Establishing World History as a Meaningful Diversity Requirement
Students entering college today often bring with them a host of painful,
frightening, and provocative images that help inform their perceptions of
the world. Many enter a world history classroom with disturbing stereotypes,
half-truths, and misconceptions about the world and the people and cultures
that inhabit it. One of the great challenges for history teachers (and indeed,
all educators) is to help students explore different myths, traditions, and
belief systems, not only to understand other cultures and societies, but to
help them probe their own deeply held values, beliefs, and ideals. For this
reason, many universities have designated the world history course as a diversity
requirement, on the assumption that such a course would broaden student perspectives,
challenge students to think more complexly about history and historical texts,
and prepare students to be citizens of the global community.1
As Arthur Levine has noted, universities have a responsibility to stress multiculturalism and diversity on campus "to legitimize both the intellectual and the emotional aspects of diverse cultures in academic and campus life in teaching, research, and service."2 Being exposed to diversity is crucial, particularly in a student's first year of college. As such, the world history course, often taken in the student's freshman year, has the potential to play a particularly significant role in a student's academic and social development.3 Research has shown that exposure to an inclusive global curriculum helps students: (1) adjust better to the academic and social challenges of college, (2) find a place for themselves in the academy, (3) progress towards degree completion, and (4) develop a strong sense of academic self-esteem that helps them believe they will succeed.4 Ideally, a world history curriculum would help reinforce student awareness about different ethnicities through a multiplicity of perspectives.
|Yet the adoption of a world history curriculum does not necessarily mean that a global perspective has been adopted in the classroom, let alone that the intended diversity requirement has been realized.5 Often, a Western bias remains at the heart of many of world history courses, usually unintentional and generally without malice. Nevertheless, a slanted perspective can hurt all students, but particularly those who are excluded. Anderson points out: "For students of color, bias can occur in the curriculum when they do not see themselves represented in curricular materials, when multicultural materials are addressed as an "add on" to traditional course content, or when personal growth and self-esteem are not offered in positive ways."6 Thus, instructors must seek to construct and implement a world history course that will induce college students to broaden their political, religious, and ethical world views. Only then will world history as a diversity requirement acquire real meaning.||3|
Problems and Potential of World History as a Diversity Requirement
The emergence of the world history survey, first as a curriculum requirement edging out the all-pervasive Western Civilization courses and, second, as a diversity requirement, reflects the larger trends towards multiculturalism and pluralism apparent on U.S. campuses over the last four decades. Although World War II made it abundantly clear that Americans were neither alone in the world nor were most of the world's people heirs to western civilization, many U.S. institutions of higher education remained entrenched in a Eurocentric paradigm that dominated the culture and the curriculum.7 Not until the social stresses of the 1960s and 1970s did a move towards real diversity begin—a move that coincided with an increased minority presence on campus.8 Increased diversity in student bodies along lines of race, ethnicity, class, and gender gradually began to change the composition of most campuses. As other long-suppressed and long-ignored voices clamored to be heard, instructors across the disciplines began to realize that the specialized western paradigm was no longer sufficient.9 Many scholars sought to dislodge the Western canon and the primacy of the West in favor a more global perspective of world civilization.10 One of the gradual results of this paradigm shift and the move to a more diverse academic climate was the creation of the world history sequence.
From the outset, world history as a teaching field has been a discipline fraught with problems. First, many or even most instructors have little training or background in world history, and true expertise can take some time to acquire. Only a handful of graduate schools around the nation offer Ph.D. programs in world history, and those that do often see their programs under-funded, ignored, or even maligned by professors in more precise specialties11 Second, professors who teach world history often specialize in European or American history and may have only a passing knowledge of other non-Western fields. They are not necessarily familiar with world history pedagogy, world historiography, or the larger organizing principles that link cultures and civilizations across vast periods and geographical spaces.12 Third, the world history course is not always structured around a unifying theme, but may instead follow a 'composite area studies approach,' in which world history is separated into distinct containers (i.e. Latin America, Europe, Asia, Middle East, etc.).13 Fourth, even more problematically, a good many instructors still teach "the West and the rest," using the traditions and structures of Western civilization surveys and simply adding in bits and pieces of other cultures to create a world history class.14 While some of these problems fall outside the scope of this paper, several promising trends in the recent literature could help fulfill the potential for the world history course as a meaningful diversity requirement.
Making World History a Meaningful Diversity Requirement
The American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) has urged colleges and universities to establish diversity requirements, structured on an initiative called "the liberal arts of translation," that are designed to help students recognize and confront contemporary challenges while learning to bridge differences among cultures.15 According to a national study released by the AAC&U in 2000, more than half of 543 responding colleges, universities, and community colleges had a cultural diversity requirement in place or were in the process of developing a requirement.16 The prevalence of the new diversity requirements, according to AAC&U's president Carol Geary Schneider, signifies the academy's efforts to renew civic education, underscoring their conviction that "citizens now need to acquire significant knowledge both of cultures other than their own and of disparate cultures' struggles for recognition and equity, in order to be adequately prepared for the world around them."17
On many campuses, the world history course is one of several diversity requirements that students must fulfill before they can receive their degrees. In many general education programs, students must choose either a world history course/sequence or an American history course/sequence and perhaps a course that focuses specifically cultural diversity issues. In some programs, language study fulfills the diversity requirement.18 By no means are such minimum standards sufficient, but mandating even one or two diversity requirements is a move in the right direction.
The administrators and faculty who design their schools' diversity requirements and general education programs have begun the process of reinventing civic education. Nevertheless, it is up to the individual professors to interpret that diversity requirement within their own classrooms. Although the process is arduous (albeit not without reward), world history instructors can do much to achieve meaningful diversity in their classrooms by: (1) developing a viable, inclusive global framework, (2) countering the hidden curriculum, (3) considering the student within the context of the curriculum, and (4) engaging the student in his or her own learning.
While a curriculum based on the "West and the Rest"
remains a common teaching paradigm for world history instructors, other
historians are grappling with larger themes designed to unite the guiding
principles and to create a cohesive and viable framework for world history.19
For historians who teach the history of a single country, politics and political
events often offer a useful (albeit highly constructed) narrative of people
and events through time, but politics as a guiding principle would hardly
work for world historians.20 Other frameworks have served to interpret
the events of world history, including technological determinism, the interactions
of great powers, religious determinism, history as progress (Whig history),
and history as the triumph of liberalism or democracy, but such themes often
assume the supremacy of a specific culture, ideology, or invention.21 More recently, historians have struck on 'globalization'
as a working theme, arguing that students must understand the historical
processes that have affected humans for most of written history to help
them conceptualize their world.22 Jerry Bentley has proposed that cross-cultural
interaction can serve as the foundation for periodizing world history and
for understanding how the world's common history was shaped.23
Although Bentley's model has been criticized,24
the conceptual framework of cross-cultural interaction provides an effective
means to adopt a truly global perspective, rather than a Eurocentric or
any other ethnocentric slant, in the classroom.
In my own introductory classes, I have begun each semester by asking students to think about the meaning of 'tradition' and 'culture' at the individual, communal, and national levels. I then ask them to consider what happens to tradition and culture when different peoples interact and collide—whether that interaction stems from migration, invasion, trade, war, disease, religion, marriage, or technology—and to contemplate what those interactions mean at a global level. This and subsequent discussions not only frame the reading of our textbook, Bentley and Ziegler's Traditions and Encounters, but also helps frame our analysis of primary sources (a process discussed more fully in the last section).25
|In recent years, two important innovations have challenged the western bias, or the hidden curriculum, still prevalent in world history pedagogy. For many years, subtle (and not so subtle) Eurocentric distortions have been recognized in instructional cartographic images. Since maps and atlases inherently possess great iconic power that can influence the viewer's perceptions of the world and the relative worth of different cultures, it is vital that the power of such images be checked.26 Distortions in instructional maps have been reconciled in part by equal-area projection maps, such as those proposed by Petersen and others in the 1970s and in large part by diligent instructors seeking to expose such biases. 27 Throughout the semester, I usually have my students analyze different maps from various time periods and geographical regions, asking them to consider what the maps are conveying, or intended to convey, at an individual, communal, and global level. Students have reported this experience to be eye-opening, as they had never thought about maps as culturally constructed objects.||13|
The rethinking of long-standing periodization is
another innovation that has helped soften the Western bias in world history
curricula. Historians have long grappled with periodization in world history,
a difficult problem given the spatial and temporal breadth of the subject.28
One challenge comes from the categorization of ancient, medieval, and modern
history, since such labels do not apply well to the histories of other cultures,
and may not even fit the European experience very well29—a
point recognized by Joan Kelly over two decades ago.30
As Bentley aptly notes, "Historians have long realized that periodization
schemes based on the experiences of Western or any other particular civilization
do a poor job of explaining the trajectories of other societies."31
A more obvious challenge has been the widespread preference for Before the
Common Era (BCE) and Common Era (CE) over BC and AD. When I introduce this
idea, on occasion, I have met with initial resistance from students who
believe I am either being too "politically correct," or that I am confronting
their Christian heritage in a negative way. But generally I have found that
addressing long-standing periodization upfront can inspire meaningful dialogue
and help students confront the hidden curriculum that has often enveloped
their learning and knowledge.
Not only should historians be aware of subtle and
overt biases in the curriculum, and challenge them appropriately, but they
should be sensitive to the cultural biases (again, overt or subtle) that
students themselves bring to the classroom. Peter Stearns recently challenged
historians to contemplate the assumptions—the "cultural memories and
the identity components"—that students bring to a world history course;
to consider what teachers should know about these assumptions and, finally,
to decide what educators should do with this knowledge.32 With the proliferation of world history
courses in high school and college, what students learn about world history
is increasingly important. Yet many students bring their own historical
memory of events and 'believed history' to the course: beliefs that may
or may not conflict or adhere to official accounts in textbooks. As Stearns
We know that students, often at least privately, contest school versions on the basis of different historical scaffolds, learned from other media or subgroups. We know that the result may dissipate school history efforts, as students turn a deaf ear, or may lead to a bifurcation between official history and believed history, with the latter alone internalized and really used for understanding.33
Consequently, many students come to the classroom with an internalized account of 'believed history' that can be difficult for an instructor to counter (whether all such knowledge should be countered is another question altogether). Stearns posits that history educators should contemplate the students' 'believed memory' and consider the impact of their students' personal and ethnic experiences when constructing world history pedagogy. Moreover, students from all different ethnicities and cultural groups often hold deeply ingrained assumptions about the superiority or correctness of Western values, often without explicit realization.34 History educators must recognize and seek to challenge the common practice of students to adopt Western values to explain (usually by contrast) the values, actions, and traditions of other cultures leading, for example, to quick conclusions about alleged Muslim intolerance and militancy when compared to supposed Western virtues of democracy.35
Certainly, there is a fine line between persuading
students to examine issues and problems from outside their own perspective
(if this is even possible) and imposing one's own beliefs on a student.
Bushman argues that discussing religion in the world history course is crucial
for students to gain a more nuanced understanding and appreciation of the
contends that students must be aware of the power of religion to persuade,
to motivate, to inspire, and to compel people to private and public actions.
Even more importantly, awareness of another culture's religious traditions
can decrease the stereotyping and fear that arises from ignorance. Lastly,
students who learn about religion in a historic fashion may help them learn
more about their own native (or adopted) culture. He advocates that western
religion traditions be taught in the classroom so that Americans of all
backgrounds can decode the many Judeo-Christian references littered throughout
American culture. At the same time, however, instructors can seek to expand
students' knowledge about different religions, especially given the increase
of students from other cultural backgrounds across U.S. campuses.37
|Following Alexander Astin's premise that the more students are involved in college (i.e. absorption in academic work, curricular activities, and interaction with faculty, staff, and peers), the greater their learning and personal development will be, a world history course ideally would be created with active student engagement in mind.38||18|
|Research has shown that students learn best and are the most intrinsically motivated to learn in contexts that focus on experiential and problem- or project-based learning, more broadly known as inquiry-based learning. David Kolb has argued that people learn best by doing and experiencing rather than by passively waiting for knowledge to happen.39 Building on the theories of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget, Kolb created a model of experiential education that stresses the central role that experience plays in the learning process.40 In Kolb's model, learning is conceived as a continuous process grounded in experience. The learner begins with (1) a concrete experience which, in turn, serves as (2) the foundation for his or her observations and reflections on the experience. The individual then uses these observations (3) to construct a conceptual framework or theory based on concepts from the learner's past experience and knowledge. From these generalizations, implications for action can be developed, which can then (4) be tested in new situations. These implications serve as guides to help create new experiences.41 Peter Jarvis later restructured Kolb's model to include a more complex understanding of the relationship of experience and learning, arguing that for a student to learn, the experience must provoke critical reflective thinking.42||19|
|Problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry-based learning (IBL) are other methods of learning that allow the student to engage actively and collaboratively with the material at hand. Although IBL developed out of the scientific method and PBL arose out of medical schools and innovative health sciences curricula in the late 1960s,43 both methods can be utilized effectively and creatively in the humanities and social sciences. The two methods—often discussed interchangeably—are similar in their intent to facilitate learning by teaching the learner to work towards understanding a problem or even to achieve the resolution,44 but differ to some extent in application and structure. Most notably, PBL is usually understood as a structural component of the entire course design and curriculum, whereas IBL can be employed on an occasional, situational basis. Both often have a collaborative component in which students work together to promote critical inquiry and to develop problem-solving abilities, although in some cases students can work independently on particular problems or questions in an active and creative way. I will refer to both methods broadly as IBL.||20|
|In the last two decades, experiential learning and IBL have been adopted worldwide in all number of professional fields and disciplines including the health sciences, law, engineering, architecture, business, social work, mathematics, and education, to name just a few areas.45 College-level world history courses, however, seem to have been slow to embrace either experiential or problem-based learning, which may stem in part from a reluctance among many historians to forego lecture-based pedagogy—an unfortunate stance given that straight lecture has been proved to be one of the least effective methods of instruction.46 On the other hand, as in any discipline, history professors may be inclined to develop active learning approaches in their courses but simply do not know where to begin.47||21|
|Integrating inquiry-based learning into a curriculum can be challenging, but contemplating the overriding question for the course—'What do I want my students to be able to do and to learn as a result of taking this course?'—is generally an effective place to begin. After establishing these learning goals and objectives, professors can then ask themselves, 'What course activities can I create to promote critical inquiry (and to achieve these goals)? 48||22|
|A few recent innovations help explain IBL in action. For example, Bill Hutchins, a professor of eighteenth-century studies, wanted his students to be able to critically reflect on how poetry can convey to the reader the experience of perceiving landscape. Prior to experimenting with IBL, he would simply give his students a question, assign them several specific poems to read, refer them to several secondary sources (including his own monograph), and then wait for their essays. Upon reflection, he realized that this method did not encourage creative and active engagement with the texts; instead, because he had established clear boundaries and imposed specific texts and references, this method ensured a fairly passive approach to learning. Taking an alternate, far more active approach, Hutchins asked his students to imagine that they were answering an advertisement for an English Tourist Board soliciting booklets for people visiting an upcoming exhibit, ' The eye of the Beholder: Landscape Description, 1700-2000.' Both the instructor and the students were asked to be responsible for 'asking, monitoring, challenging, motivating and encouraging, and raising issues'—the basic fabric of effective IBL.49||23|
|In his world geography class, Eric Fournier asks his students to move beyond low-level memorization of facts by asking them to consider challenges and problems that geographical features pose to real people. In a module concerning Mexico and migration, students are asked to assume the role of a poor Mexican farmer in Northern Mexico and, working first individually and then collaboratively as a group, weigh different migratory options by considering physical geography, conditions in rural Mexico, and the Mexican economy. In this case, the students worked through an ill-structured problem to make a decision supported by evidence and logic.50 In my own sections of world history, my students take turns leading discussions about primary sources. Prior to the class discussion, the group leaders develop scenarios or case studies derived from the texts, and then ask the class to consider the question from a variety of different perspectives. Students will then write up brief statements or arguments, relying on evidence from the texts and previous knowledge, to advance their point of view in the class discussion. The discussions are generally very enthusiastic and interactive, and invariably students report that they had never thought about specific issues or history from such a variety of angles.||24|
|Other recent examples of experiential learning or IBL come from the instructor's willingness to embrace new technology. Chris Corley has his world history students 'interview' professionals throughout the world via the internet to ascertain their perspectives on different issues of global concern.51 Kathleen Tobin requires her world history students to review an historical website, analyzing the content, accessibility, and accuracy of the site, summarizing and critiquing in the style of an academic book review. The critique serves multiple purposes: (1) Students learn to access historical information on the internet; (2) students have the opportunity to explore a historical topic that arouses their curiosity in greater depth; (3) students connect to websites from around the world, broadening their perspectives of the world; and (4) students learn for themselves that websites are culturally constructed texts that must not be blindly accepted on faith.52 Essentially, the more hands-on a student can get with the material, and the more critically reflective the student is asked to be, the more likely he or she will retain the substance of the experience.||25|
|Over the past twenty years, world history courses have steadily supplemented, or in many cases, outright replaced introductory courses in Western civilization. Many scholars lamented and puzzled the shift (indeed, many still do); some because they had long been wedded to stories about the ancient Romans, the Industrial Revolution, and the Enlightenment; others because they feared the vast unknown—the Bantu migrations, the Han dynasty, the rise of the Guptas, or the rivalries among the Tokugawa Shogunate. Yet, for the sake of their students and future generations, historians must do more to bring diversity into the classroom, thereby supplementing the efforts of Student Affairs, Residence Life, and Multicultural programming. Students should be taught to contemplate critical issues from multiple perspectives, even as instructors strive to create teaching and learning environments that foster student engagement and active learning.||26|
|Universities and colleges have an obligation to promote social good through strong civic engagement and by educating their students to be virtuous citizens and embrace diversity in its many forms. Institutions of higher education can and should promote virtue, civility, and citizenship by fostering an ethical, communicative, disciplined, caring, just, and celebrative community.53 Students must believe that they are valued, that rules are not arbitrary, and that there is meaning in intellectual activities and in self-development. Thus, a university has an obligation not only to educate its students, but to help broaden their minds and their perspectives. Establishing world history as a meaningful diversity requirement is a good place to start.||27|
Biographical Note: Susanna Calkins received her Ph.D. in early modern British history from Purdue University in 2001. She has taught world history at several universities, and is currently a lecturer at Lake Forest College in Illinois. She also conducts research on faculty development at the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.
1 Carol Geary Schneider, "Diversity Requirements: Part of a Renewed Civic Education," Diversity Digest (2001). Retrieved on August 20, 2004 from http://www.diversityweb.org/Digest/W01/civic.html ; Debra Humphreys, "Diversity and the College Curriculum: How Colleges & Universities Are Preparing Students for a Changing World," Diversity Web, http://www.diversityweb.org/diversity_innovations/curriculum_change/principles_and_practices/index.cfm/ (accessed August 20, 2004).
2 Arthur Levine, "Diversity on Campus," in Foundations of American Higher Education, eds. James L. Bess and David S. Webster, 2nd ed. ASHE Reader Series (Boston: Pearson, 1999), 39.
3 James Anderson, "Academic and Social Integration: A Key to First-Year Success for Students of Color," in Transforming the First Year of College for Students of Color, eds. Laurel Rendon, Mildred Garcia, Dawn Person (University of South Carolina: National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. 2004), 79.
4 Anderson, "Academic and Social Integration," 80.
5 Patricia Lopes Don, "Establishing World History as a Teaching Field: Comments from the Field," The History Teacher 36:4, (2003), 505.
6 Anderson, "Academic and Social Integration," 79.
7 W.H. McNeill, "An Emerging Consensus About World History?" World History Connected: the Ejournal of Learning and Teaching, 1:1. http://www.worldhistoryconnected.org/1.1/mcneill.html (accessed July 22, 2004).
8 Levine, 1999; Blandina C. Ramirez, "Creating a new kind of leadership for campus diversity," in Educating a New Majority: Transforming America's Educational System for Diversity (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996).
9 Schneider, "Diversity Requirements."
10 See Jerry Bentley, "Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History," American Historical Review 101:3 (June 1996): 749-770; Patrick Manning, "The Problem of Interaction in World History, American Historical Review 101:3 (June 1996): 771-82.
12 Manning, "Concepts and Institutions."
13 Don, "Establishing World History," 507.
14 Don, "Establishing World History," 509-510; Chris Corley and Jay Walsh, "Integrating Globalization into the Curriculum: Two Examples," World History Connected 1:2. http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/1.2/corley.html (accessed July 22, 2003); Anderson, "Academic," 2004.
15 Schneider, "Diversity Requirements."
16 Schneider, "Diversity Requirements."
17 AAC&U Survey on Diversity Requirements, Overview of Survey Data, August 2000. Retrieved on August 22, 2004 from http://www.aacu-edu.org/divsurvey/irvineoverview.cfm ; Schneider, "Diversity Requirements."
18 Schneider,"Diversity Requirements."
19 Don, "Establishing World History," 508.
20 McNeil, "An Emerging Consensus"; also see Don, "Establishing World History."
21 Manning, "Problem," 772; Don, "Establishing World History."
22 Corley and Walsh, "Integrating Globalization."
23 Bentley, "Cross-Cultural Interaction," 749.
24 Manning, "Problem," 771-774.
25 Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert S. Ziegler, Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).
26 Keith Hodgkinson, "Standing the World on Its Head: A Review of Eurocentrism in Humanities Maps and Atlases," Teaching History (1991): 19-23.
27 Hodgkinson, "Standing the World," 20.
28 Bentley, "Cross-Cultural Interaction," 749-756.
29 Bentley, "Cross-Cultural Interaction," 749-756.
30 Joan Kelly-Gadol, "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" orig. published in Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz, Becoming Visible: Women in European History (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1977), 137-64; rpt. In Joan Kelly, Women, History and Theory: The Essays of Joan Kelly (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
31 Bentley, "Cross-Cultural Interaction," 749.
32 Peter Stearns, "Student Identities and World History Teaching," The History Teacher 33:2 (February 2000):185.
33 Stearns, "Student Identities," 185.
34 Stearns, "Student Identities," 185-92.
35 Stearns, "Student Identities," 185-92.
36 James Bushman, "Teaching about Religions in World History Courses," The Social Studies Teacher 84:6 (November 1993): 249-255.
37 Bushman, "Teaching about Religions," 249-255.
38 Alexander Astin, "Student Involvement: A Developmental Theory for Higher Education," Journal of College Student Personnel, 25 (1984): 297-308.
39 David A. Kolb, Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1984).
40 Kolb, Experiential Learning, 20.
41 David Kolb, "Learning Styles and Disciplinary Differences" in The Modern American College, ed. Arthur W. Chickering (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981), 235.
42 Peter Jarvis, John Holford, and Colin Griffin, The Theory and Practice of Learning (Sterling: Kogan Page, 1998): 46-55.
43 David Boud and Graham Feletti, eds. The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning, 2nd ed. (London: Kogan Page, 1991, 2001), 2; Peter Schwartz, Steward Mennin, & Graham Webb, eds. Problem-Based Learning: Case Studies, Experience and Practice, (London: Kogan Page, 2001).
44 Bob Ross, "Towards a Framework for Problem-Based Curricula," in The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning, eds. David Boud & Graham Feletti, 2nd ed. (London: Kogan Page, 1991, 2001): 28-35.
45 Schwartz, Mennin, and Webb, Problem-Based Learning, 2.; Boud and Feletti, "Towards a Framework," 2.
46 Wilbert J. McKeachie, Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers, (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2002), 52-68; Donald Bligh, What's the Use of Lectures? (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2002); Greg Light & Roy Cox, Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: The Reflective Professional, (London: Sage, 2001): 97-114.
47 Boud and Feletti, Challenge, 4.
48 Wiggins, Grant, & McTighe, Jay, Understanding by Design. (Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1998).
49 Bill Hutchings and Karen O' Rourke, "Problem-Based Learning in Literary Studies," Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 1:10 (June 2002): 73-83.
50 Eric J. Fournier, "World Regional Geography and Problem-Based Learning: Using Collaborative Learning Groups in an Introductory-Level World Geography Course." JGE: The Journal of General Education, 51:4 (2002): 293-305.
51 Corley and Walsh, "Integrating Globalization," 2003.
52 Kathleen Tobin, "To Think on Paper: Using Writing Assignments in the World History Survey," The History Teacher 34:4 (August 2001): 504-506.
53 Ernest Boyer, "Life Outside the Classroom," in Foundations of American Higher Education, eds. James L. Bess and David S. Webster, 2nd ed. ASHE Reader Series (Boston: Pearson, 1999): 285-294.
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