square,
July 26, 2009


Wairama G. Baker, "Uganda: The Marginalization of Minorities. Minority Rights Group International @ 2001.
"Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery,", 2000-2010 articles on Republic of Congo. See Bantu enslavement of pygmy peoples and Pygmy enslavement articles.
Stefan Anitei, "The First African World War: Main Menu Pygmy Meat,", September 15, 2007. Atrocities against tribal others in the Congo beginning with Stanley, coltan "dust," resources competition and Congolese warring.
Paul Raffaele, "The Pygmies Plight," Smithsonian, December 2008.
Dr. Peter Okaalet, 'A Holistic Approach to HIV and AIDS,' seen on MICAH Network: Marginalized People-Our Christian Response, presented in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1-4, October, 2007.
"Africa's Caste System," AfrTurk website, 1/18/2011.
Ian Fisher, "Somalia's 'Hebrews' See a Better Day," NY Times, August 15, 2000 on Haruth Communications website, "Jewish Somalia." Somali Muslim Yibir tribe as outcast, the Other, cursed as descendants of Israelites.
Messay Kebede, "Rehabilitation Through Violence: Fanon, Colonialism, and Modern Society," polylog, 2004. Disc. on Frantz Fanon's ideas in support of decolonization efforts by the Other and marginalized people, esp. in Africa.
Tracey Nicholls (Lewis University), "Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), International Encyclopedia of Philosophy, orig. pub. 9/21/2011.
"Critically evaluate Frantz Fanon's contributions to our understanding of comtemporary oppression and to the politics of dissent and resistance." This essay was written in 2008 for Life, Power, Resistance: Critical Perspectives on a Post-Westphalian Era, an International Relations course at Sussex University. Posted by Wayward Cloud blog August 9, 2008.

Ahmed Bawa Kuyini, "Rejoinder: Are Fanon's ideas still relevant in African political discourse?" Ghana Web, 3/8/2011.
Alejandro De Oto, Political Discourse--Theories of Colonialism and Postcolonialism, El Colegio De Mexico, CEAA. A website analyzing Fanon's thoughts on colonialism and the other, 5 parts.
Coral Houtman review of Ranjana Khanna, "Dark Continents: Psychoanalysis and Colonialism," Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003 seen on "Leonardo on-line," 2004. Houtman sees Khanna's analogy as to psychoanalysis and colonialism and post-colonialism as psychoanalysis=Western Man while women and Black Men are the Dark Continent.
The Green Belt Movement blogsite, "Wangari Maathai on the Women of the Green Belt Movement," @Green Belt Movement International by LanternMedia, nd.. Blog cites many of Wangari Maathai's speeches and foundations and other movements for peace and equal rights.
David Maduli Green Belt Movement For Educators Film Module, "Taking Root: Kenya and Wangari Maathai," ITVS. See more lessons in Lessons section at end of this article.
"Nuba: Right to Life Faces Genocide," Think Africa Press, 6/2012. Genocide in Sudan. Note many other articles on right side of page.
Clairmont Chung, "Another Missionary in Africa: The Bill Gates Myth," Pambazuka News, Pan-African Voices for Freedom and Justice, 5/24/2012. White missionaries ministering to the Other (African), Bill Gates, latest practitioner.
Sheri Fink, "Cities of the Poor I: Slums of Kenya," (see pt. II "Slums of South Africa" at bottom of this site) PRI's The World, Global Perspectives for an American audience, December 18, 2006. Note 13 minute audio interview and transcript with Nairobi, Kenya slum dweller.
Judith Klein, "The Other Side of Kenya's Terrible Secret," March 2011.
Kenya jailed mentally disturbed citizens. Note Croatian mentally ill died of food poisoning. The Mentally ill as "Other."
Ben Barber, "Boko Haram: Killers for God," Huffington Post, The Blog, 5/7/2012. Boko Haram interpreted means "books are forbidden." This Hausa Nigerian Muslim fundamentalist group rages against the other: books (Western secular science), Christians and followers of traditional religions.
Remi Akujobi, "Signifying 'Otherness' and the Politics of Exclusion: Effects of Stigmatization on the Psyche of Female Lepers and Beggars in Nigeria," Covenant University, copyright 2011. Download article.
Africa Philosophy Resources, "Topic: Art, Philosophy and Africa," B. Janz webpage, nd.
Links to African art. See especially, Jean-Marie Dederen, "Black Artist, White Critic: Ideologrical Mindscapes of Otherness."
National Museum of Africa Art list of blogs found within National Museum of African Art site.
Sean O'Hagan, The Guardian Observer (UK), "Africa as you've never seen it," July 19, 2008. Article with 10 photographs analyzing and describing young South African photographer Peter Hugo's unsettling images of Africa's marginalized peoples.
Dorrie Chetty, "Neo-Colonialism and 'Otherness:' Representational Issues in Field Exchange," Field Exchange On-Line, Issue 26, November 2005. Chetty is responding to Andre Renzaho's Field Exchange one page article, Issue 23, p. 17, 2004 which charges Field Exchange magazine as using photos exhibiting Africans as the Other, especially in the field of public health.
Ane Lintvedt, "Modern Racism," World History Sources, George Mason University website. Ane Lintvedt,
McDonogh School, Owings Mills, Maryland places Nelson Mandella's "Rivonia Trial Speech" and Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in front of students to compare and contrast racism in two societies, S. Africa and the American South in the same time period. The Other under arrest and speaking out.
Ilja Hehenkamp, "Constructing Otherness Strategies of Sameness: Xenophobia, the Ambiguity of Strangeness and Strategies of Invisibilty of African Immigrants in Alexandria, South Africa," award winning MA thesis, University of Amsterdam, May 21, 2010.
Dirk J. Louw (University of the North, South Africa), "Ubuntu: An African Assessment of the Religious Other," Philosophy in Africa site, The Paidea Archive, Boston University. "Ubuntu is a Zulu word for humanness or basic respect for others and Dirk Louw discusses it's meaning in a decolonized Africa where religious identity can highlight otherness.

Donna Bryson, "South African photographer pursues hate speech case," The Essential Global News Network, April 11, 2012. Johannesburg, South African 82 year old photojournalist Alf Kumalo pursues hate speech case. Kumalo photographed the South African apartheid struggle.
Dineo Bopape, "Coral Spencer at artSPACE," artthrob on-line journal, archive: Issue No. 91, March 2005. Bopape reviews Spencer's art exhibit of African maids hitting on the theme of otherness. See images of her paintings on this site.
Peter Probst, "Troubled Waters: on Otherness and Ownership," The Regents of U. of California and Gale, Cengage Learning 2010. Article found on Business Library (CBS) website. Probst dissects the problem of interpreting art works at exhibits and art museums using African spirit Mami Wata exhibit asking, "To whom does the Other belong?" Who has ownership of summarizing and interpreting art works at exhibits?
Heidi Sincuba blogsite, "In other worlds: The trouble with Otherness and the Rise of the Altermodern," July 25, 2011. A case for more African and non-western art.
Lalla Essaydi exhibit "Converging Territories," Jackson Fine Art Gallery. Essaydi is a Moroccan born NY based visual artist who portrays gender otherness.
Nnamdi Elleh, "A Continent without Borders: Africa's Influence on African American Artists," Resource Library, 2/3/2005. This essay was excerpted with permission of author from 2004 illustrated catalogue for Exhibition "Embracing the Muse: Africa and African American Art" at the Michael Rosenfeld Gallery 1/15-3/6/2004.
Patricia Mohammed, (professor gender studies University of the West Indies-Trinidad) "A Triangular trade in gender and visuality: the making of a cross-cultural image base,",+she+Jane%3F%22%3A+Buchi+Emecheta%27s+%27The+Rape+of+Shavi.%27...-a016989146

"He neo-Tarzan She Jane," Western feminism vs. African traditional feminists in Northern Africa, review of "The Rape of Shavi, The Free Library,
Colin Kilkelly, "Colin Watson a Painter who Captures 'the Otherness' of Morocco," The North African Journal, 4/11/2002. Do you see any alterity in Mr. Watson's
works as evidenced by this article?
"Feminist Africa," African Gender Institute Journal and website.

North America

"We have a record of conquest, colonization and expansion unequalled by any people in the 19th century...we are not to be curbed now. For the sake of our commercial prosperity we ought to seize the Hawaiian islands now." --Senator Henry Cabot Lodge

"Whether the whites won the land by treaty, by armed conquest, or both...mattered little so long as the land was won...all men of sane and wholesome thought must dismiss with contempt the plea that these continents should be reserved for the use of a few scattered savages whose life was a few degrees less meaningless, squalid, and ferocious than that of the wild beasts." --Theodore Roosevelt

"Democracy has justified itself by keeping for the white race the best portion's of the earth's surface." --Theodore Roosevelt
Eugene Linden, "The Vikings: A Memorable Visit to America,", December 24, 2004. Is it any wonder that the Vikings had problems with the native Americans in Newfoundland, as they referenced them as skraelings or "wretched people."
Noam Chomsky, "Recognizing Unpeople" updates George Orwell's "Unpeople" definition. January 7, 2012 article. or
Noam Chomsky, "Anniversaries From 'Unhistory,'" Truthout/Op-Ed, February 6, 2012. Chomsky writes, "George Orwell coined the useful term 'unperson' for creatures denied personhood because they don't abide by state doctrine. We may add the term 'unhistory' to refer to the fate of unpersons expunged from history on similar grounds."
National Humanities Center, "You Know, we are different Nations and have different ways." European Americans and Native Americans View Each Other, 1700-1775. (2009) National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox, Becoming American: The British Atlantic Colonies, 1690-1763.
Erika Theresa Franz, Brush off the dust! History now! blog, "Dehumanizing now! words and writing the other," 9/8/2010. Ms. Franz discusses Todorov's, "The Conquest of America, The Question of the Other,"
and William Brennan's, "Dehumanizing the Vulnerable, When Word Games Take Lives."
Lisa Wade, "Representation of the 'Primitive' American Indian," Sociological Images website, March 30, 2011. Edward S. Curtis' photographs of native Americans and how they shaped Images of the Native Other...JP Morgan paid Curtis $75,000 in 1906 to photography native Americans.
These manipulated photographs shaped American perception of the "Other" (native American) for years. Link can also be opened here:
"Otherness," GIRA (Interdisciplinary Research Group on the Americas). Research questions and key notions as to Native issues throughout the Americas. Note tabs for other alterity, marginalized studies and resources.
The Movies, Race, and Ethnicity: Native Americans in Film from Media Resource Center, Moffitt Library, UC Berkely. Note Bibliography of Native Film and Listing of Western Films.
Ben Joseph, "The 9 Most Racist Disney Characters,", November 16, 2007. See video clips as evidence from Ben Joseph and
Roger L. Nichols, University of Arizona, "Acculturation and 'Otherness:' Native American Experiences, Sept. 2004. In: TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift fur
Kulturwissen schaften. No. 15, 2003.
Albena Bakratcheva (Sofia), "Report: Frontier Metamorphoses: Americanization and Otherness."
Milan Zafirovski, "Radical Puritanism 'Rediscovered:' Elements and Legacies of Extremism and Anti-Egalitarianism," Idea, Vol. 12, No. 1, Oct. 6, 2007.
Donna M. Campbell, "Calvinism in New England Puritan Culture," Literary Movements. Department of English, Washington State University, last modified 3/12/2010. Short definition of Calvinist beliefs (TULIP) and definition of the "select" while those not selected are the Other.
Trent Gillis and Susan Leem, "Origins of oft-Quoted Slogan Might Surprise You," October 17, 2011 seen in Krista Tippett's, "Mormon Dymystified," On Being, August 23, 2012.
Gillis and Leem quote Mormon feminist and Pulitizer Prize winning historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (1668-1735) who wrote in the early 18th century, "Cotton Mather called them the "Hidden Ones." Ulrich was referring to well behaved women who she said "seldom make History."
Witchcraft sources, Cornell Library.'s+construction+of+otherness+and+the+rhetoric+of...-a085185721
Mary McAleer Baikun (Associate Professor of English, Seton Hall University), "Phillis Wheatley's Construction of Otherness and the Rhetoric of performed ideology," African American Review, March 22, 2002 seen in The Free website.
Sojurner Truth Museum website, Battle Creek, Michigan. Gender and slavery otherness.

John Hartwell Moore, Editor in Chief, "Encyclopedia of Race and Racism," Macmillan Reference USA, An imprint of Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation, 2008. 535 pp. pdf. with permission of publisher.
Christopher Hedges, "The Implosion of Capitalism,", April 30, 2012. Hedges claims the Native American Other had to be destroyed because their "communal" lifestyle, religion and economics did not mix or jibe with "self devouring capitalist ideology."

Kenneth C. Davis, "The Founding Immigrants," NY Times, July 3, 2007. Dr. Davis, with July 4th celebration context, cites Ben Franklin's angst over German immigrants to Pennsylvania in the 1750's to highlight the continuity over time of America's xenophobia and fear of the Other.
Lena Reynoso, "Popular American Amusements: Tourism, Bodies and Display in America 1769-1900," Archiving Early America, Winter/Spring 2008.
Carnivals and Freak Shows display the Other.
Robert H. Clancy, "An 'Un-American' Bill: A Congressman Denounces Immigration Quotas," primary source from History Matters website, George Mason University. In 1924 Detroit US Congressman stands up for his constituency in speech before Congress denouncing the Immigration Quota Bill. He defends, Irish, Germans, Jews, etc. a good citizens, not the Other.
Allison J. Gough (Hawai'i Pacific University), '"Messing Up Another Country's Customs:" The Exportation of American Racism During WW II," World History Connected, October 2007. Gough's article explains how the US military enforced racist customs and taboos during WW II in England, Hawai'i, Ireland, etc.
Introduction includes an interesting anectdote concerning heavyweight boxing champ, working for the US Army, Joe Louis' experience attending a British theatre.
Gough first two citations are from, Garrison Smith (British journalist and author), "When Jim Crow Met John Bull," (London: I.B. Taurus, 1987) Here are some excerpts from that book seen in (Heretical Press), nd. Note especially comments and attitudes towards American Black GI's
from the British.
Shaneka Oliver, "Black Student Protests in WW II, and the Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Virginia," Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia, 2005. Black students viewed WW II as a fight against two enemies: the Nazis and Jim Crow.
George Novack, "Understanding History: Alienation Pt. 1," archive, 1959. Alienation, otherness from an American Marxist point of view leads to Labor as other.
Asian stereotypes and cultural racism toward Asians in American culture, Note other examples, Brown-face, Arab-face, Jew-face, Indian-face, etc. at bottom of this page.

Anthony Lee, "Picturing Chinatown: Art and Orientalism in San Francisco," originally published in U. of California Press, 2001, seen in College Street Journal, Mount Holyoke, Oct. 2002. Fears, needs, social concerns of Chinese community in San Francisco, 1840-1950.
Remembering Vincent Chin, Arab Stereotypes blog, 6/2012. Vincent Chin, Chinese-American, is beaten to death by two Detroit auto workers because they thought he was Japanese and the Jap "other" were hurting Detroit auto sales.
New York professional basketball sensation Jeremy Lin and the inevitable racial ignorance.
February 2012 website. The Other in professional American Asian?
Manan Desai, "How to Be South Asian in America. (NOT.)," Hyphen Magazine (Asian America Unabridged), October 13, 2011.
Stereotypes of the Other, East Asians, in the Western world. (wikipedia)
Nicholas Smith, "Housework and the Cult of Domesticity," ArticleMyriad, January 17, 2012. Female home life from 1820 to American Industrial Revolution is discussed as to gender roles and expectations.
(Graphic/Cartoon Journalism) Anne Elizabeth Moore and graphic artist Mickey Zacchilli, "The Gender of Media Creators Affects What We See," Truthout, 3/13/2012. This article uses evidence from 2011 gender counts (inc. in article) in literary publishing to portray US media as still a man's world effecting how women are displayed via creators of media.
Marc Singer, "'Black Skins' and White Masks: Comic Books and the Secret of Race," African American Review, 2002. Cartoons stereotype the other.
Lisa Thompson, "Fighting the Other Slave Trade," Women against sexual trafficking, Christianity Today Library website, April 1, 2006. Late 19th-20th century European and American sexual trafficking and attempts by groups such as the Salvation Army to stop this "other" sex slave trade.
Arab-Americans in service to their country..."Patriots and Peacemakers." Arab American Museum,
Dearborn, Michigan attempting to "reclaim identity" and portray Arab Americans as "US."
Sherwood Ross, "Demonizing Muslims. America's Worldwide Witch Hunt," Global Research, April 24, 2012. Ethnic profiling the Muslim Other.
Munira Syeda, "The Dictator Misses the Point," Huffington Post, 5/2012. Ms. Syeda critiques Sasha Cohen's film as filled with Arab stereotypes and gives examples of creative, intelligent, funny television that does not need old racist humor demeaning the Other.
Larry Portis, "Otherness, Orientalism and Objectivity in the United States," Divergences, June 2009.
Barbara Kay, "Barbara Kay: Communities Must Speak Out Against Brutal Traditions," National Post, Canada, January 26, 2011. Honor Killing case by Arab-Canadian family.
"Michigan Lawmakers to Form Judaeo-Christian Caucus,", 4/2012. Similar to George W. Bush's Prayer Breakfasts...the other are not invited?
"Jerry Newcombe, Evangelical Leader, Says Only Christian Victims of Colorado Shooting Going to Heaven," Huffington Post, 7/22/2012. Others not accepting Jesus Christ are going to a terrible place.
Brian Tashman, "Pastor Dennis Terry Introduces Rick Santorum, Tells Liberals and Non-Christians to 'Get Out' of America," Right Wing Watch seen on People for American Way site, 3/18/2012.
David Cortwright, "Disarmament Diplomacy," Issue No. 76, March/April 2004. The Superpower (United States) as the Other in world diplomacy. Context is Iraq war 2003.
Dr. William Maxwell, "Modern American Poetry-Claude McKay," University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Claude McKay's poetry depicted in this section of Dr. Maxwell's website has Heather Hathaway and Humberto Garcia analyzing McKay's feeling of "Outcast" in white America of the mid-20th century.

Without permission from the dominant social group, marginalized people cannot tell their own story, cannot define themselves, but rather, must submit to the descriptions assigned to them by the dominant group, thus they are robbed of voice, identity, and sense of self and sense of value.
Lisa Onbelet, Imaging the Other, McMaster Journal of Theology and Ministry.
Ralph Ellison discussed this in an interview in the Paris Review, No. 8, Spring 1955 seen on Atlantic Mobile, June 4, 2012, posted by Ta-Nehisi Coates entitled "Ralph Ellison's Favorite Protest Novel." Ellison discusses the problem of being identified as a "Protest writer" and the fact that he is not....he is a writer writing from a minority point of view and he won't debate his humanity with white people.
Timothy Sexton, "Bell Hooks, Postmodern Blackness and the Attempt to Save Postmodernism Theory From Itself," Yahoo Voices, November 6, 2007. Sexton explains that Postmodern Blackness and bell hooks challenges the idea that elitist white males are best qualified to write about issues of Otherness and Difference.
bell hooks, "Postmodern Blackness," Oberlin College, 1990. Posted at University of Pennsylvania, African Studies Center, April 19, 1994.
Kishore Budha, "bell hooks on Cultural Critique," Critical Stew, December 17, 2007. Note videos, "bell hooks on Cultural Criticism and Transformation."
Jim Crow Museum on Racism in Big Rapids, Michigan, Ferris State College. Memorials to horrible American racism...
Mike Householder (AP), "Newest Michigan Museum Showcases Racist Artifacts," The San Diego Union-Tribune, April 19, 2012.
Michelle Alexander, "America's Current Racial Caste Sytem: We Need to Ensure That It Is Our Last," Truthout, July 24, 2012. Truth-out shows excerpt of Michelle Alexander's new book, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness," The New Press, 2010.
Randall Bass (Associate Professor of English, Georgetown University), "Chapter Four: Borders as Barriers, Otherness and Difference--National Geographic Nudity," National Geographic photo images of the other globally analyzed in this segment of a Georgetown course based on Dr. Bass's book, "Bordertexts: Cultural Readings for Contempoary Writers," Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999 and "Beyond Borders, a cultural reader," Houghton Mifflin, 2002 where he discussed normality and cultural differences. See all chapters in Bordertexts website: and free essay from reviewing Bass's work.
"America's Racial and Ethnic Divides," 5 pt. series of articles and graphs, Washington Post, 1998.

Alexandra Giroux blog, "The Norm of Whiteness," 2011. Giroux discusses the power of media to represent race, color and claims white is nornal, color is otherness.
Rev. Rus Cooper-Dowda, "The Other History," Black History Month in @2011.
Kevin Michael Foster, "Diet of Disparagement: the racial experiences of black students in a predominantly white university," International Journal of Qualitative Studies in
Education, Vol. 18, No. 4, July-August 2005, pp. 489-505 seen on Routledge Taylor & Francis Ltd. site. University of Texas study on racism on campus. Note "institutional racism" section.
Paul Koenen, "History's Marginalized People," The Heights (Boston, Mass.), Oct. 22, 2006, updated Nov. 2009. Mr. Koenen reacts to Boston University student's statement after race riots that racism will not be solved until, white male European understanding of the world" is changed. Koenen then lists the many examples of marginalized white males in European and American history which be White European males as Other.
Kathy Jones, "Study Claims Racism Hardwired in Human Brain," MedIndia, Lifestyle News, June 28, 2012. Controversial study done by American researchers.
William A. Dunaway, "Legacy of Social Darwinism in Appalachian Scholarship," William A. Dunaway website, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Kelly J. D. Waldron, "Tracing the Threads: A Curriculum Study of the Dialogue of 'Otherness' in the Histories of Public and Independent Schooling," Doctoral Dissertation, Georgia Southern University, spring 2008, 221 pp. pdf.

Krista Tippett, audio podcast, "Mike Rose on the Meaning of Intelligence," On Being NPR program, 8/30/2012. Mike Rose, as a son of a welder and waitress, discusses schooling and who we are as defined by "intelligence" standards and benchmarks. Rose was defined as "the other" in school due to an error and "tracked" in the vocational program, not college prep, at his high school. Mike Rose, today, is a respected researcher, teacher, poet and writer working at UCLA.
"The Daily Show Ridicules Ban on Mexican-American Studies Program,", 4/4/2012, See Daily Show video, April 2, 2012 on Tuscon school board's decision to ban Mexican American Studies program while keeping Black, Asian Studies...banning the Other's education.

See Truthout article on same topic:
Mark Karlin, Truthout: "Battles over school curriculums occasionally make national news, but quickly fade. However, the banning of the Mexican-American studies program in Tucson has assumed much greater significance. The action precipitated by the Arizona legislature - and signed by Gov. Jan Brewer -
brazenly suppresses educating a multicultural society in a school district where the majority of students are of Mexican descent."

Read the Article and Watch the Video
D. Emily Hicks, (San Diego State University) "Nationalism, History, the Chicano Subject, and the Text," American Council of Learned Societies, Occasional Paper No. 23. Teaching the Humanities-Essays Fromm the ACLS elementary and secondary school Teacher Curriculum Development Project. See other papers on this site.
Joe R. Hicks, "The Hicks File: Radical Arizona Educators Now in the Crosshairs," PJ Media, May 21, 2010. Mr. Hicks disagrees with the Daily Show and Mark Karlin and states, "Banning Ethnic Studies programs that promote 'otherness' is the right thing to do.
Laura Steigerwald, "Emails From ALEC member Russell Pearce Show Anti-Immigrant Law May Have Been Racially Motivated," PR Watch seen in, August 6, 2012. Arizona Immigrant Laws pushed by racists?
A longtime leader in the Chicano, immigrant rights, and antiwar movements, Carlos Montes' arrest in a May 2011 raid followed similar FBI raids on activists in Minnesota, Michigan and Illinois targeting fellow members of a political group called the Anti-War Committee.
Laura Steiner, "'Sesame Street' Aims to Accurately Portray Latino Culture," posted 4/2/2012 seen in Huffington Post, Cultura Latinovoices, April 7, 2012. Latinos have been portrayed unrealistically and Sesame Street is making an effort to change that. Note Latino muppet
created in 1993.
Immanuel Wallerstein, "Latinas: What's In A Name?" 3/21/2005. Dr. Wallerstein gives this analysis of Latin@s within the world system as a keynote address at Latinas in the World Systems 28th Annual Conference of the Political, Economics of the World Systems Conference, University of California, Berkeley, April 22-24, 2004. (see Latinas Teaching" Activity/module in "Lessons" section below)
2012 Masters, "Billy Payne won't talk membership,", April 4, 2012. Video and article on Augusta golf course banning of women even as new CEO of IBM is a woman. All big corporation CEOs get to wear the green jacket, except as of April 2012, a woman.

"As Long as I'm Alive, all the golfers will be White and all the caddies will be Black."
Cliff Roberts, Augusta Golf Club Founder
Karen Crouse, "Treasure of Golf's Sad Past, Black Caddies Vanish in Era of Riches," NY Times, April 2, 2012.
Morris W Kelly, "Augusta National: Color Me Unimpressed," Huffington Post, The Blog, August 21, 2012. Blacks first admitted in 1990 and finally in 2012 two women have been admitted to Augusta National Golf course
Yasushi Maruyama, (Florida State University), "Wittgenstein's Children: Some Implications for Teaching and Otherness," from Lectures at 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, August 10-15, 1998.
"Strange Fruit: Protest music" website, Independent Lens, posted 2003, @Independent Television Series 2012, PBS. Audio links to protest songs in American history--Slavery, Abolitionism and Women's Rights, Workers, depression, War, Labor and Race, civil rights in Vietnam, Anti-establishment and Message Music 2000 to the Present. Look at Other Film at top for previews of PBS films. The Other/outcast sings.
Andres T. Tapia, "Pop Culture helps Normalize the Other in Society," The Inclusion Paradox website, posted September 23, 2010. Pop culture icons Archie and Veronica, Dora the Explorer introduce diversity and the Other.
Pop culture helps see how the Other suffer in society. Bob Dylan song as to death of Hattie Carroll, a 51 year old maid killed by the cane of a diamond ring wearing Southern man.. lyrics seen here:
S. Mark Helm (Assoc. Professor of Christian Theology at Andover Newton Theological School), "Pluralism and the Otherness of World Religions," First Things, Aug/Sept. 1992, posted 2/3/2008. As pluralism continues how does Christianity stand as to global faiths?
"Why Does Every Culture Create Outcasts? And how to break the problem," Sermons For Planet Earth website,, June 28, 2009. Methodist prepared sermon on the Other over time. How to break the problem, "soften your heart to difference."
"Why Do Amish Practice Shunning?" Amish America website.
Sharon Tubbs, "Spirtual Shunning," St. Petersburg Times Online Floridian, 8/22/2002. Jehovah Witnesses practice spiritual shunning or "disfellowship."
Reverend Scott W. Alexander, sermon, "The Sin of Otherness," preaching at Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Vero Beach, Sunday, November 27, 2011.
Gregory Phillips, "Berean Baptist pastor disavows advice to punch Gay kids as a joke,", May 2, 2012. Baptist minister backs off advice to parents to slap their children if they show any "gay traits."
"Westboro Baptist Church,", Religious group fomenting anger and disgust against homosexuals and harassing military funerals in the United States.
Bruce Robert Norquist, "An explanation of the relationship between student engagement with 'otherness' and faith development in evangelical higher education," Loyola, University of Chicago abstract of dissertation, 2008 seen on UMI ProQuest-Dissertations and Thesis @ 2012.

How Evangelicals deal with the otherness of different faiths.
Spirituality of the Outcast in Mormon Religion, Maxwell Institute, Brigham Young University.
"Couple Says Mississippi Church Blocked Wedding Because They Are Black," US News, 7/27/2012.
Dr. Harvey Cox (Professor Harvard Divinity School), "The Secular City 25 Years Later," Christian Century November 7, 1990, pp. 1025-1029 @ The Christian Century Foundation. Dr. Cox takes a look at his book "The Secular City" in the context of growing religious fundamentalism worldwide and it's antagonism to secularism in urban areas. He finds a compromise for the secular other and the fundamentalist, worldwide.
S. Mark Heim, "Pluralism and the Otherness of World Religions," First Things, originally written August/September 1992. Mark Heim discusses the "struggle" between those faiths who accept the equal validity of all other religions versus those who believe their religious truth is superior to all Others and it's path to salvation the only one.
Ted Genoways, "No Way Home: Outsiders and Outcasts," The Virginia Quarterly Review A National Journal of Literature and Discussion, summer
2008. Did Hurricane Katrina unveil Gulf coast Outcasts and Outsiders? Ted Genoways believes so.
Tom Philpott, "Farm Workers Get Beat Up in Florida Fields and the US Senate," Mother Jones, March 28, 2012.
Barbara Ehrenreich, "American Poverty 50 Years Later,", 3/14/2012. The huge gap between the American poor and American politicians.
Uri Dudash, etc. al., "Inequality in America: A Global Perspective," Carnegie Endowment, 4/16/2012.
"Extremism and the End of Mankind,", Rulers always busy with serious confrontations between themselves and their rivals thus being apathetic and insensitive towards the "other" deprived which breeds outcast extremism. Context for article was Virginia Tech shootout where one person shot 32 people.
Mark Karlin, "Shoot to Kill" May Soon Be Replacing "In God We Trust" As US Motto," Buzz Flash at Truthout, March 23, 2012. Shooting the Other...American Stand and Defend laws giving white male racists freedom to shoot the Other? The bullet has replaced the lynch rope?
Digby, "American Shooting Gallery," Campaign American Future/Our Future blog, March 23, 2012.
Walter E. Williams, "Profiling,", March 28, 2012. Does Williams agree with profiling of Black teens in poor neighborhoods as the dangerous, criminal Other?
"College Fires Cartoonist over Trayvon 'colored boy' drawing,", 3/29/2012. Daily Texan college newspaper.
Rosalind S. Helderman, "Rep. Bobby Rush chided for wearing hoodie on House floor for Trayvon Martin," Washington Post, 3/28/2012. Not only chided, but removed from House floor for dress code violation.
Carson Vaughan, "Murder of a Nobody,", April 14, 2012.

Stephanie Hayes, "Hoodies Have a Complicated Fashion Story," Tampa Bay Times, March 25, 2012.
Florida shooting of young man wearing a hoodie links fashion to otherness. More point of view of Trayvon Martin and race and justice, Christian Science Monitor, 4/9/2012:
"18th century American clothing," Clothing defines class--hoodies and homespun.
Pauline Weston Thomas, "Theories of Fashion Costumes and Fashion History,", @2001-2011. Short article on clothes as status. Thomas cites Thorstein Veblen, "The Theory of the Leisure Class," 1899 and purpose of upper class dress as a status symbol that people wearing these types of clothes do NOT do manual labor. Manual labor was meant for the "other." See chapter 7 on that discussion by Veblen.
Donald K. Burleson, "Professional Dress Code Tips," Burleson Consulting 1996-2011.
How to look professional as a consultant and not like the Other.
Robert Grenier, "Islamophobia and the Republican Party," Al Jazeera, July 25, 2012. Mr. Grenier is former CIA station chief who compares Republican Party attacks on Muslim State Department official to communist witchhunts of 1950's.
Arlene Goldbard, "Varieties of Otherness (of the niqab or Hasidic gear or baggy pants)," Motion Magazine, October 22, 2006. Goldbard begins her article with quote from then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, as to British migrants wearing the veil or niqab, "It is a mark of separation."
Christy Cabrera Chirinos, "West Broward High School Girls Show Support for Muslim Teammate," Sun Sentinel, April 20, 2012. Girl's Flag Football teammates wear hijabs to support their Muslim teammate taunted for her faith. Note article and video clip.
Andrew J. Shyrock, "New Images of Arab Detroit: Seeing Otherness and Identity Through the Lens of September 11," American Anthropology, Vol. 104, Issue 3, pages 917-922, September 2002 seen in Wiley Online Library, January 7, 2008. Arab and Muslim Americans struggles after 9/11.
Sheryl Saperia (Director of Policy for Canada-Foundation for Defense of Democracies), "When Multiculturalism Becomes a Threat," Huffington Post-Canada, July 23, 2012. Saperia claims Canadians are divided on multiculturalism--is it good or bad? Saperia says it should be looked at in a case by case basis then examines 5 recent minority incidents in Canada. She goes on to say that there is a constant tension between respecting the cultural distinctiveness of all members of society while demanding a loyalty to state.

Immigrant outsiders in U.S. History:
Tenement Museum:
Immigration History Research Center ( has links to historical and contemporary immigrant issues, including collections of immigrant letters (translated).

National Center for History in the Schools: "Forbidden Love: History of
Mixed Race America ( and many other resources.
Insiders and Outsiders in the American History narrative...Jstor
One way to keep insiders inside is to ignore or caricaturize their history and America and
England WASPs ignored much of Irish history and slandered the Irish as drunks comparative to the Native Americans. That is why St. Patrick's Day revelry is frustrating for some Irish. (see example below) Mary Elizabeth Williams, "I'm Irish, but Spare the Grotesque St. Pat's Blarney," Chicago Sun Times, March 15, 2012.
Alan E. Brownstein, "Gays, Jews, and Other Strangers in a Strange Land: The Case for Reciprocal Accommodation of Religious Liberty and the Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry," University of California-Davis School of Law (December 14, 2010) University of San Francisco Law Review, No. 45, 2010; UC Davis Legal Studies Research Paper No. 238. Available at SSRN: Date posted December 17, 2010. [note One-Click download of paper at top of page].
James Kirchick, "The Fallacy of the Pinkwashing Argument,", 4/6/2012. Seattle LGBT Commission boycotts gay Israeli teens over Palestinian issue. Othering the Other?
Jeff Jacoby, "'Victims' who persecute," Jewish World Review, 4/19/2012. Holocaust Remembrance Day reminds us of anti-semetism from Pharoah, Hitler to al Qa'eda.
Philip A. Cunningham (Boston College), "Judaism as 'Sacrament of Otherness," Jewish-Christian Relations website, January 3, 2004. Mr. Cunningham is Director of Council of Christians and Jews and this article was his address to annual conference of the International Council of Christians and Jews, Utrecht, Netherlands, June 29-July 3, 2003.
Max Shmookler, "Jews, Front and Center? Scrambling for Jewish Identity in the Mainstream," New Voices-National Jewish Student Magazine, December 14, 2005. Shmookler views American Jews as opposed to Askazy Jews as melting in the mainstream, no longer the other, and asks are Jews White?
Coco Fusco, "The Other History of Intercultural Performance," first appeared in The Drama Review, 1994, 21 pp. pdf.
Fusco explains her Performance Art exhibit, "Guatinau," or "Couple in a Cage," which was 3 days in a cage with her male colleague. Guatinau was
a satirical exhibit (performance art) mimicing European and North American practice of exhibiting Indigenous people from Africa, Asia and Americas in zoos, parks, museums, freak shows, circuses and taverns in late 19th century. The idea of performing the Idealizing of an Other for white audiences. See 2005 example in Augsburg, Germany.
Rick Nahmias, "Golden State of Grace: Prayers of the Disinherited--A Photodocumentary," Photo Exhibit showing spirituality and religious ritual of Jewish addicts, Cham Muslims, Transgender, dispensated nuns, and prison inmate Buddhist converts in California.
Rick Nahmias article in Huffington Post, Religion blog, 9/20/2010 discussing Golden State of Grace.
Chris Arnade (Photographer) and Nicole Pasulka (text author), "Portraits of Addiction," Mother Jones, 3/15/2012. Manhatten photographer pictures (slide show) picture and explain the stories of dug addicts, sex workers, and the homeless in Bronx, New York.
Tana Gaeva, "10 Unbelievably Sh**ty Things America Does to Homeless People," AlterNet, April 5, 2012. No population has their human and civil rights so casually and routinely trampled as do homeless American Others.
"Raids, Harassment at Occupy Tent Cities Starts Broader Conversation about Criminalizing Homeless,", 8/2012.
Barbara Ehrenreich, "Looting the Lives of the Poor," Tomdispatch, 5/17/2012.
Outsiders in the world of intuitive art exhibit, Dusable Art Museum.
Four page pdf defining Outsider Art, Art Blog.
"The History of Attitudes to Disabled People-Disability Fossilized in Myths, Literature, Theatre, Folklore, Biography and History," attitudes2disability blogsite, 2007.
The Blind as Other, World Access For the Blind website.
Jayne Clapton and Jennifer Fitzgerald, "The History of Disability: A History of 'Otherness,'" New Renaissance Magazine @ 1990-2012. Short article on differing types of disability leading to otherness.
Della Perry and Ruth Keszia Whiteside, "Women, Gender and Disability: Historical and Contemporary Intersections of 'Otherness,'" Academy for the Study of the Psychoanalytic Arts. Paper presented at Abilympics International Conference, Sept. 1995. Was previously published in Abstract, Vol. 4 (1), 2000, and Interaction, Vol.15(2), 2001.
Lishai Peel, "Experiencing Otherness in a Dichotomized World," Gnosis IX, 3 (2008) Web. 20 October, 2009. Essay on gender as Other.
Rebecca Solnit, "The Archipelago of Arrogance," Tom Dispatch August 19, 2012. A Tom Dispatch classic essay from Ms. Solnit on male language control over women originally entitled "Men Explain Things To Me/Facts Didn't Get in the Way."
Maria B. Calas and Linda Smircich, "Does Every-body Still Want a Wife?" Isenberg School of Management, U. of Mass. at Amherst, @2007-2010, revised Dec. 2009 and Jan. 2010. "Wifeness" in today's 24/7 hyper-connected business world. Role of the business wife, etc..
Jorge Pilay, "Heavy Metal and Gender: All the Gender Issues Aside," paper for Theory of Knowledge course, 8/22/2010. Women as Other in Heavy Metal music.
Liliana Acevedo Callejas, "Out of the Love of two men, a woman is born/ The Female Gaze as the Gaze of Otherness/ In BL Manga and Anime," Final Paper for MDIA 586B, Ohio University, International Studies graduate program, nd. @ 2012 Scribd. Ms. Callejas university paper analyzes the female-male "way of looking" as illustrated in BL Manga and Anime and concludes the male masculine gaze as opposed to the female gaze only reinforces the gender/sexual binaries that have been imposed upon women for so long.
"The Revenge of the Other: Exploitation Cinema of the Seventies," Horror Effect blog, 3/3/2009. Amidst 1970's social turmoil--race, family breakup, etc., change over time is seen in Horror cinema characters, themes.
"Cloverfield Essay," The Terrible Place blogspot, Media Studies News and Views, October 1, 2008. A review of "Cloverfield," a terror film exhibiting a monster as the Other (as many horror films do, ie., Jaws and King Kong) in New York City during and immediately after 9/11.
"How to Be a Nerd," WikiHow. Definition of nerdness as opposed to geekness, etc..and a how to on becoming a nerd.
Paul Graham, "Why Nerds are Unpopular," February 2003. Mr. Graham is an essayist, successful web designer and programmer, and investor.
Li Or, "Shunning and Social Rejection: Why Am I a Social Outcast?", May 3, 2011.
"Hidden From History: The Canadian Holocaust," The Untold Story of the Genocide of Aborignal Peoples website. Podcasts, videos, articles, literature on Canadian natives.
"Jane Ash Poitras," Native Art in Canada. Native artist Jane Ash Poitras had to deal with leaving her native community after her mother died of tuberculosis and being adoped by German Canadian family and then attempting to reclaim her native identity. Her art symbolizes her feeling of otherness.
Multicultural Canada, "The Legacy of Other Ethnic Groups," From the Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples/Canada Culture and Ethnic Diversity, nd. Note listing of diverse literature in this section of this multicultural encyclopedia.
"Quebec controversy over hala meat is another Manifestation of Politcs of Exclusion," The Globe and Mail editorial. Attack on the Other: Jews and Muslim. Same issue

and Quesbec
Susie Guenther Loewen, Canadian Mennonite Young Voices blog. Mennonite, music and otherness in Winnepeg, Canada.
Michelle Alexander, "The Age of Obama as a Racial Nightmare,", posted March 25, 2012. Alexander claims the War on Drugs has become a Black citizen's jail, a "lockdown" of the other. Her book, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorbliness." See Alexander on Colbert Report: May 8, 2012.
Matt Bai, "GOP uses Obama 'Otherness' as Campaign Tactic," NY Times, 9/16/2010.
Nile Bowie, "The Economics of Incarceration,", 2/06/2012...note charts and graphs.
For every 100,000 Americans, 743 citizens sit behind bars. Presently, the prison population in America consists of more than six million people, a number exceeding the amount of prisoners held in the gulags of the former Soviet Union at any point in its history.

Middle East
Paul A. Kruger, "The Power of Perceptions: The Ancient Near East as a Case in Point," Social Evolution and History, Vol. 6, Number 2, September 2007. Perceiving the Other in history has not changed over time. Note primary source document example of ancient Sumerian urban dweller's description of his nomadic neighbors.
"Women in Ancient Christianity," Frontline. Good example of revisionist history. Women's history repressed and even banned as heretical by church.
Shaykh Muhammad Saeed al-Qahtani, "Al-Wala' Wa'l-Bara' According to the Aqeedah of the Salaf," Pt. 2, nd. A 129 page pdf on the Islamic concept of Al-Wala' Wa'l-Bara' or keeping the faithful (Muslim) close and all others distant.
Andre Dollinger's (Kibbutz Reshafim-Israel) massive website on ancient Egypt.
This small part examines "Social Classes in Ancient Egypt,", 12/2002, last changes made August 2010. Dollinger cites Herodotus and other sources to explain the polarized Egyptian class system citing outcasts within that social fabric.
Mark R. Cohen, "The Voice of the Poor in the Middle Ages," Princeton University Press, pdf. The voice of the Poor heard in the sacred burial sites---Geniza-in Jewish Egypt, etc.
Alan Scott, "Conquering Constantinople-The Otherness of Turkey," Turkey File Blog, June 18, 2009. Scott is an "educational professional" who has lived happily in Turkey for a number of years and discusses Western perceptions of Turks.,1
"Why Do They Hate US?" Foreign Policy, 4/23/2012. Women as Other, second class citizens, a minor at any age in Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia.
"The Other, Otherness, and Alterity," Political Discourse-Theories of Colonialism and Postcolonialism, last updated April 18, 2002.
Reclaiming Identity: Dismantling Arab stereotypes site....Arab as Other. This site traces the history of these stereotypes, provides tools to identify and understand them, and asks viewers to record their reactions and responses to what they have learned in the site's blog. It also offers perspectives on other segments of American society that are subject to stereotypes. Guest curated by Dr. Evelyn Alsultany of U. of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Blog site featuring Arab stereotypes, video, photographs, etc.
Hollywood stereotyping...Note first two posts from Matthew Jaber Stiffler on
Hollywood's Reel Arab Women....a history of Hollywood's perception of Arab women,, 2/2007.
"The Dictator" film angers Arabs as stereotypical and Arab as Other,
Jarrod Shanahan, "Fanon and the Iraqi Other,"'s-Literary-Works
Ohood Foad Anbar, approved Thesis paper 2009, "A Post Colonial Reading of Some of Saul Bellow's Literary Works," Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Saud University for Deanship of Higher Studies, Department of English. Ohood Foad Anbar takes two Saul Bellow books, "Henderson
on the Rain King" (1959) and "To Jerusalem and Back" (1976) and "expose(s) the colonialist elements in them which excludes the Arabs and Africans from it's scope." Her paper claims Bellow's two works are "a demeaning representation of the 'Other.'"
Soraya Sepahpour-Ulrich, "Terror Most Imperial,", 17 May, 2008. Subtle tools of Imperialism include value laden language to define Arabs and Muslims, such as "terrorist" and "Islamofascism," as other.
Dr. Smeeta Mishra (Bowling Green University), '"Saving' Muslim Women and Fighting Muslim Men: Analysis of representations in the New York Times,"
Global Media Journal, Vol. 6, Issue 11, Fall 2007. Dr. Mishra analysis US media perceptions of Muslim men and women from 9/11 through 2003. Here is
entire volume:
Kenneth Jacobson, "Fear of 'The Other' in Israeli Society," Anti-Defamation League website, appeared
in Jewish Week January 4, 2011.
"Israel, Land of Jewish Refugees Riled by Influx of Africans," Christian Science Monitor, May 24, 2012. Israelis protest number of African immigrants to Israel.
Harriet Sherwood, "Israelis Attack African Migrants During Protests Against Refugees," The Guardian (UK), May 24, 2012.
Benjamin Weinthal, "The Mideast's Vanishing Christians," National Interest, 8/21/2012. Christian as other in Mideast today?
"Facebook Fatwa," Foreign Policy, 5/9/2012. Saudi clerics spew hated across the internet.
"analysis wahhabishm: Saudi Time Bomb," PBS frontline, website copyright @ 1995-2011 WGBH education foundation. Note interviews, historical background, etc. as to Saudi Wahhabism and their veiw that all other non-Wahhabists are the other, damned and enemies.
Ahmad Moussalli (American University of Beirut), "Wahhabism, Salafism and Islamism: Who is the Enemy," Conflicts Forum, Beirut-London-Washington, January 2009. Moussalli defines various branches of "fundamental" Islam highlighting Wahhabism and their hatred of the other.
Religious Fundamentalism: Wahhabism, American, and India, The Globalist.
Zubair Qamar, "Wahhabism: Understanding the Roots and Role Models of Islamic Extremism," New Age Islam-The War Within Islam, October 29, 2008. Fundamentalist Wahhabists, neo Kharijites, view all as Other.
Syrian POV on Minorities,
Ibrahim Saleh (Cairo, Egypt), "Violence, Spin, and 'Otherness' in Arab Civil Society," The International Journal of Not-for-Profit-Law, Vol. 10,Issue 2, April 2008. A reason for Arab Spring 2012? Ibrahim Saleh claims Arab governments control/stifle civil engagement under the guise of combatting terrorism, sometimes with Western aid and resources leaving those yearning for social and cultural exchanges of ideas the other.
Anver M. Emon, Associate Professor Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, "Religious Minorities and Islamic Law: Accomodation and the Liits of Tolerance," @ 2010.
Guy Adams, "Manal al-Sharif: 'They Just Messed with the Wrong Woman,"' Independent (UK), May 23, 2012. Women Drivers as other in Saudi Arabia.
Martin Rogers, Yahoo Sports, 8/10/2012 Saudi Arabia Media Ignore historic Olympic performances by Saudi women, Sarah Attar and Wojdan Shaherkani. Which leads one to reveal Saudi Work City only for Women article by Lara Setrakian, ABC News, August 14, 2012:
Keep 'em Separated...
Fact sheet 2011 on Women's rights globally. Note Middle East informatio seen on
Maureen Dowd and her wild Saudi Adventure with slide show, Vanity Fair, 8/2010.
Saudi Women's Rights, Amnesty International, September 26, 2011.
Benjamin Weinthal, "Distrubing Western Tepidness on Saudi Homophobia," Gay City News, August 29, 2012. Mr. Weinthal wonders why the West puts up with Saudi homophobia, recently seen in their refusing to approve Internet domain name suffixes with .gay. Benjamin Weinthal lists examples of Western governments playing into the Saudi anti-gay policies
Egyptian first-wave feminist poet Huda Sharawi wanted to learn Arabic grammar, but the enuch guarding the women's quarters of her family refused to allow her tutor to teach her because, "The young lady has no need of grammar as she will not become
a judge." (seen in Pamela McVay, "Envisioning Women in World History: 1500-Present," Vol. 2, McGraw-Hill, 2009, p. 259)
"Global Silence Over Afghan Edict That Women are Secondary to Men," Women's Views on News, March 2012. Afghan leader supported by US governement supports edict that purports Women are secondary to men...
"Hanan al Shaykh," Forgotten Women blog, 5/19/2010. Hanan al Shaykh and Egyptian feminist and physician Nawal el Saadawi's novels, essays and speeches (for which she has spent years in jail) focus on women's oppressions and desires.
Ali A. Rizvi, "Misogymy in the Middle East: The Real Elephant in the Room," posted 5/1/2012 seen in Huff Post-World, May 16, 2012. Is Islam the key to women as "other" in the Middle East? Rizvi has his point of view.
Damien Gayle, "Afghanistan's Hamid Karzai's backing strict Islamic code-Giant Step Backwards for Women's Rights," Mail Online (UK) updated March 7, 2012.
"Shirin Neshat: Art in Exile," video, December 2010. Shirin Neshat speaks in this video of being an Iranian women artist living in exile....the other.
Chris Hedges, "Mukalla Journal; Yemen's Lepers Still Outcasts as in Ancient Times, " NY Times-World, March 20, 1993.
Malaak Shaher, "Yemenis still reject people living with HIV," MalaakShaher blogsite from Yemen, Sept. 27, 2011. See other reports from Yemen Times journalist, Mr. Shaher, on marginalized people in Yemen especially 'akhdan' or African migrants.
Carlos Strenger, "World Citizenship Instead of Tribalism,", 3/19/2012. Strenger claims it is
to the advantage of all religious fundamentalists, Muslim, Christian, Jew, etc. al, to keep their children shielded from global events because tribal hatred of the OTHER keeps their religious power intact. The only way we are going to solve global problems and issues is to interact globally.
Aijaz Ahmad, "Jameson's Rhetoric of Otherness and the 'National Allegory,'" Social Text, No. 17 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 3-25, Duke University Press. Ahmad, once a fan of Jameson because Jameson urged Western writers and professors to 'use' more non-Western sources, re-thinks Jameson's POV, especially Jameson's use of terms such as "Third World" and stereotypical comments about non-Western writers.
Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis (University of Aegean, Greece), "Emirati Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Europe and Europeans and their Teaching Implications." in International Education Journal, 2005. 6 (4), 501-511. ISSN 1443-1475 @ 2005, Shannon Research Press.
Dr. Fauziya Al-Ashmawi, "The Image of the Other in History Textbooks in some Mediterranean Countries (Spain, France, Greece, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia), Journal of Islam Today, No. 13-1416H, 1995.
Cynthia Cockburn, "Drawing Lines and Marking Otherness: Women, Gender and 'the Cyprus Problem," Paper presented at Conference on Gender in the Mediterranean: emerging Discourses and Practices, March 5-7, 2004, Intercollege, Nicosia, Cyprus. Seen on Hands Across the Divide website.
Patricia George and Rosa Aronson, (Briefing Paper for US Department of Education), "How do Educators' Cultural Belief Systems Affect Underserved Students' Pursuit of Postsecondary Education?" Pacific Resources For Education and Learning, nd.
Sheema Khan, "A Cover-up in the Beautiful Game," Globe and Mail (Canada), April 13, 2012. The hijab as Other? International Football, er soccer, attempts to work out hijab head cover ban in women's soccer....Otherness and clothing...
Benjamin Weinthal, "Egyptian diplomat suggests gays are 'not real people,' " Pink News, 6/27/2012. Omar Shalaby, Egyptian diplomat to the Geneva Human Rights Council stated last week that, "sexual not part of universally recognized human rights."

The Armenian genocide issue

Turkish POV:

Tall Armenian Tale website-The Other Side of the Falsified Genocide.

"Turkish EU Minister on the Armenian Genocide Controversy: We are Very Sensitive About This Issue," der Spiegel,

Armenian Genocide Denial, wikipedia.

Armenian POV:
Armenian National Institute with tabs indicating research and links such as:
"Turkish Denial of Armenian Genocide," Armeniapedia: The Armenian Encyclopedia.
"Fact Sheet: Armenian Genocide," Knights of Vartan Armenian Research Center, U. of Michigan-Dearborn, April 3, 1996.

Other POV and articles:
"Armenian Genocide Lesson Four: The Range of Choices," Facing History and Ourselves site @ 2012.

Note tab on Education Lessons at top of page for many more lessons on anti-semetism, etc. al...Lesson number four found along with seven other Armenian genocide lessons: and from the same site, more lessons, video clips and articles on Armenian genocide, Transnational Justice:
"Debate: Armenian Genocide," Debatepedia. Pro con debate model on Armenian genocide with
Scott Jaschik (from Inside Higher Ed), "Appeals Court Rejects Turkish Groups Claim,", May 4, 2012. A University of Minnesota Armenian genocide website can not be sued for labeling Turkish Coalition of American website unreliable.
"Armenian Genocide," Wikepedia.
Armenian genocide debate.
Jennifer Siegel, "Armenian Genocide Debate Exposes Rifts at ADL," The Jewish Daily Forward, August 22, 2007.
Suzan Fraser, "French Armenian Genocide Bill Sparks Controversy in Turkey," Huffington Post, 12/17/2011.
Michael Getler, "The Ombudsman Column: Documenting and Debating a 'Genocide,'" posted April 21, 2006 and seen on PBS Ombudsman May 30, 2012. Getler reviews the PBS one hour documentary shown April 17, 2006, "The Armenian Genocide."
Jonathan Kay, "On Turkish Flotilla Hypocrisy: What a Time to Study the Armenian Genocide," National Post (Canada), May 29, 2012. Mr. Kay invites a look at Armenian genocide in the wake of Turkish indictments of Israeli military leaders for killing Turks in the Freedom Flotilla near Palestine.

Part 1, first hour of "The Longest Hatred," (1991) History of anti-semetism in three parts. trailer clip, 4 min. 45 seconds and full 47 minutes of Hour 2 of "The Longest Hatred."
Part 3, third hour of "The Longest Hatred," (Muslim world)
Nicholas Sheffo review of documentary film, "The Longest Hatred," (1991), History of anti-semetism.
Spanish Treatment of Jews and Muslims, PBS short video clip (3 min. 32 seconds) available until 9/27/2013.
Lech Majewski (Poland) directs "The Mill and the Cross," 2011 trailer set in 16th century Flanders and using Peter Bruegel's 1564 artwork, "The Procession to Calvary" as backdrop. Jesus as Other and his crucifixation painted on film with Bruegel's Flanders replacing Palestine.
Elvis Mitchell, "Africans Making Slaves of Africans," NY Times Movie Review, July 11, 2001. Mitchell reviews west African slave trade film "Adanggaman."
Fritz Umbach, World History Connected, 2003. Umbach's short Film review of "Adanggaman" (2000) on the African Slave trade from an African perspective leaving the Americas as an out of stage presence, ie. Dutch rum is demanded by the ruthless slaver King Adanggaman. Adanggaman leads late 17th century wars against neighboring African tribes. Written and directed by Africans.
Best African Slave Trade Films,
Simon Schama's documentary film, "Rough Crossings," about runaway Black slaves who fought for the British in the American Revolution and who suffered broken promises such as free land. Top Documentary films website.
"Birth of a Nation," (1915) David Wark Griffith's masterpiece, possibly first full length American movie with a plot, which may have painted a stereotypical rendering of the Black Other in America's psyche. Few remember his attempt to "correct" the racist images with "Intolerance" (1916) or that President Woodrow Wilson, a university professor before politics, was given a special screening of the film calling the film true history.
AMC filmsite review of "Birth of a Nation," edited and written by Tim Dirks. Dirks explained how Birth of a Nation was first shown with
the title, "The Clansman," based on former North Carolina Baptist minister Reverend Thomas Dixon's 1905 melodrama play, "The Clansman."
The Clansman was the 2nd in a trilogy which included first, "The Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden 1865-1900," The Clansman," and "The Traitor."
"Facing History and Ourselves"website which displays lessons, video, articles on racism, anti-semetism and alterity. Note this link includes the many video clips available.
French film, "La Haine," The Hate, (1995) 5 minute video clip.
Adele Chapman, "Movie Analysis: The representation of the banlieue in La Haine," Helium, June 18, 2007.
8/4/2004 BBC review of La Haine.
Bill Moyers Interview, "Journalist Chris Hedges on Capitalism's 'Sacrifice Zones': Communities Destroyed For Profit," Bill Moyers & Company, July 24 2012. 51 minute and 31 second Video with transcript included.
See Converging Cultures and 28 minute video that could add to our teaching of the new AP World History Curriculum Module 2011-2012: Exchanges and Interactions throughout Afro-Eurasia, especially the last unit authored by Bill Strickland (Grand Rapids, Michigan) on British and Chinese meeting the "Other."
3 part "Bill Cosby on Prejudice" Youtube video--24 minute total....Mr. Cosby's classic "white face" and cigar performance of "stereotyping" the Other..."What am I? I'm a Bigot!"
"Bully," Film on bullying in US schools opened to limited audiences March 30, 2012. The Other as target of Bullies in education.
Lessons from Teaching Tolerance using film "Bullied." Gay and lesbian students as other. See 2 minute plus trailer and order form for the Film.
"Class Divided," PBS, the day after Martin Luther King Jr. was shot a 3rd grade Iowa teacher prepares a lesson on discrimination. 1985 Award Winning documentary and one of PBS's most requested programs in 5 parts.
"San Diego Hate Crimes," 4 min. 56 sec. Youtube video, KPBS news Evening Edition uploaded March 28, 2012 by CAIRtv. KPBS interview with Oscar Garcia District Attorney for San Diego District Attorney's Hate Crime Unit and Edgar Hopida, CAIR-San Diego region.
"The Films of Isaac Julian: Look Back and Talk Black," by Jose Arroyo from Jump Cut, no. 36, May 1991, pp. 98-107, 10 copyright "Jump Cat: A Review of Contempoary Media," 1991, 2006. British Black Film, 1970's-1980's written in the language of Blacks in England. Example, "Territories," 25 minutes, Screen on Line (UK), 1984...
"Alia Syed-Experimental Filmmaker," 6 minute vodcast in which Syed explains her influences. Alia Syed's films explore language and culture interactions, love in English/London urban settings from POV of Pakistani/Bengladeshi female perspectives. Jigar film or urdu word for "friend" or "lover," Absolute Arts site, January 2, 2002.
"Shirin Neshat: Art in Exile," video, December 2010. Shirin Neshat talks about being an Iranian woman artist living in exile.
"The Muslims Are Coming," Muslim-American comedians trying to calm the little houses on the prairie as to the 5 million Muslim Others in the US. Trailer for film.
Samar Qaed, "Hidden Fences From Yemen Awarded in fifth Gulf Film Festival," Yemen Times, originally seem in Variety, May 3, 2012. "Hidden Fences" looks at black skinned people called "Akhdan" in Yemen and their marginalization. Hidden Fences film is based on a book by Yemini author Ali Al-Moqri, "Black Taste and Black Smell."
Coco Fusco, "The Other History of Intercultural Performance," first appeared in The Drama Review, 1994, 21 pp. pdf.
Fusco explains her Performance Art exhibit, "Guatinau," which was 3 days in a cage with her male colleague. Guatinau was a satirical exhibit (performance art) mimicing European and North American practice of exhibiting Indigenous people from Africa, Asia and Americas in zoos, parks, museums, freak shows, circuses and taverns in late 19th century. The idea of performing the Idealizing of an Other for white audiences. {1 min. 54 sec. clip}.
"Herero to Hitler," 58 minute documentary film on Germany's first concentration camp strategy as to the Herero and Namaqua people of Namibia in sw Africa.
Alan E. Steinweiss, "Review of 'Conspiracy' (BBC/HBO films), directed by Frank Pierson from a script by Loring Mandel," U. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Digital Commons @ U. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Faculty Publications, Department of History, 4/1/2002. "Conspiracy"is a film about the Nazi Wannsee Conference of January 20, 1942 in which high Nazi officials discuss and plan the Final Solution of the Jews in Europe. Steinweiss compares the film to the 1984 "Die Wannseekonferenz" movie and explains how both evolve out of Eichmann's vague notes on the conference, "Protokoll."
Jose Antonio Lucero, course website "Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World" (SIS 202), displaying "10 best" short papers prepared by students for that course using the University of Washington Library technology services. See the student paper's tabs at top of page. Most analyze film as evidenced by Erika Murdoch's, "'Otherness ' in Disney,"

website last updated August 11, 2011.
Review of 2006 German film, "The Lives of Others," Film4 first sentence in this review reads, "George Orwell would recognize much in "The Lives of Others," a gripping and distressing vision of life under the jackboot of state repression." The film is set in 1984 East Germany under the shadow of the Berlin Wall with the state police, the Stasi, spying on a German playwright and his girlfriend revealing how tyranny dehumanizes everyone...all outside of the police state elite become the Other.
Marita Ryan, "Sounding Different Notes: Approaching the Other through Music in John Carney's film, 'Once,'" Otherness: Essays and Studies 1.1, October 2010.

Irish busker and Czech woman join to make music in this John Carney film with an otherness theme. Short Trailer:
Various Ali Al'Amin Mazrui videos. Mazrui's "The Reinvention of Africa: Edward Said, V.Y. Mudimbe and Beyond" is a classic review of the Other and historiography of Africa.
"The Green Belt Movement: Evaluation, Citizen Action and Environmental Change Strategies," including 9 minute film module "Taking Root: Kenya and Wangari Maathai," Women's Empowerment Collection, David Maduli-writer, @ 2012 Independent Television Services, Inc. (see 8 Lessons on Women's Empowerment-this is lesson 2).
"African Studies Film/Video," Columbia University Library. Listing/Bibliography of African film found in Columbia University libraryweb.
Comedian Samantha Bee on the Daily Show, 5 minute video, "Co-Occupation," Food Co-op in Brooklyn faces political boycots against Israeli food seen in Jewish World Review, March 27, 2012. Daily show clip, March 27, 2012:
Boycotting the political Other.
TEDGlobal 2011, "Thandie Newton: Embracing otherness, embracing myself," Filmed July 2011, Posted July 2011. British actress Thandie Newton, white father and Zimbabwean mother, discusses her childhood and education as "other."
Kathe Sandler film "A Question of Color," California Newsreel, produced and directed in 1993, 56 minutes. See 3 minute and 50 second trailer of this documentary which confronts taboos of African American appearance. A caste system based on how closely skin color, hair texture and facial features conform to European ideal.
Steven Colbert interviews Michelle Alexander, May 8, 2012. Ms. Alexander's book, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness," Colbert Report video.,114042.html
Patricia Mohammed short film "Coolie Pink and Green," Newsday Review, 1/12/2010. Mohammed analyzes the South Asian influence and otherness in the Caribbean.
Patricia Mohammed, "The Temples of the Other: The South Asian Aesthetic in the Caribbean," 43:56 minute video recording, March 15, 2012,
Institute of Caribbean Studies. Introduction in Spanish, Dr. Mohammed's presentation in English.
Patricia Mohammed, "A Different Imagination," 6 pt. Documentary.
"Mexico and Peru: The Black Grandma in the Closet, " PBS Black in Latin America, 2011. Professor Henry Louise-Gates narrates 51 minute and 25 second Video. Far more Black slaves came to Mexico and Peru, together, than in the entire history of the US slave trade. Gates cites Black History in Latin America as one of "Death and Invisibility." See home site, "Black in Latin America" with other videos on Brazil, Cuba, Haiti and Dominican Republic:

Precious Knowledge: Arizona's Battle Over Ethnic Studies [DVD] By Ari Luis Palos and Eren Isabel McGinnis: If you're wondering why the Arizona legislature has appeared to turn into a Tea Party version of the Ku Klux Klan, the documentary "Precious Knowledge: Arizona's Battle Over Ethnic Studies" provides invaluable insight. In "Precious Knowledge," this battle for the nation's future plays out in the state's ban of Mexican-American studies, specifically in Tucson. Although Mexican-American young people comprise the vast majority of public school students in Tucson, a couple of opportunistic politicians decided that teaching Mexican-American heritage and culture was threatening the white power structure and banned a curriculum that had nearly doubled graduation rates among Latinos.
Josef Raab, "Latinos and Otherness: The Films of Gregory Nava," 2008, 19 pp. pdf. Raab discusses Latino and Chicano film in US with works cited page at end.

"Mill Times," With David Macauley. PBS Video, 2002 would be an interesting film as to mill workers marginalized in the English Industrial Revolution.

See other Mill Workers Videos from the Times of India, "From the Web" @2012.
1960 Harvest of Shame video (53 minutes),, posted November 25, 2010. Migrant worker as forgotten other. Murrow states at the beginning, "This is how workers are hired to feed the wealthiest nation in the world." Mostly poor whites and blacks in 1960.
Note change over time comparatives in November 25, 2010 five minute video clip, "Harvest of Shame: 50 Years Later," with Byron Pitts and workers now, poor Latinos.
Edward R. Murrow, broadcast journalist, website by Frank Baker...note audio and video clips...primary sources.
bell hooks, "bell hooks on Cultural Criticism and Transformation,", Note videos with bell hooks discussing racism, otherness, black society, white colonialism as seen in American culture and film.
"Slavery in the 21st Century," See documentary on the evils of 21st century slavery and note various types of modern day slavery including the 40,000 slaves in the United States.
Jaume Marti-Olivella, (Allegany College) "When the Latino Family Goes Hollywood," Paper for delivery at the 1997 meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Continental Hotel, Guadalajara, Mexico, April 17-19, 1997. 28 page pdf on Hollywood interest in Latino family as theme.
"Chicano/Latinos in the Movies: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library," 1996, last updated 12/8/2011.
Indegenous Peoples Issues website, Indigenous Peoples videos and documentary films.
"Native Canadians," Long List. See number of video podcasts on Native Canadian history and their point of view as other.
1994 Film, "Once We Were Warriors." Describes Maori decline in New Zealand and their being viewed as outcasts, ie., the Other.
Frank Blythe, Prod., "Storyteller of the Pacific: Self Determination," 1996, 240 minutes. Two part series of one hour documentaries on Pacific and Pacific Rim peoples.
"Act of War: The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Nation," Asia Pacific Films.
"Lagaan," (2001) Bollywood blockbuster set in 1893 India amidst drought and high British (raj) taxes. The film's characters depict otherness within the Indian rural setting and arrogant attitude of the British soldiers....a story filmed around a cricket match.
5 minute video clip, "Living as an Outcast in India," Note other relate 5 min. videos at the end of this clip.

The South Asian website bibliography of South Asian film many dealing with otherness and marginalized peoples.

Bonsai People: The Vision of Muhammad Yunus [DVD] Directed by Holly Mosher: Muhammad Yunus didn't invent the notion of providing steps for cultivating economic growth among the abject poor and conducting business for the social good. But it is a concept that needed a leader, and Yunus has become that person.
Filmed over several years in rural Bangladesh, "Bonsai People" celebrates Yunus's extraordinary humanitarian work, which started when he simply lent $27 to 42 people out of his own pocket. As the founder of Grameen Bank, Yunus pioneered microcredit, the innovative banking program that provides poor people - mainly women - with small loans they use to launch businesses and lift their families out of poverty.
NY Times review of "Black Harvest," 1992 film displaying modern culture's effects on Gangia, a aboriginal tribe in Papua New Guinea.
"Black Harvest" is Pt. 3 of The Highlands Trilogy following "Joe Leahy's Neighbors," 1989, Pt. 2 of Trilogy by same writers/directors, Robin Anderson and Bob Connolly.
Richard Bernstein review, "Joe Leahy's Neighbors" (1989) NY Times, published April 1, 1989. Joe Leahy is a mixed race wealthy plantation
owner in New Guinea. Film depicts relationship between New Guinea tribe and rich man and is Pt. 2 of The Highlands Trilogy.
Pt. 1 of The Highland's Trilogy, "First Contact," color, 54 minutes, 1983. See 9 minute video clip in this link.
National Geographic video, "China's Lost Girls," 2005, video 43 minutes. National Geographic host
Lisa Ling looks at China's one child policy and female babies as the other.
Film "Left by the Ship," (2010) review and trailers, Independent Lens, Film focuses on three young Filipino-Americans born to Filipino mothers and US servicemen twenty years after the US navy left Subic Bay. More information on film and writers and producers:
Story of mixed race children fathered during war and regarded as social outcasts is a continuity over time.

"Horse Thief," Tian Zhuangzhuang's film of Tibet, 1986. Story of Tibetan man banished from tribe for stealing horses to help his family...
Rubina Ramji review of S. Brent Plate and David Jasper, ed., "Imag(in)ing Otherness: Filmic Visions of Living Together," Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999. Seven films with Otherness theme highlighted in book which Ramji summarizes in this review.


Mu-Chou Poo, "Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes Toward Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt and China," SUNY Press, February 2005 hardcover, February 2012 electronic. Comparative study of the three empires who viewed themselves as superior and their views of the Other, the foreigner. Robert Bracey review of the following:
A. Parasher, "Mlecchas in Early India: A Study in Attitudes Toward Outsiders up to AD 600." Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1991. Mlecchas or milakkha translates to "foreigner" or "barbarian."{903258FF-6013-4DB5-B5BE-7C8F8C9401E4}
Rafael Reyes-Ruiz (Zayed University, Dubai), editor, "Engaging Otherness," Zayed University Press, January 30, Essays highlighting first contact between various cultures beginning with Spanish and Dutch East Indies to the Present. Seen on I.B. Tauris publishing website. Jesse Knutson (South Asian Languages and Civilizations blog, February 26, 2005, University of Chicago) review of the following:
Brajadulal N. Chattapodhyaya, "Representing the Other? Sanskrit Sources and the Muslims (Eighth to Fourteenth Century)," Manohar, Dehli, 1998. Chattopadhyaya's short but rich monograph is a detailed study of terminologies, modes, and strategies in Sanskrit literary and epigraphic sources for referring to the various Muslim newcomers, invaders and rulers--Arab, Persian, Turkish, etc..
Froma I. Zeitlin, "Playing the Other: gender and society in classical Greek Literature," University of Chicago Press, 1996, 474 pp.. Woman as the Other in Greek society--google book.
Thomas Harrison (editor), Greeks and Barbarians, Routledge, 2002. Harrison compiles list of authors who claim the Greeks viewed all civilizations as the Other.

Google book, "James Redfield, Herodotus the Tourist," in Thomas Harrison (ed.), "Greeks and Barbarians," Routledge, 2002. Redfield may be Herodotus' biggest critic as to his views of Others as inferior.
Hyunjin Kim, "Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China," Gerald Duckwort (publisher): May 20, 2009. Dr. Kim (Auckland University) unravels a comparative study of attitudes toward foreigners in ancient Greece and early Han China finding the Han were as assertive as the Greeks in claiming their ethnic superiority over non-Chinese.
Tsvetelin Stepanov, "The Bulgars and the Steppes Empire in the Early Middle Ages: The Problem of the Others," Brill, 2010. Dr. Stepanov analyzess the attitudes of the Steppe to the Outside and Inside Other. Outside other would be the sedentary southern empires while inside other would be women/shamans and magicians. An excellent summary of this tension or "dynamic" can be seen in the slim book by Xinru Liu, "The Silk Road in World History," Oxford University Press,
John Block Friedman, "The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought," Syracuse University Press, 2000. Friedman looks at these "races" as
viewed by medieval European travelers and how the "monster races" interacted with Western art, literature, and philosophy.
Yasmin Haskel and Juanito Fenos Ruys, "Latinity and Alterity in Early Modern Period," ACMRS publications, 2010.

Early Modern/Modern
Frank Felsenstein, "Anti-Semetic Stereotypes: A Paradigm of Otherness in English Popular Culture, 1660-1830," John Hopkins University Press, 1995. Felsenstein researchs ephemeral literature such as tracts, periodicals, chapbooks, sermons, etc. along with caricature, paintings to represent anti-semetism in England. (Google book)
Voltaire, "The Orphan of China," William Smith Publisher, 1756, downloaded free from Did Voltaire "begin" the Enlightenment point of view of Mongol and Asian as "Barbaric Other" by "adapting this Chinese play on Genghis Khan?
Kathy Stuart, "Defiled Trades and Social Outcasts: Honor and Ritual Pollution in Early Modern Germany," (Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History), Cambridge University Press, 2000. Cal Davis professor Kathy Stuart examines interaction of skinners, Sean Shesgreen, "Images of the Outcast: The Urban Poor in the Cries of London," Manchester University Press, 2000.
William Pencak and Daniel Richter, eds., "Friends and Enemies in Penn's Woods: Indians, Colonists, and the Racial Construction of Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 2004.
"Europe invents the Gypsies: The dark side of modernity" Social segregation, cultural appropriation: the six-hundred-year history of the European Roma, as recorded in literature and art, represents the underside of the European subject's self-invention as agent of civilising
progress in the world, writes Klaus-Michael Bogdal" in Eurozine. Professor of German Literary Science at the University of Bielfeld. His book Europa erfindet die Zigeuner [Europe invents the Gypsies] is published by Suhrkamp Verlag (2011)."
Robert Roberts, "The Classic Slum: Salford Life in the First Quarter of the Century," London: Penguin Books, 1971.

Link shows summary of book by Nicholas Smith in ArticleMyriad blogsite, December 7, 2011. Robert Roberts was born in London's Salford slum in 1905 and combines personal reminiscences with careful historical research to tell the effects of degradation in Edwardian England urban slums. The environment of slum housing and the atmosphere of hunger and insecurity created a culture blighted by ignorance, tedium, repression and a rigorous social stratification. The Scotsman says "It shoud be compulsory reading for all those who still uphold the British empire as an ideal." See Julie Lorenzen review of "The Classic Slum" below in book review section.
See analysis of David Cannadine, "Ornamentalism," in History Today, Vol. 51, Issue 5, 2001. Could be an interesting supplemental to Roberts' "The Classic Slum." Cannadine explains how the British aristocracy managed to stay in power throughout the British empire. See Julie Lorenzen review of Cannadine's "Orrnamentalism" in book review section below.
Jayme A. Sokolow, "The Great Encounter: Native Peoples and European Settlers in the Americas, 1492-1800," ME Sharpe, 2002. See short description, comments and reviews.

John S. Haller, "Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859-1900," University of Illinois Press, 1971. New edition Southern Illinois University, 1995. Haller says Social Darwinists looked at savage as "an arrested or rather retarded stage of social development" and of course, discusses evolution as a biological transition in humans.
Guido Abbattista (editor), "Encountering Otherness: Diversities and Transcultural Experiences in Early Modern Europe: [19],
Eugenia Shanklin, "Anthroplogy & Race," Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994. Slim book, note esp. Chapter 3 "Ignoble Savages or Just Others? Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace."
Judith Butler, "Gender Trouble," Routledge 1990. Note link to Butler's book surrounding Queer Theory in David Gauntlett's website,, Media, Gender, Identity Resources. This section of, "Queer Theory," is based on the idea that stereotyping is silly. Otherness studies are linked to stereotyping. Placing all Women in one category is nonsensical because identities consist of so many elements that to assume that people can be seen collectively is wrong.
Jackie Assayag, ed., "The Resources of History: Tradition, Narration, and Nation in South Asia," Ecole Francaise Dextreme, paperback 1999 seen in Exotic India Art website. Difference (otherness) and sameness exhibited in the art of the contrasting regions of South Asia.
Kalpana Bardhan, ed., "Of Women, Outcasts, Peasants and Rebels: A Selection of Bengali Short Stories," Voices From Asia Series, 1990. A number of short stories displaying change over time in the Bengali rigid hierarchical structures of privilege and class from 1890's-1970's.
Sonia Faleiro, "Beautiful Thing: Inside Secret Bombay's Bars and Dance Clubs," India: Hamish Hamilton @2010, NY: Black Cat @ 2012. Dancers and sex workers in Bombays dance club culture...
Michael R. Dove, "The Banana Tree at the Gate: A History of Marginalized Peoples and Global Markets in Borneo," Yale Agrarian Series, 2011. The "Hikayat Banjar," a Borneo native court chronicle explains the irresistibility of natural resoures to outsiders as "the banana tree at the Gate." Dove researches and shows the problems indigenous people have as global markets "interfere" with their lands and resources.
David M. Freidenreich, "Foreigners and Their Food: Constructing Otherness in Jewish, Christianity, and Islamic Law," UCPress, August 2011. Freidenreich researchs how Jews, Christians and Muslims conceptualize "us" and "them" through rules about food preparation and act of eating with such outsiders.
Ali Al-Moqri, "Black Taste and Black Odour," 2009. Yemeni author on Akhdan or Yemeni African migrants and their marginalization. Note, website for Arab poets and writers and click on link to see other Yemeni and Arab writers and their works, many touching on the theme of Otherness. See more on "Black Taste, Black Odour"
Hanan al Shaykh, "Women of Sand and Myrrh: The Story of Zahara," New York: Anchor Books, 1994. Also, "Women of Sand and Myrrh," translated by Catherine Cobham, New York: Anchor Books, 1992. See two video clips f Hanan al Shaykh speaking of her book and her writing in Women in Global Literature website, November, 2010. Hanan al Shaykh's novel was banned in most Arab countries due to this story of four women treated to every luxury but freedom.
Frantz Fanon, "Wretched of the Earth," NY: Grove Press, 1963.
V.Y. Mudimbe, "The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge, Indiana U. Press, 1988. Mudimbe's work analyzes how the West invented/constructed damaging ideologies to subjugate African societies and subvert their cultures.
Mai Palmberg and Maria Baaz Eriksson, "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production," Uppsala, Norway: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2001. Download full text from Nordiska Afrikainstitutet website.
Bessie Head, "Maru," London: Heinemann Educational, 1972. Botswana author criticized the racism of Bantu Africans toward Bushmen in this novel of tragic romance. "Maru" is one of the first post-colonial works to consider Black Africans as appropriate protangonists of romance according to Pamela McVay, "Envisioning Women in World History: 1500-Present, Vol. 2, McGraw Hill, 2009, p. 257. See samples of novel in Google books link in which an orphaned Masarwa girl comes to Dilepe to teach only to discover that in this remote Botswana village her own people (Bushman) are treated as outcast. See reviews

Homi K. Bhabha, "The Other Question," 1983. Bhabha's slim 35 pp. book analyses Otherness. See bibliogray of Dr. Bhabha's books on otherness on
Panikos Panayi, "Outsiders: A History of European Minorities," Hambledon Press, 1999. (Google book)
Daniel Kanstroom, "Deportation Nation: Outsiders in American History," Harvard University Press, 2007 seen on Dr. Kanstroom discusses the legal and social history of deportation in the United States.,%20Harry%20III&oref=slogin
Hunter Lewis, "Are the Rich Necessary? Great Economic Arguments and How They Reflect Our Personal Values," Mount Jackson, Va.: Axios Press, 2007. The Rich as other. Are the Rich compatible with democracy? Should we accept so much inequality in our society?

Does the Profit system glorify greed? Are Central Banks good? Can government protect us from excesses of the profit system?

Lewis addresses these questions in a point-counterpoint styles and challenges conventional positions on both sides of each issue. Link is book review by Harry Hurt III, "A Lens on Wealth, From All Angles," NY Times, Business, October 21, 2007.

John Blades,"Nelson Algren's 'Boots' Still Has a Powerful Kick," Chicago Tribune, May 10, 1987 review of
Nelson Algren, "Somebody in Boots," NY: Berkley Publishing Corporation, originally published in 1935 (also 1963 and 1965). Algren dedicated his novel to The Homeless Boys of America. This is a novel of the dispossessed Other in America of the 1930's.
Matthew M. Briones, "Jim and Jap Crow: A Cultural History of 1940's Interracial America," Princeton University Press, 2012.
Michelle Alexander, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness," The New Press, 2010.
David C. Brotherton and Philip Kretsedemas (editors), "Keeping Out the Other: A Critical Introduction to Immigration Enforcement Today," Columbia University Press, March 2008. The editors produce evidence that US clamp down on immigration is NOT linked to 9/11 but has been an evolving theme in US immigration attitudes and policies.
Paul Gilroy, "Postcolonial Melancholia," Gilroy wants Europeans to celebrate multiculture and live with 'otherness.'[0]=shh&pdID=20
Thomas McEvilley, "Art & Otherness: Crisis in Cultural Identity," McPherson and Co. 1995. McEvilley claims the Art world needs more non-European images in portraying the Asian, African, etc. al.
Mika Ko, "Japanese Cinema and Otherness: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and the Problem of Japaneseness," Routledge, 2011. Mika Ko analyzes representation of so-called others in Japanese cinema. Those "others" include foreigners, ethnic minorities and Okinawans.
Outcasts United book, Random House. Lesson plan for that book.
John Smelcer, Songs From an Outcast (Native American Literature). Poems.
Alvin M. Josephy Jr., "Lewis and Clark Through Indian Eyes: Nine Indian Writers on the Legacy of the Expedition," see reviews and table of contents on
Tzvetan Todorov, "The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other," New York: Harper and Row, 1984. See e books on Find

Who is Tzvetan Todorov?

Thomas Ewing (Virginia Tech), "John Ledyard's Journal: Using Personal Narratives to Teach World History." Ledyard's journal is a primary source document exemplifying European "migration" and view of the OTHER, in this case Pacific Islanders. From George Mason University Teaching World History
Kathryn Stockett, "The Help," Amy Einhorn books/Putnam/Penguin, February, 2009. Interplay in 1962 Jackson, Mississippi between Black maids and white rich women. See Rebecca Schinsky, Digiprove @2010 review:
Trevor Getz and Liz Clarke, "Abina," Slave women's court testimony turned into a meta-narrative. Getz's syllabus utilizing "Abina" in Anthropology class.
Deborah Gray White, "Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South," New York: Norton, 1985. See link to 1851 speech, "Ain't I a Woman?" at bottom of page.
Elias Kifon Bongmba, "African Witchcraft and Otherness," SUNY Press, May 2001.
Mark Mathabame, "Kaffir Boy: True Story of a Black Youth Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa,"1986. Note this site explains Kaffir Boy as a banned book.
John Bowe, "Nobodies: Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the Economy," Random House, 2007.
Emily Schmall review in Forbes Magazine, 11/2/2007.
Jeremy Elton Jacquot interview with John Bowe, author of "Nobodies," in, September 18, 2007.
Chun Yu Wang as told to Walt Goodridge, "Chicken Feathers and Garlic Skin," Story of a young Chinese girl working in a Saipan sweatshop. See
reviews and podcasts on this website.,+D.+Facen,+Anthropology+

Gary Craig, ed., (Google book) "Child Slavery Now: A Contemporary Reader, UK: The Policy Press, 2010.
"Asian, Black and Other Diaspora Books," display of books, many from the Other's perspective.
Gotelin Muller-Saini, editor, "Designing History in East Asian Textbooks: Identity Politics and Transnational Aspirations," Routledge, January 27, 2011.
Ada Savin, "Journey Into Otherness," book depository site.
David Sibley, "Geographies of Exclusion: Society and Difference in the West," Burns and Oates, 1995, posted in Sibley asks then researches the question: Why is urban minority writing ignored by the academic establishment? This is closely linked to sources below on "alterity" and the construction of cultural others.


Alterity is a philosophical term meaning "otherness", strictly being in the sense of the other of two (Latin alter ). It is generally now taken as the philosophical principle of exchanging one's own perspective for that of the " other." The concept was established by Emmanuel Lévinas in a series of essays, collected under the title Alterity and Transcendence . The term is also deployed outside of philosophy, notably in anthropology by scholars such as Nicholas Dirks, Johannes Fabian, Michael Taussig and Pauline Turner Strong to refer to the construction of cultural others. The term has gained further use in seemingly somewhat remote disciplines, e. g. historical musicology where it is effectively employed by John Michael Cooper in a study of Goethe and Mendelssohn.

Cooper, John Michael (2007) Mendelssohn, Goethe, and the Walpurgis Night . University of Rochester Press.

Fabian, Johannes (1983) Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object . Columbia University Press.

Nealon, Jeffrey (1998) Alterity Politics: Ethics and Performative Subjectivity . Duke University Press.

Strong, Pauline Turner (1999) Captive Selves, Captivating Others: The Politics and Poetics of Colonial American Captivity *Narratives. Westview Press/Perseus Books.

Taussig, Michael (1993) Mimesis and Alterity . Routledge.
Patricia Mohammed, "Imaging the Caribbean: Culture and Visual Translation," Palgrave Macmillan, May 2010. Dr. Mohammed paints a word and image picture of Caribbean iconography, historically analyzing visual representations of the region as perceived by outsider and insider over 500 years. She covers the entire region, yet focuses on Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados within colonial and gender encounters. Mohammed peels back the layers of Caribbean culture unveiling an Asian Other.

Richard Kearney, (Google Book) "Strangers, Gods, and Monsters: Interpreting otherness," London and New York: Routledge, 2003. Where the Wild Things are.....metaphors for the Other.
Mary Jo Muratore, "Exiles, Outcasts, Strangers-Icons of Marginalization in Post WW II Narrative," London: Continuum, August 25, 2011. Muratore explores how nine (9) different "outsider" authors treat alienation in one of their major works, all written between 1942-1987.
"The Mexican Outsiders," history of anti-Latino racism in Ventura County, California. Google books.

Kathy S. Leonard, trans. and ed. "Cruel Fictions, Cruel Realities: Short Stories by Latin American Women Writers, Pittsburgh, PA: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1997.

June E. Hahner, ed., Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women's Rights in Brazil, 1850-1940. Durham, NC: Duke U. Press, 1990.
Hunter S. Thompson, "The Motorcycle Gangs," The Nation, March 2, 2005 first appearing in May 17, 1965 Nation magazine. Thompson portrayal of California motorcycle gangs as the Other, "The Outsider."

Book reviews
Robert Bracey review of A. Parasher, "Mlecchas in Early India: A Study in Attitudes Toward Outsiders up to AD 600." Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1991. Mlecchas or milakkha translates to "foreigner" or "barbarian."
Jesse Knutson (South Asian Languages and Civilizations blog, February 26, 2005,
University of Chicago) review of the following: Brajadulal N. Chattapodhyaya, "Representing the Other? Sanskrit Sources and the Muslims (Eighth to Fourteenth Century)," Manohar, Dehli, 1998. Chattopadhyaya's short but rich monograph is a detailed study of terminologies, modes, and strategies in Sanskrit literary and epigraphic sources for referring to the various Muslim newcomers, invaders and rulers--Arab, Persian, Turkish, etc..
Daniel G. Shaw (Prof. of Philosophy, Pike Peak Community College) review of Tahar Labib, ed., "Imagining the Arab Other: How Arabs and Non-Arabs View Each Other," (London: Tauris & Co., Ltd., 2007), 316 pp. seen in ASMEA (Association For the Study of the Middle East and Africa.)
Viney Lal, "Beyond Alterity: The English and Otherness in India," a review of Sara Suleri, "The Rhetoric of English India," Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Originally published as "Beyond Alterity," review of Sara Suleri's "The Rhetoric of English India," Economic and Political Weekly 30, no. 5 (4 February 1995) 254-255.
Japanese faced by Western colonialism and identity as to their own colonial other. World History Connected.

Nancy Moore Goslee, "Ethical and Aesthetic Alterity," FindArticles, Life and Health Library, Spring 2004. Review of Debbie Lee, "Slavery and the Romantic Imagination," Philadelphia: U. of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. Lee's thesis claims British Imperial colonial practice of slavery and British Romantic writer's theory and practice of visionary imagination are interdependent developments.
Coral Houtman review of Ranjana Khanna, "Dark Continents: Psychoanalysis and Colonialism," Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003 seen on "Leonardo on-line," 2004. Houtman sees Khanna's analogy as to psychoanalysis and colonialism and post-colonialism as psychoanalysis equates to Western Man while women and Black Men are the Dark Continent.
Diane Payne review in Find Articles, Journal of Social History, winter 2004 of Sean Shesgreen, "Images of the Outcast: The Urban Poor in the Cries of London," Manchester University Press, 2000. Art displaying street poor give evidence to the other, outcast in early modern London.
Julie Lorenzen book review of Robert Roberts, "The Classic Slum: Salford Life in the First Quarter of the Century," Penguin, 1971. Lorenzen analyzes Roberts' personal story and careful research into a London slum to 1914. Julie Lorenzen blog site @ 2005.
Julie Lorenzen book review of David Cannadine, "Ornamentalism," or how the British aristocracy remained in power throughout the colonial period. Cannadine claims the Other were kept in place through a social hiearchy of position, class, titles and ritual, in other words "ornamentalism." Julie Lorenzen blog site @ 2005.
Stuart Kelly book review of Pankaj Mishra's "From the Ruins of Empire: The Revolt Against the West and the Remaking of Asia,", July 29, 2012.
Alterity and History in Michael Ondaatje's "The English Patient,";col1
Hannah McGregor, "'Not Quite Ethiopian, but not at all English:' ethnography, hybrity and diaspora in Camille Gibb's Sweetness in the Belly," in the CBS interactive Business Library, December 2009. McGregor reviews Gibb's novel of a white woman of British descent who is raised Muslim and comes to identify herself as Ethiopian, first in the walled city of Harar and later as part of the Harari diaspora in Thatcher-era London. McGregor says, "Sweetness in the Belly" is rife with the dissolution of binaries: insider and outsider, home and away, past and present and self and other."
Joseph Martin review of Stanley Rosen, "Plato's Sophist." Plato's two types of people, Philosopher King and the Other...
Jedi Shemsu Jehewty (a.k.a. Jacob H. Carruthers), "'The Invention of Africa' and Intellectual Neocolonialism," winter 1996. Jehewty reviews V.Y. Mudimbe's "The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge."
Theresa M. Senft, "The Violence of Order: Mudimbe's Invention of Africa," Study Guide and review of Mudimbe's classic work. Ms. Senft was a member of Department of Drama, New York University (circa 2000) and a Senior Lecturer in Media Studies, University of East London (c. 2008)

Review of Ilana Mercers' "Into the Cannibal's Pot: Lessons for America from Post Apartheid South Africa," White Afrikaners as the Other.
Bob Corbett website, "Haiti: Book Reviews," on Haitian history and culture, Webster University, St. Louis, MO..
Kenneth Maxwell review of Michel-Rolph Trouillot's "Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History," Beacon Press, 1995 seen in Foreign Affairs, July/August, 1996. The battle within the battle of the Haitian Civil War against the French to silence and control African ex-slaves within the Haitian revolutionary armies.
Bob Corbett review (1996) of Michel-Rolph Trouillot's "Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History." Beacon Press, 1995.
Bob Corbetre review of Madison Smartt Bell, "All Souls Rising," New York: Pantheon Books, 1995. Bell discusses historiography and argument of Haitian Civil War as to who won--Yellow Fever or Black Haitian generals?
An entire nation as Other? Why not, every time a state goes to war the enemy becomes the Other. In this case the poorest nations as Other?

Jared Diamond, "What Makes Countries Rich or Poor?" NY Times Review of Books, June 7, 2012. Diamond reviews Daron Ucemoglu and James A. Robinson, "Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty," Crown, 529 pp., $30, 2012. Diamond claims Norway is the richest country on the globe and 496 times richer than Burundi ($170 per capita income). He strongly recommends the book and gives a summary answering his question, what makes countries rich or poor?
Brittany Jenkins, "Favelas: Cultural Otherness and the Perpetuation of Exclusionary Public Policy," ColorWise Magazine, April 20, 2012. Jenkins reviews Janice Perlman's, "Favela: Four Decades of Living on the Edge in Rio de Janeiro," North Carolina: Oxford University Press, 2010.
John E. Kicza (Washington State University), "Reviews: Recent Collections of Latin American Historical Documents," Rocky Mountain Review, Spring 2000. Dr. Kicza reviews three Latin American books using primary source documents, for example, James E. Hahner, ed., "Women Through Women's Eyes: Latin American Women in 19th century Travel Accounts," Wilmington, DE: Scholary Resources, 1998.
Women pirates book review, "If There's a Man Among Ye: The Tale of Pirate Queens Anne Bonny and Mary Read." Aaaarggghh...female pirates as the Other? Smithsonian Magazine, 8/9/2011.
James Andrew Nichols review of "People's History of the Civil War: Struggles for the Meaning of Freedom," by David Williams, The New Press, 2006, (Howard Zinn, Senior editor) seen on, June 12, 2006. Williams copies Howard Zinn's concept of People's history by researching marginalized people in the Civil War; the frontline soldier, factory worker, dissenter, and women.
Short review of David Williams, "Bitterly Divided: The Inner Civil War," The New Press, 2010. Williams has a series of Civil War era books about marginalized people in the confederacy and how divided the South was during the Civil War. They are noted in this New Press flyer.
Eleftheria Arapoglou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece) review of Ada Savin, ed., "Journey Into Otherness: Essays in North American History, Culture and Literature." Series: European Contributions to American Studies. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 2005. These essays are divided into four sections-"Southern Others," "Canadian Others," "The Mexican Borderlands," and "Crossing Boundaries."
Andrea P. Balogh, "The Im/possiblity of Native American Identity in Louise Erdich's 'Love Medicine," Americana, Vol. IV, Number 2, Fall 2008. Balogh reviews Louise Erdich's most popular novel set in a North Dakota Chippewa Reservation. Erdich's works, as a native American author, revolve around
Kaspaw kinship relations within Chippewa society and culture.
Rubina Ramji review of S. Brent Plate and David Jasper, ed., "Imag(in)ing Otherness: Filmic Visions of Living Together," Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999. Seven films with Otherness theme highlighted in book which Ramji summarizes in this review.
"Relating to Cultural Otherness," Walt Whitman College-wide reading assignment--"Persepolis." Review of Marjane Satrapim graphic novel in
Angela Nwosu, "Of Existententialism, Humor, and Otherness," The Arts, 2/19/2012. Review of MSC Okolo's satirical and sarcastic collection of short stories revealing identity and otherness in indifferent environments.
Joy Taylor (Ph.D. candidate-American Studies-Washington State University) review of Judy Rohrer, "Haoles in Hawai'i: Race and Ethnicity in Hawai'i," Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2010. European visions of Hawaiian people.
Review Milton Murayama's, "All I Asking For is My Body,", 4/2010. A 100 pp. novella and realistic portrayal of sugar plantation life in Hawaii and the nisei experience beginning in the 1930's. Much of the dialogue is in pidgin dialect.
Milton Murayama, "All I Asking For is My Body," University of Hawaii Press, 1988. See three more reviews at this website.
Sara M. Bergstresser (Harvard Medical School), review of Gananath Obeyeseker's "Cannibal Talk: The Man-Eating Myth and Human Sacrifice in the South Seas," Berkeley, California: University of California, 2005 seen in Ethos, Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, 2005. Bergstresser enjoys Obeyesker's edgy, satirical look at European encounters with South Sea Islanders and the myths and prejudices Europeans brought with them into the Pacific.
David Gordon, The Mises Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Ludwig von Mises Institute, March 2007 and Harry Hurt III, "A Lens on Wealth From All the Angles, NY Times, Business, October 21, 2007.
reviews of Hunter Lewis, "Are the Rich Necessary? Great Economic Arguments and How They Reflect Our Personal Values," Mount Jackson, Va.: Axios Press, 2007. The Rich as other. Are the Rich compatible with democracy? Should we accept so much inequality in our society? Does the Profit system glorify greed? Are Central Banks good? Can government protect us from excesses of the profit system? Lewis addresses these questions in a point-counterpoint styles and challenges conventional positions on both sides of each issue.

Dr. Carl D. Evans, syllabus with sources for "Topics/Ethnicity, Identity, and Otherness in Ancient Israel," University of South Carolina Department of Religious Studies, last updated 2/27/2008.
Rachel Mairs, course syllabus, "Ethnic Identity in Graeco-Roman Egypt," Brown University, last updated March 8, 2012.
UIS Bibliographic Project begun in 2010. HUGE central site, see tabs at top of page, for the literature on urban indigenous peoples/ mobility/issues world
Barbara Stevenson, Professor of English, Kennesaw State University, "Representation of the 'Other': Jews in Medieval Christendom." Bibliography of resources available at 2003 NEH Summer Institute.
Dr. Julia Crick, University of Exeter, UK, "Insiders and Outsiders in Medieval World, c. 900-1500," course description for 2011-12.
Therese-Anne Druart, "Brief Bibliographic Guide in Medieval Islam, Philosophy and Theology (2010-2011), The Catholic University of America. This not so brief bibliography displays resources from Catholic Europe and the Islamic Middle East and their divergent views.
Dr. Helen Parish, University of Reading, UK, "Witches, Heretics and Social Outcasts: Europe and Its Outsiders, c. 1250-1550," module syllabus with bibliography
Specific Bibliograhy for UK course, "Witches, Heretics and Social Outcasts in Europe," including Lepers, Jews, etc..
Duane Corpis, syllabus, "Deviants, Outcasts & Other 'Others,'" Microhistory and Marginality in Early Modern Europe, Cornell University, Fall 2010.
Bibliography of books for "outcast London," (early modern London)
David M. Luebke, "Deviants & Outcasts in European History," University of Oregon, History 408/508 course. Note Course Requirements link is bad, Course Syllabus is good.
Research Program course description, Ricerca Italiana, "European Culture and the Problem of Otherness: historiography, politics, science of man in modern Europe (XVI-XIX centuries), Universita degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale," Leader: Girolamo Imbruglia.
Syllabi and readings for "Race, Ethnicity and Alterity in Literature and Culture," Universite Ibn Zohr, Agadir, Pr. Lahsen Benaziza lead instructor, 2011.
Kingston University, London, "The Light Programme," curriculum module. Course is intended to introduce students to light entertainment from it's origins in pagan carnival into 21st century. Idea that TV is contempoary forum for "light entertainment" which has always represented race, gender, ethnicity, the cultural OTHER, and family.
LH Lees Teaching World History syllabus/bibliography, University of Pennsylvania. Note Teaching the Other in the middle of sources list. Short list of resources at end of this slim module.
"Outsiders in Medieval Middle Eastern Society: Minorities, Social Outcasts and Foreigners," School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Department of History. See course description and suggested readings.
Philweb Bibliographical Archive, off- and on-line sources from Homi K. Bhabha. Many of his works deal directly with Otherness.
Ali Al'Amin Mazrui Curriculum Vitae, Institute of Global Cultural Studies, Binghamton University, State University of New York, 2008. This vitae includes a long list of Dr. Mazrui's books, articles, etc. many having to do with Otherness in African history and culture. Cultural_Contacts_and_the_Birth_of_the_Modern_World_Fall_2011_
Tom Eyers and Mathieu Grenet, Fall 2011 course, "Self-ness and Other-ness in an interdisciplinary perspective," Pt. 1, "Otherness, Cross Cultural Contacts and the Birth of the Modern World, Pt. 2. Note their list of sources.
Rabab Abdulhadi, Department of Sociology, Yale University, syllabi and course description with materials for readig for "Gender, Identity, and Society in the Middle East," Sociology 334/a and Women's and Gender Studies 413a, Fall 1998.
Matteo Salvador, "Publications from Matteo Salvadore's Portfolio," 2010. Dr. Salvador, Asst. Professor of History, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait, includes articles on Otherness and European-African exchange.,_number_1_2001_stereotypes_and_alterity_perceptions_of_otherness_in_the_mediterranean
"Stereotypes and Alterity in the Mediterranean," Journal of Mediterranean Studies Vol. 11, No. 1: 2001 seen on University of Malta website. See list of articles on otherness and alterity included in this volumne.
David A. Chappell (University of Hawaii, Manoa), "Seminar in 20th Century Pacific Island History," uploaded 1/97, @ 2005. Many invidual Island groups/peoples struggles against colonial intervention with many interesting resources, especially, Pacific Island authors and point of view, Kwaio of Malaita, Chamorro, Samoan writer Malama Meleisea.
Margaret Jolly (University of Hawaii, Manoa), "Envisioning the Pacific Islands: Indigenous, Colonial and Contempoary Arts," Art History syllabus, 2001. Note especially European visions of the Pacific Islanders texts, articles and art work, drawings from Cook's voyages and more links as to Bibliography and internet resources on left side of page. Center for Pacific Islands Studies U. of Hawaii at Manoa. Note Teaching section with syllabi and Bibliographies 2007-Present See links/tabs on left of page for pre-2007 syllabi and bibliographies and Internet resources. Example of teaching syllabi from Dr. Bill Rodman, "Peoples of the Pacific-Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontaria, Canada 1999:
Dr. Paul D'Arcy syllabus and bibliography, "Pacific Encounters: An Introduction to History and Culture in Oceania," 2008. See specific articles on Otherness in two sections of Bibliography, "Pacific Islanders and Europeans Discovery of Each Other," and "Changing Perceptions of Each Other Through Time."
Vilson Herenike and Geoffrey M. White, "Cultural Identities: Pacific and American Perspectives," University of Hawaii, Manoa, spring 1994 course syllabus. Note links to bibliography on left of page.
Rajeswari Sunder Rajan and Robert J. C. Young, "Concepts in Postcolonial Theory: Hybridity and Otherness," course syllabus and bibliography of readings and texts, (nd).
G.E. Gallas (screenwriter and author), "The Hero as Other," 3/18/2012. Mr. Gallas's essay is based on his courses at Gallatin School of Individualized Study, New York University where he enjoyed 19th century Japanese literature and film and comparing it to European works on Heroes as Other. Gallas cites 2 classes at Gallatinwhich inspired him.
"Yellow Peril: Documentation and Understanding Xenophobia." This link is Jack (John Kuo Wei) Tchen's spring 2011 syllabus for that course. "Globalization: Promises and Discontents,"was the other course.

This link is Ritty Lukose's syllabus and readings, Fall 2011, Gallatin School of Individualized Study.,BillLawson.pdf
"Race and Otherness," Course Description for 7-8 March, 2012 Master Class, Keynote speaker, Bill Lawson, University College Cork, Ireland, (UCC). Note sources and video.
Dr. Sasha Welland, syllabus for Anthro. Women 446: Global Asia, Winter 2010. Note course themes of difference and social inequality and Dr. Welland's focus on Asia as a cultural construction, not viewed as East versus West.
"Books on China in the Library of the Essex Insitute," Salem, Mass., 1895 printed by Avwakd and Huntress. Bibliography of book titles on China-17th-19th century-original housed in Cornell University Library. Perspectives of the Europeans as to Chinese.
"Annotated Bibliography of Psychology and Racism," American Psychology Association, Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2012.
"Otherness/Alterity" and "Otherness/Alterity and Japan" Bibliography,
Otis Grant, "Teaching & Learning About Racial Issues in the Modern Classroom," Racial Pedagogy, Indiana University, South Bend, January 2002.
Graham Crow and Tony Rees, "'Winners and Losers' " in Sociological Research Online, Vol. 4, no. 1, 1999. Crow and Rees display sociological literature on "winners and loser" in social change situations and also comment on the historiography of that theme.
Dr. Carolyn Sigler (University of Minnesota, Duluth), course syllabus for Victorian novels many focusing on gender.
Charlotte Townsend-Gault, course syllabus, "Cultural Otherness and Art Historical Values," U. of British Columbia, Department of Art History, Visual Art and Theory, Fall 2004.
English Literature and History BA (HONS) module HI0511 and syllabus, "Constructing 'The Other': The Outsider in Modern European History." University of Northumbria, UK.
"Thinking Otherness," Durham University, UK, postgraduate module/course description for Modern Language and Cultures course, last updated July 26, 2012.
Dr. Sarah Graham, School of English, Leicester, UK, "Modern Monsters: The Other in Contemporary American Texts," (and film), course module and bibliography of sources--books and films, 2011-2012.
Bibliography "Otherness/Alterity," Cross Discipline Cultural Studies in English Language Journals,

Trevor Getz and Liz Clarke, "Abina," female slave courtroom testimony (primary source) turned into a story. Here is Getz's Anthropology class syllabus using "Abina."
Dr. Litsa Chatzivasileiou, "Women in Literature: Narrative, Essay," course description, University of British Columbia, Canada, Nov. 16, 1994, revised December 2006. Images of Women in Literature, film, advertising, Reality TV Shows and spoof documentaries (mockumentaries).
Spencer Reemeiln, course syllabus, "LLEA 362 Latin American Literature: Women's Voices of Latin America," University of Hawaii, nd.
"Latin American History: Reference Sources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Biographies," Westfield University Ely Library, last updated July 2010.
Dr. James Krippen, course syllabus for History 209a, "Colonial Latin America: From Conquest to Independence," Haverford College, December 2003. Note interest in Otherness.
Serafin Roldan-Santiago, "PostColonial Theory & Criticism: A Bibliography,"
Professor Robin M. Wright, "Native American Religions and Christianity in the 'New World': History of Contact, Inter-Religious Transformations, Production of Alterity," Spring semester 2010, University of Florida Departments of Religion, Anthropology, and Center for Latin American Studies. See suggested Readings and Films in this course description.
Ian Tyrrell, U. of New South Wales, Slavery and Freedom in the United States, syllabus.
Bibliography of past genocides beginning in sw Africa with the Herero people. 20th century's first genocide begun in 1904 by Germans against the Herero and Namaqua peoples. "Genocide SW Africa 1904-1908: Genocide of Horrors," Prevent Genocide International, last revised March 28, 2005. Note other genocides at top of page. See 1994 Rwanda sources here as an example:
Bibliography of African Americans in Film, Berkeley Library.
Francis Flavin (University of Texas, Dallas), "Native Americans and American History," pdf of Native American resources, nd.
Kevin Avruch, (George Mason University), "Conflict Resolution: Cross Cultural Conflict," Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), January, 2001. Course syllabus and short bibliography.
Dr(s). Debra Suarez, Gloria Park, Kay Moon, Sharifa Ali, University of Maryland, course description, "Developing Aspects of Cultural Competency with Technology. Note module 1, "Aspects of Domestic Immersion: Experiencing Cultural Otherness." (3 modules in this course).
Conference Schedule displays sources on Otherness,
Wikipedia entry, "Castes," describing outcastes in world history with long list of references, sources at the bottom of this entry.

Environment as Other

Earth as Other or Mother? Human history over time saw the earth as a spiritual entity evidenced by Mother goddesses in all cultures. In modern times many have come to view earth as property, a thing to buy, sell or mine. Nature as Other?
Lynn Townshend White Jr., "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," complete essay seen in
Lynn Townshend White Jr., "The Historical Roots of our Ecologic Crisis," [with discussion of St. Francis reprint, 1967], Ecology and Religion in History, NY: Harper Row, 1974 seen on Dr. Gary Flomenhoft's University of Vermont site.
Marianne O'Brien, "The Aesthetic Significance of Nature's Otherness," Environmental Values on-line, UK: White Horse Press, 2006. Abstract-will have to subscribe to Environmental Values to see entire article.
Frans C. Verhagen, "Worldviews & Metaphors in the Human-Nature Relationship," Language and Ecology, Vol. 2, no. 3, 2008. A comparative posing anthropocentric view (nature as Other) vs. biocentric worldview (humans as a part of nature) or how humans have viewed and related to nature.
Lee Godden (Griffith University), "Nature as Other...," Australian Digital Theses Program, 2000.
Helene Selin, ed., "Science Across Cultures #4: Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and Environment in Non-Western Cultures," Dodrecht: Springer Publishing, 2003. Essays on nature and the environment from non-western writers and cultures with mention of environment as "Other."
"Environment as Pinata: America the Beautiful--House bills have other ideas," Pittsburg Post Gazette. Is profit and business superior to nature in much of human thought?
John Vidal, "Fears for the World's Poor Countries as the Rich Grab Land to Grow Food," Guardian (UK), July 3, 2009
Share the World's Resources website, UK.

Jesus and the Rise of Christianity Lesson Plan, Discovery Education. Jesus and his "works" within the class structure of ancient Palestine. Note his work with the "Other or outcasts."
Understanding Slavery in World History, Discovery Education. Lesson plans and links for teaching slavery.
"Children and Youth in History," Teaching Modules, @ 2008 Roy Rosenzweig Center for History
and New Media at George Mason University and University of Missouri-Kansas City, World History
Matters. Note also Case Studies:
"Sati," Teaching Modules @2004-2006 Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, World History Matters. Hindu Indian women as Other. Case Studies on Gender:
"Western Views of Chinese Women," Women in World History modules, primary sources, teaching lessons, and resources. @ 2004-2006 Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, World History Matters.
Janelle Collett, "Southeast Asia Politics," Lesson 12, Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason U., World History Matters, 2004-2006. Using primary sources to study women's suffrage in early 20th century Java and Philippines.
"Afghanistan Unveiled," Independent Lens, PBS, Lessons surrounding film of 14 young Afghan women trained in 2002-2003 to be photojournalists. They travel around urban areas of Afghanistan filming women's lives...women as Other.
Another powerful lesson on racism--Comparative. Ane Lintvedt, "Modern Racism," World History Sources, George Mason University website. Ane Lintvedt, McDonogh School, Owings Mills, Maryland places Nelson Mandella's Rivona Speech and Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in front of students to compare and contrast racism in two societies, S. Africa and the American South.
See Converging Cultures section of this Annenberg Learner site, Art Through Time: A Global Vision
The first link, Converging Cultures, could add to our teaching of the new Curriculum Module:
Exchanges and Interactions throughout Afro-Eurasia, especially how cultures interact in positve fashion creating syncretic Art...thanks to Arna Margolis for recommending this site.
"The Green Belt Movement: Evaluation, Citizen Action and Environmental Change Strategies," including 9 minute film module "Taking Root: Kenya and Wangari Maathai," Women's Empowerment Collection, David Maduli-writer, @ 2012 Independent Television Services, Inc. (see 8 Lessons on Women's Empowerment-this is lesson 2).
Independent Lens, "Lesson Plans & Film Modules," PBS WTVS @ 2012 Independent Television Series (TVS). Note lessons and modules on PBS film documentaries such as "Pushing the Elephant" (a film on women and children caught in the web of war in Nigeria), "Women's Civil Rights," etc.. Many pertaining to Otherness in societies.
"Half the Sky," PBS/Independent Lens documentary and lessons (see Classroom tab at top of page) on oppression of women globally with example of Somalia,
Lesson Modules: Refugees in central Europe, The UNRefuge Agency for Central Europe @ 2001-2012. See Art, Geography, Human Rights, Civic Education, History, and Language and Literature lesson plans and modules.
"AP United States History Curriculum Module: White-Native American Contact in Early American History," The College Board, 2008.
"Reordering Pilgrims,", University of Texas education major website and lesson plan to teach students about the natives at first encounter, ie., the Europeans did not "found" the Americas. There were millions of natives living on the land prior to Pilgrim migration into North America. Note University of Texas home site found here:

U. of Texas College of Education "cohort website" with lesson plans from university students training to be teachers: Note first example-Tejano History Project: Tejano History curriculum Project.
Lesson plan comparing Englishman John White's watercolor (1585) of Native Americans and how Theodor De Bry recreated it for European audiences in 1590. See index of White's watercolors and De Bry's engravings in virtual Jamestown website:
Teaching Modules, University of Minnesota, 2009. See lessons on "Eugenics, Race and Immigration Restriction," "Racial Encounters in Colonial America," and "White Man's Burden."
"Postcolonial Logic: Binarism & Alterity," Teaching Module, University of Ulster. Click on <links> to see other terms and example of Nigeria under the British.
"Mapping the African-American Past," Columbia Teachers College. Three lesson modules highlighting struggles for freedom and slavery in New York.
"Liberation Theology and Land Reform," Henry George Institute correspondence course. Lessons focus on land reform supported by priests and religious leaders who did not agree with the institutional church in the Americas, specifically how the poor and the native were treated.

See definition and causation for Liberation Theology in this source cited in the Lessons tab: Leonardo and Clodovis Boff's, "A Concise History of Liberation Theology:
Maria de Jesus, trans. David St. Clair, "Child of the Dark: The Diary of Caroline Maria de Jesus," Penguin 2003. See study guides and lessons
Maria de Jesus raised three children in the slums of Sao Paulo, Brazil, writing her diary on scraps of paper, daily. A poignant primary source on what is feels like to be poverty-stricken, the Other.
Amanda Chapman, Amy Davidson, and Carey Panet (D'Youville College), "Cultural Crisis in Education," in Critical Pavilion website Research Room, Project leader Paul C. Gorski. Essay highlighting culutural education in US focusing on April 20, 1999 murders of 13 teachers and "jocks" at suburban Columbine High School, Denver, Colorado by clique of outcast Others, "Goth" youth called the Trench Coat Posse. Look to left of this article and site for teaching lessons, ideas and resources.
Lesson ideas on how to teach Young Adult Literature...many of the books are about outcasts, the Other, minorities-Korean-American, African-American, White Minnesota-American, Hispanic-American for example Gary Soto's (1997) "Buried Onions."
"Lesson 4 Activity: Race or Culture? A Look at Afro-Latin@s,", 33 pp. pdf lesson module (nd) asking questions such as: What is Latina and how race differs in Latina culture? What is internalized racism or how do certain groups get marginalized/made invisible when we discuss Latin@s as a race?
"Explore Your Culture Through Storytellig Lesson Plans," Scholastic for Teachers. High School, middle school lessons aimed at diverse students who speak English as a second language.
Shane Russo, "Establishing Identity Through Literature: Otherness," The Intellectual blog, 2012. Russo wraps thoughts on Otherness in native American culture via Sherman Alexie's "This is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona, 1994, and native American pain and frustrations over losing links to tribal culture in the modern world. Here is the entire short story:
Dr. Carolyn Sigler (University of Minnesota, Duluth), "Discussion Questions for Horatio Alger's (1832-1899) 'Ragged Dick' (1868), English 5444 Childhood in Culture. Poor Boy (other) makes good by going to the city theme in most of Alger's works is prevalent here.
National Writing Project resources on Asian/Pacific student writing many articles on Asian and Pacific students as outsiders. Note example of Otherness pdf article concerning Hmong students found within this site.
Vappu Sunnari and Rauni Rasanen, ed., "Ethical Challenges For Teacher Education and Teaching." Special focus on gender and multicultural issues. University of Oulu, Finland: Oulu University Press, 2000. Sunnari and Rasanen include article in this 178 pp. pdf on Otherness, autism, sexual diversity, school violence, bell hooks Educational theories, and explains in the first article how the Finnish classic work,
"The Kalevala" can be used to teach gender through it's female images. They support teaching multiculturalism as an ethical foundation and "must do" for teachers.
Ms. Barnsley, "Othello's 'otherness,'" edublogs, May 22, 2007. This Advanced English lesson asks questions on Othello and otherness. Answers from students are included as replies to the blog questions.
Pat Carney and Anne Wallin, (Standley Lake High School, Westminster, Colorado) "I'm Okay, You're Okay: Teaching Tolerance Through World Religions," World History Network, World History Association in partnership with Woodrow Wilson Leadership Program in History. World History and World Literature teachers combine to teach respect and tolerance with religious models. See resources and lessons used in this unit.
American Radio Works, "Remembering Jim Crow." Download audio primary sources, interviews with American Blacks who suffered as the Other in the American history.
"Minorities in WW II," University of Texas Education website displaying lesson plans presented by U. of Texas education students. This lesson revolves around minorities in WW II, especially Black American and the racism they felt in war time.
Billy Holiday's anti-racism anthem, "Strange Fruit," (1939) was written by a NY union activist and school teacher. Note other protest song links and tabs on this page.
See "Strange Fruit" lesson plan:

Mark Mathabame's "Kaffir Boy: True Story of a Black Youth Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa," Lessons, Lessons also at, novel guides:
Teaching a People's History...Zinn can register free for pdf file lessons, etc, such as:
"Coming of the Pink Cheeks" pdf Lesson..Kikuyu Kenyan chief's primary source story of change over time as Europeans take over Kenya in first half of 20th century. Could be interesting comparative to Achebe's "Things Fall Apart."
Fists of Freedom Lesson from Zinn Project. Can be a lesson on "missing context" in history, ie, what was left out of the story about the 1968 Olympic iconic photo/image of Black athletes, heads down, fists upraised. Without the context, the image is one of defiance by angry Others.
Theresa Johnson (Western Michigan University), "Things Fall Apart," a website with bibliography and suggestions for teaching Chinua Achebe's 1961 "Things Fall Apart" and comparing it to "Mister Johnson" and the "racist" "Heart of Darkness" by Conrad. Nigerian Igbo meet the Europeans and find they are the Other. Perhaps Dr. Walter Lichem, "W. Lichem: Capacity for Otherness in Pluri-Identity Societies," Universal Peace Federation, April 14, 2012, could be woven into some of the lessons posted here, especially his explanation of intra-societal disintegration due to income gaps, religion as element of
identity which increase "difference" in 21st century societies.
Marc Jason Gilbert, "Paper Trails: Exploring World History Through Documents and Images," Slave Trade Lessons, World History Connected, 2003.
"Teaching 'Millenial Students,' Teaching Tips of Performed Ideology Index, Honolulu, Hawaii School of Education.
Shenila Momin, "Understanding Foreign Cultures," Lessons surrounding doing business in a foreign country, Michigan State University.
Geoffrey Philip John Lawrence, "Learning About Otherness: A Comparative Analysis of Culture Teaching and It's Impact in International Language Teacher Preparation," Thesis paper for Doctor of Philosophy Department of Curriculum, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, 2010.
Five steps toward normalizing the Other from Andres T. Tapia website, Inclusion Paradox.
Peaceful Societies website discusses "Alternatives to Violence and War" with examples on left side of page of societies that encourage values of peace and harmony. Most of these are considered the Other in their regions.
Fokion, Koutsouri and Apostolos, "Educational Interventions on 'other-ness': Co-operative learning within intercultural children's literature teaching in the Muslim minority schools in Western Thrace (Greece). See Home website for this paper, International Association for Intercultural Education:
"Otherness," International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Thomson Gale (Br.) @ 2005.
Patricia George and Rosa Aronson, "How Do Educator's Cultural Belief Systems Affect Underserved Students Pursuit of Postsecondary Education?" Pacific Resources For Education and Learning, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Dr. Nikitah Okembe-RA Imani (Department of Sociology, James Madison University), "Navigating Perceptions of 'Otherness' in the Classroom: One Experience," Radical Pedagogy (2004). Dr. Okembe-RA Imani explains what it is like to teach as Other in academia that is filled with Eurocentrism and Platonic epistemology.

How to Relate to Cultural Otherness using Marjane Satrapi's "The Complete Persepolis." In 2008 Walt Whitman college had every freshmen student relate to an Iranian child by reading Satrapi's book on her experiences in Iran and Europe.
Christina Shunnarah and Gillian Lee-Fong-Farris, "Outcasts United: An American Town, a Refuge Team, and One Women's Quest to Make a Difference," Random House 16 pp. pdf four (4) lessons to assist in teaching Warren St. John's book of the same title. Otherness and Migration are key themes in the 4 lessons of immigrants moving to America.
A Nation of Immigrants Curriculum, The City University of New York education portal.

"Inclusive Teaching," Center for Instructional Development and Research, University of Washington, last updated Feb. 1, 2008. Teaching strategies for educating diverse student bodies and teaching diversity.
"Belonging to a Group," Science Net Links lesson plan developing and examing human's basic need of belonging to groups.
Large number of lessons, websites with many having to do with minorities, labor history, etc., Historical Text Archive.
Facing History and Ourselves website. Lessons, video, podcasts on racism, anti-semetism, etc..
Teaching Tolerance A Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Classroom Activities and Teaching Kits.
Israel-Palestinian Conflict PBS News Hour lessons for Teachers.
Middle East Center, University of Pennsylvania, resources and lessons for teachers.
Loyola School of Advertising lesson modules and assignments. Lesson 2 is Analysis of Advertising and Otherness.
Bill Strickland, 2004 Annotated Rubric, History Cooperative. The 2004 AP World History Documents Based Essay Question deals with Buddhism in China. Several of the documents are great examples of how the Chinese, especially Confucianists, viewed the Buddhists as Other. Bill Strickland breaks down each document in that exam for a teacher to use as sample primary sources and how a group, the Buddhists, became to be viewed as foreign, the Other. See especially documents 4 and 6 for Chinese attacks on the Buddhist Other.
Bill Strickland, "How to DBQ," History Cooperative. Bill Strickland's guided DBQ Lesson Plan teaching the 2004 Buddhism in China DBQ. May 27, 2008.
2004 AP World History DBQ, College Entrance Examination Board.

Note Ryba L. Epstein created DBQ (Documents Based Essay Question) dealing with Travelers and the people they met--The OTHER:

Plus, here are two websites that could assist in teaching Travelers, cultural interaction, and migration via trade routes:
Listing with bibliographies of silk road Travel writers which may help teach this DBQ.
International Global History Sourcebook, Fordham University. Primary sources to explore interaction between world cultures over time.

"Otherness" primary sources available as to explanations how one culture views another upon contact.

Ryba L. Epstein 2011. Permission granted for classroom use with acknowledgement.

Note to teachers: choose 6-8 of the following documents for a timed essay. All may be used for an out-of-class practice DBQ.
Travel and the "Other" DBQ

Instructions to students:
This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:
· Has a relevant thesis that does more than simply restate the question.
· Supports the thesis with evidence from the documents.
· Uses all of the documents.
· Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible and explaining the reason for the groups [group implies at least two documents]. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.
· Interprets the meaning of the documents correctly.
· Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors' points of view.
· Notes what additional information or documents would be useful to answer the question and explains why that document would be useful in answering the question.

Using the documents listed below from the time period of 600 BCE to 1500 CE, analyze the various reactions of travelers and the people whom they encountered to the "other" and speculate on the reasons for these reactions. Be sure to explain what specific additional sources might change your
interpretation of the question.

Document 1
Hanno, a Carthaginian admiral, on a voyage along the west coast of Africa, around 425 B.C.E., searching for sites for new settlements:
"Passing on from there we came to the large river Lixos, flowing from Libya, besides which nomads called Lixitae pastured there flocks. We stayed some time with
them and became friends. . . . Inland from there dwelt inhospitable Ethiopians in land ridden with wild beasts and hemmed in by great mountains. . . . [Further along the journey, probably up the Senegal River] . . . we came to the end of the lake, overhung by some very high mountains crowded with savages clad in the skins of wild beasts, who stoned us and beat us off and prevented us from disembarking."

Document 2
Priscus, c. 450 C.E., official sent to Attila the Hun by the Eastern Roman Empire:
"A lavish meal, served on silver trenchers, was prepared for us and the other barbarians, but Attila just had meat on a wooden platter, for this was one aspect of
his self-discipline. For instance, gold or silver cups were presented to the others diners, but his own goblet was made of wood. His clothes, too, were simple, and no trouble was taken except to have them clean."

Document 3
Ibn Fadlun, circa 920 C.E., ambassador of the Caliph of Baghdad to the Bulgar Khaganate:
"I saw the Rus when they arrived on their trading mission and anchored at the River Atul [Volga]. Never had I seen people of more perfect physique; they are tall as date-palms, and reddish in color. They wear neither coat nor mantle, but each man carries a cape which covers one half of his body, leaving one hand free. Their swords are Frankish in pattern, broad, flat, and fluted. Each man has [tattooed upon him] trees, figures, and the like from the fingernails to the neck. . . . They are the filthiest of God's creatures. They do not wash after discharging their natural functions, neither do they wash their hands after meals. They are as donkeys."

Document 4
From Travels of Marco Polo, Venetian merchant and explorer, describing the capital of the Yuan dynasty in China c. 1280-90 C.E.:
"The people are idolaters; and since they were conquered by the Great Khan* they use paper money. [Both men and women are fair and comely, and for the most
part clothe themselves in silk, so vast is the supply of that material, both from the whole district of Kinsay, and from the imports by traders from other provinces.]

And you must know they eat every kind of flesh, even that of dogs and other unclean beasts, which nothing would induce a Christian to eat."
*Kublai, grandson of Genghis Khan

Document 5
Usama, Syrian Muslim chronicler, 12th century:
"Everyone who is a fresh immigrant from the Frankish lands is ruder in character than those who have been acclimatized and have held long associations with the Muslims. . . .
we came to the house of one of the old knights who came with the first expedition. This man had retired from the army and was living on the income of the property he owned in Antioch.
He had a fine table brought out, spread with a splendid selection of appetizing food. He saw that I was not eating, and said: ‘Don't worry, please; eat what you like,
for I don't eat Frankish food. I have Egyptian cooks and only eat what they serve. No pig's flesh ever comes into my house.' So I ate, although cautiously, and then we left."

Document 6
Ibn Battuta, from Travels in Asia and Africa, 14th century:
". . . I met the qadi of Mali, Abd al-Rahman, who came to see me: he is a black, has been on the pilgrimage [to Mecca], and is a noble person with good qualities and character.
He sent me a cow as his hospitality gift. I met the interpreter Dugha, a noble black and a leader of theirs. He sent me a bull. . . . They performed their duty towards me [as a guest] most perfectly; may God bless and reward them for their good deeds!"

Document 7
Bertrandon de La Brocquière, from his book The Journey to Outre-Mer, French pilgrim to the Middle East, around 1433 CE:
"They [the Turks] are a tolerably handsome race, with long beards, but of moderate size and strength. I know well that it is a common expression to say ‘as strong as a Turk',
nevertheless I have seen an infinity of Christians excel them when strength was necessary, . . . They are diligent, willingly rise early, and live on little, being satisfied with bread badly baked, raw meat dried in the sun, milk curdled or not, honey, cheese, grapes, fruit, herbs, and even a handful of flour with which they make a soup sufficient to feed six or eight for a day. . . . Their horses are good, cost little in food, gallop well and for a long time. They keep them on short allowances, never feeding them but at night and then giving them only five or six handfuls of barley with double the quantity of chopped straw, the whole put into a bag which hangs from the horse's ears. . . . I must own that in my various experiences I have always found the Turks frank and loyal, and when it was necessary to show courage, they have never failed . . . "

Document 8
Sultan Bayezid II, ruler of the Ottoman empire (1481-1512):
"You know very well the unwashed [Christians] and their ways and manners, which certainly are not fine. They are indolent, sleepy, easily shocked, inactive; they like to drink much and to eat much; . . . They keep horses only to ride while hunting with their dogs; if one of them wishes to have a good war-horse, he sends to buy it from us. . . .They let women follow them in the campaigns, and at their dinners give them the upper places; and they always want to have warm dishes. In short, there is no good in them."

Document 9
Christopher Columbus, from his log dated October 12, 1492:
"I want the natives to develop a friendly attitude toward us because I know that they are a people who can be made free and converted to our Holy Faith more by love than by force. I therefore gave red caps to some and glass beads to others. . . . And they took great pleasure in this and became so friendly that it was a marvel. They traded and gave everything they had in good will, but it seems to me that they have very little and are poor in everything. I warned my men to take nothing from the people without giving something in exchange."

Document 10
From Book 12 of "The Florentine Codex," a history of the Spanish conquest of Mexico written by Friar Bernardino de Sahagún in collaboration with Aztec men
who were former students, late 16th century:
"They gave [the Spaniards] emblems of gold, banners of quetzal plumes, and golden necklaces. And when they gave them these, the Spaniards' faces grinned; they were delighted, they were overjoyed. They snatched up the gold like monkeys. . . . They were swollen with greed; . . . they hungered for that gold like wild pigs. . . . They babbled in a barbarous language; everything they said was in a savage tongue. . . ."

John Maunu is currently AP World, European and American history Classroom Mentor and Chinese Exchange Student Coordinator at Grosse Ile High School, Michigan, AP/College Board World History consultant, veteran AP World History Reader and Table Leader, co-Moderator of AP/College Board World History Teacher Community, and Internet Resources Editor for World History Connected.




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