Paper Trails: Deshima Island: A Stepping Stone between Civilizations
Marc Jason Gilbert
Deshima, known as Dejima in Japanese, was a small artificial island in Nagasaki Bay (approximately 150 feet by 500 feet) on the southwestern Japanese island of Kyushu. From 1641 to 1845, Deshima served as the sole conduit of trade between Europe and Japan, and during the period of self-imposed Japanese seclusion (approximately 1639-1854) was Japan's only major link to the European world. Though Dutch merchants were generally confined to the island, it nonetheless served as a conduit of considerable culture exchange in both directions. The exchanges ranged from hydrangeas to knowledge of electricity and paralleled a similar exchange passing between the Japanese and Chinese merchants, who were also permitted to trade at Deshima under similar controlled circumstances. Though it was destroyed during the modernization of Nagasaki harbor in the 20th century, the significance of Deshima has since been recognized. There are now plans to reconstruct the island to attract both European and Asian tourists drawn by its historic role as a meeting place between East and West.
|The Establishment of the Dutch Trade with Japan|
Europeans began trading with Japan and engaging
Japanese society in 1600, when a Dutch ship, the Liefde, arrived
in Usuki Bay on Kyushu with 24 half-starved men, seven of whom later died
from the effects of malnutrition. The ship, piloted by an Englishman, Will
Adams, had reached Japan during the second year of his mission to seek out
and destroy Spanish and Portuguese settlements in Africa and Asia and return
with the much prized pepper of Southern Asia. Adams won the confidence of
Tokugawa Ieyasu in spite of (or perhaps because of) the attempts of the
Catholic Portuguese to denounce their Protestant Dutch commercial rivals
as pirates. Of course, this was not far off the mark as the Dutch were engaged
in piratical attacks on the Portuguese. However, Tokugawa Iyesu was coming
to view the Portuguese as a more serious threat to his own ambitions than
any pirate might pose, because they were determined to convert and assert
political control over as many Japanese as possible. These activities ultimately
led him to ban European missionary activity and offer their converts the
choice of recanting their faith or death. In contrast, Adams was granted
privileged status. Adams was perceived as a businessman rather than a missionary
and as a representative of a Protestant rival of the Catholic nation had
no intention of meddling in Japanese internal affairs. He was thus regarded
as a valuable asset, a possible European counterweight to the Portuguese.
As such, he was not allowed to leave Japan, though as with any other court
favorite, he was given a grant of land and revenue from a village for his
support. He is still annually honored today in Japan by a celebration on
the street in Edo where he lived. There is also a roadway in Tokyo honoring
him by the title by which he was known, An-jin (An-jin Cho
or Pilot Street).
|In 2005, a celebratory festival was held in Adams' home county of Kent, featuring Japanese music, dancing, martial arts and other aspects of Japanese culture.1 Adams' relations with the Tokugawa were immortalized, if also highly fictionalized, by the late James Clavell in his popular novel, Shogun (1975). The novel ultimately served as the basis of a television miniseries and a Broadway play. A more reliable rendition of his experiences is Adam's own account, an excerpt of which is offered below as a student exercise. Whatever the actual relationship that existed between Tokugawa Iyesu and Adams, it laid the foundation for a unique association of the Dutch with the bafuku, or Japanese ruling court, that was to last almost two and a half centuries.|
In 1641 a new phase of this relationship
began when the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie
or V. O. C in Dutch) transferred its business from Hirado south to the island
of Dejima in Nagasaki harbor. The island had originally been built in 1636
for Portuguese traders, but the Dutch were able to enjoy the use of its
facilities when the Portuguese were finally expelled from Japan for their
interference in Japanese affairs. The Dutch had no such intentions. They
were happy to fulfill the role as a counter-weight to Catholic political
ambitions during a revolt by Christian samurai (the Shimbara Rebellion,
1637-38). The Dutch assisted in the suppression of the revolt by providing
ships at the bafuku's request to bombard the rebel positions. Nonetheless,
they were closely watched by the Japanese authorities. Their property was
often (rightly) searched for signs of smuggling and they were permitted
to make only limited visits to the mainland from a complex of offices, warehouses,
and other dwellings that made up a European overseas trading station or
"factory." These visits included an annual trip of the entire staff (12-15
agents) living within the Dutch factory to offer presents to the Tokugawa
Shogunate in their capital city of Edo (modern Tokyo). These visits offered
an opportunity for the Japanese to "assure themselves of their loyalty and
to weaken them by putting financial burdens on them." They also offered
the Dutch the opportunity to impress the Japanese. Among the gifts they
presented the court were elephants and camels and a magnificent copper lantern
that has survived to this day:
|The visits often included entertainments at which the agents, usually after much drinking, were encouraged by the court to dance and sing in their national idiom. The political subtext of this activity is indicative of the servant-to-patron relationship these visits were designed to cement.|
|At the change of factory directors that coincided with the arrival of the annual trading fleet of ships from Holland there was also a meeting with Japanese officials. Fresh from Europe, the new director was expected to report not only on the factory's activities, but on recent global affairs. It has been suggested that it was primarily for the latter reason—and the intelligence it provided—that the Japanese permitted the existence of the factory.||4|
Scholars are fortunate that the correspondence of
Isaac Titsingh (1740?-1812) is now available in print (Frank Lequin, ed.,
The Private Correspondence of Isaac Titsingh, Volume 1 (1785-1811),
and Volume 2 (1779-1811) (Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing, 1990, 1992)
and on microfilm. This Dutch explorer, diplomat, and administrator went
to Japan as the Dutch Envoy in 1778 and served as Director of the Dutch
East India Company factory at Deshima Island for three periods between 1779
and 1784 (for a list of all Dutch East India Company's chief mangers in
Japan from 1600 to 1860, see http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Japan.htm#Dejima).
Titsingh wrote widely on Japan in several languages and was among the first
Europeans to collect Japanese artifacts, thus becoming Europe's first Japanologist.
He may have also have been the first to introduce the Tale of 47 Ronin
to Europe in his work, Illustrations of Japan (London: Ackerman,
1822).3 His over 300 letters offer
an intimate account of the customs and events associated with the Directors'
annual pilgrimage to Edo (pictured above). According to the publishers of
his letters, these observations "range from wedding ceremonies to the conduct
of the Edo court, and from the cultivation of Bonsai trees [see under "Cultural
Exchange" below] to the suicide of a prominent Japanese scholar of the West."4 His work also provided insight into the activities
of the Chinese factory at Deshima:
|Another blessing is the wide availability of the actual daily registers of the Deshima factory, called Dagregisters, which have been published through 1760.5 The editors and translators of the published version of the first nine years of registers (Cynthia Vialle and Leonard Blussé, The Deshima Dagregusters, Volume XI, 1641-1650, 2001) note the great value of the contents of these registers for students of world history. They contain not only lists of trade items, but also accounts of Japanese efforts to be sure the Dutch remained outside of any alliance of Catholic nations and held themselves aloof from the trouble caused by unauthorized visits of other merchants on Japanese soil. As the editors of this work and some of its reviewers have noted, the translations of these registers must be used with care. For example, an entry discussing a shipment to the royal court suggests that sake was part of shipment. However, an error in translation disguises the fact that the sake was not part of the delivery, but part of the refreshment provided for the shippers en route!6 These difficulties should not discourage the use of the published version of the registers in the classroom. An example of their use in a classroom setting is provided at the conclusion of this essay.||6|
Many Dutch East India Company day registers are available
on-line as a result of the efforts of Henny Savenji (Henry Kang Lee). His
site permits students of the period to trace the travels of the Marco Polo
of Korea, Hendrick Hamel. It also offers a plethora of resources including
an index to Daregisters and journals of Dutch shipping in the Indies and
individual day-registers (http://www.hendrick-hamel.henny-savenije.pe.kr/Dutch/bijlagen.htm)
that have been translated into English (see the exercise provided below).
|Neither of these sources surpasses the usefulness of two accounts of the Blomhoff family based on family records as well as Dagreisters. The first of these is Matthi Forrer and Fifi Effert's (trans. and eds.), Court Journey to the Shogun of Japan: From a Private Account by Jan Cock Blomoff (Amsterdam: Hotei Publishers, 2000), which offers an account of Jan Cock Blomhoff's(1779-1853) career as Director at Deshima. During his career, he wrote many letters to his wife Titia in Holland and kept a record of his visit to Edo in 1818. This work is a major source for Tokugawa Japan, enriched by images of the cultural objects he collected while in Japan.||8|
A more personal account of the Dutch-Japanese encounter
as viewed by the Blomhoffs is the story of Titia Blomhoff (1786-1821), who
along with the wet-nurse for her son, came to Deshima to join her husband,
then Director of the factory. Because European women had been previously
banned on the island, on her arrival in 1817 she and her wet-nurse became
the first Western women to visit Japan. She was expelled after nearly four
months, but not before making an impact at least in the form of 500 paintings,
etchings, prints, and dolls the author has found were introduced into the
nineteenth-century Japanese market. One example of these images appears
above right (note the possibly Javanese servant from the Dutch base at Batavia,
today Jakarta in Indonesia). It is adapted from a photograph taken by Kathleen
Cohen from a wall hanging entitled "Edo Anonymous Netherlandish Women,"
dated 1817. It now hangs in Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum Stadhouderskade in the
Netherlands. (For this and similar images, see http://gallery.sjsu.edu/encounters/orient/orient-Thumb.00003.html).
This is so dramatic a story that neither an academic review,7
nor the following publisher's summary can dull a reader's interest in René
P. Bersma's study of her life (Titia: The First Western Woman in Japan
(Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing (imprint of KIT Publishers), 2002):
|Both works help illuminate the practice of court visits that the Tokugawa employed for much the same purposes as King Louis IV employed his palace at Versailles: to help control and weaken the nobility, due to the costs of the visits in terms of travel and local housing, and to gather intelligence on their activities.||11|
|Postcards from the Edge: Nagasaki-e|
The presence of the Dutch sparked much interest
among the Japanese, only a few of whom caught a rare glimpse of the red-haired
Gaijin. The desire to know more about the appearance and manners
of these barbarians created a market niche for Nagasaki-e,
a series of popular woodblock prints depicting the Dutch merchants, their
vessels, and the exotic animals that were part of their annual tribute (see
the exhibition on Red-Haired Barbarians at http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/japaneseprints/index.html).
The Dutch were nearly always portrayed as red-hared, big-nosed and blue
eyed. Given the isolation in which the Dutch lived their everyday lives,
it is not surprising that Japanese artists portrayed the forks the Dutch
used at meals as small garden rakes.
|Richard Illing suggests that the Nagasaki-e industry, which flourished from 1800 to 1860, was something of a sideline for the artists the Japanese government employed in Nagasaki to copy western images brought to Japan by foreigners.9 That the prints were unsigned further suggests that they were produced locally more as quality souvenirs than as high art. Like the parallel Yokohama-e, which showed "foreigners and their technical achievements" in that enclave, these prints "were not produced with elaborate techniques like mica or embossing as they were targeted at a broad Japanese public more on a coffee table book level."10||13|
|Trade and Cultural Exchange|
|One of the chief trade items that passed through Deshima was silk from China. This import was indicative of the "country trade" or the means by which European traders profited not by command of the internal economies of subordinated Asian states, but by serving those economies as transporters of their products. The Dutch also imported goods from Southeast Asia and Europe. Dennis O'Flynn provides a succinct analysis of this trade in the Journal of World History (see an even more succinct abstract of Flynn's essay, which is currently available at no cost from JSTOR at http://muse.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/access.cgi?uri=/journals/journal_of_world_history/v013/13.2flynn.pdf).11||14|
The country trade gave the Dutch access to Japanese silver and gold and also porcelain, such as Arita, Imari and other fine Japanese ceramics that were in high demand in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe. While "the Japanese artisans catered for their European clients with Dutch motifs. . . [w]hen demand could not be met by imports, the Dutch copied Japanese porcelain in large quantities."12 In fact, the cross-cultural flow was rich and complex. The illustration above is of Chinese export 'Van Frytom' dishes designed, as the name suggests, by Frederick Van Frytom (1632-1702). This pattern, long known as "Deshima Island," actually describes a scene in the north of Holland. Chinese artisans copied this pattern from the Japanese Arita-ware versions of the Dutch Delft artist's work! A pair of these plates, originally traded sometime between 1730-1740, is currently listed for sale at $3,200.
Deshima fostered other more culturally significant
forms of exchange. Some Japanese students were exposed to the Dutch language
at the enclave, though legally speaking, the learning of a foreign language
was legally prohibited until after 1745. Still, considerable knowledge of
Japan passed to Europe via Deshima. The Japanese gained some knowledge of
Western science via the settlement.13 Bavarian biologist/botanist Philipp
Franz von Siebold (1796-1866) served at Deshima as the factory's medical
officer from 1823 to 1829 and may have transferred considerable knowledge
of Western medicine to the Japanese and of the Japanese to the West. He
brought over 500 Japanese books back to Europe. He certainly worked with
many Japanese translators and students. His multipart book, Nippon (Leiden,
1832-1858), was instrumental in spreading knowledge of Japan to the West.
This work was among the first to explain Japanese Buddhism to the West.
It remains of value to scholars of that period and has been the subject
of a recent analysis of cross-cultural exchange suitable for students.14
Because he was a trained botanist, Siebold
also left an early record of Japanese bonsai to add to that of Titsingh.
This practice of miniaturizing trees and shrubs requires
minute and repetitive pruning that can be used as a form of Zen meditation,
among other cultural functions. Siebold, a student of Japanese Buddhism,
greatly admired this practice, as can be seen from the following excerpt
from the English translation of his Manners & Customs of the Japanese
Students of ecological or "plant imperialism"
will note that Siebold smuggled tea plants out of Japan and used them to
start the tea plantation economy in Dutch Indonesia. He also set up a greenhouse
at his estate in Holland (appropriately called "Deshima") where he naturalized
Japanese plants, such as the hosta and hydrangea, to European soils and
climate. Though Japan attempted to protect its plant catalog, it still considers
Seibold a culture hero (as Siborut-san).16
This honor is all the more generous given the circumstances of his departure
|William Ten Rhyne (1647-1700), was the first university-trained medical doctor to serve at Deshima. On his arrival in 1673, he is thought to have advised the very ill Japanese emperor, who subsequently recovered. Rhyne went on to introduce the medicine and culture of Japan to the West. He was the first physician to publish a detailed description of the indications for and practices of acupuncture, published as Transisalano-Daventriensis Dissertatio de arthritide: Mantissa schematica: De acupunctura: et Orationes tres, I. De chymiae ac botaniae antiquitate & dignitate: II. De physiognomia: III. De monstris / Singula ipsius authoris notis illustrate (London: R. Chiswell, 1683).||20|
Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716), a well-educated and well-traveled German scientist, arrived in Deshima in 1690, where, like Siebold, he served as medical officer. Kaempfer, "whose only wish was to study the country and its people, despaired at his confinement" there. However, his fluency with languages led to his rapid command of Japanese, which "soon won him the friendship of the Japanese interpreters and officers of the island, who were under solemn oath not to talk with foreigners or discuss the affairs of Japan." According to his account of what proved to be a two-year sojourn in Japan, one of these officers was "a discreet young man, by whose means I was richly supplied with whatever notice I wanted [including Japanese books], concerning the affairs of Japan . . . He was about 24 years of age, well vers'd in the Chinese and Japanese languages, and very desirous of improving himself. Upon my arrival he was appointed to wait on me as my servant, and at the same time to be instructed by me in Physick (medicine) and surgery." Kaempfer also paid him a handsome salary and taught him Dutch. This officer's superiors must have countenanced this "animated and highly fruitful exchange," as they permitted him to accompany Kaempfer on "visiting" trips (1690-2) to Edo.18
|Students of the place of food in world history should take note that Kaempfer "played a key role in introducing the soybean and soy-based foods to the Western world." His book Amoenitatum Exoticarum, published in Germany in 1712, "contained the first written description by a Westerner of the soybean plant and seeds (accompanied by the first Western illustration of these), plus the most detailed descriptions to date of the process for making miso and shoyu (Japanese-style soy sauce)."19||22|
Figures such as Titsingh, Siebold, Rhyne
and Kaempfer were merely a few among the many contributors to a much larger
process of cultural exchange known as the Dutch Studies or manner of knowledge
(in Japanese, Rangaku or "the study of Dutch," which included medicine,
military technology, the natural sciences and language studies). The impact
of this school of knowledge at a time when the Japanese were in an anti-Confucian
mood and focusing instead on a school of Japanese history and tradition
called "National Learning" is discussed in leading world history survey
for an illustration of how Deshima facilitated the encounter between Japanese
scholars and Enlightenment science in books written in Dutch and the nature
of the initial Japanese response to that knowledge, there is no better example
than the transmission of the idea of electricity to Japan cited by William
R. Everdell in his review of Scott L. Montgomery's Science in Translation:
Movements of Knowledge Through Cultures and Time (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2000):
|The Reclamation and Restoration of Dejima Island|
|The resourceful Dutch benefited even from the American Admiral Perry's second trip to coerce Japan into opening its trade to the West. Perry's trip secured the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854), the first of many such treaties that ended Japan's self-imposed isolation from the world beyond China. However, that treaty marked the end of the Dutch monopoly of Western trade and there was no longer any reason for foreign traders to operate from enclaves such as Deshima. Accordingly, the factory was closed in 1860. In time, Nagasaki became better known as the site of a nuclear attack than a historic trade entrepot. Yet, perhaps as a result of the recent prolonged Japanese recession of the 1990s, civic leaders in Nagasaki came to view the location of the former Deshima Island as offering considerable opportunities for economic growth through tourism. For a long while, only ground markers denoted the location of most of the Dutch structures, but several buildings have already been reconstructed from old records and wood-block prints. Museums and other related sites have also opened. March-April of 2006 will mark the opening of the second phase of the planned total reconstruction which was formally begun in 1996.22|
|Resources and Questions for Further Study|
What knowledge of Japanese plants, food and other practices was transmitted to the West through Deshima?
What knowledge of Europe was gleaned by the Japanese from contacts at Deshima?
Discuss the views of an advocate of Dutch and/or National Learning.
Explain the global and local religious and political context which led to the Dutch succeeding the Portuguese in Japan.
What aspects of Dutch life at Deshima indicate the inferior position of Europeans in Asia prior to the nineteenth century?
|Document and Map Based Exercises|
There is a small, but useful, group of documentary sources that can be derived from accounts of the Dutch at Deshima.
Document No. 1: Will Adams Arrives in Japan
A letter written by Will Adams in 1611 describing part of his voyage to Japan and his reception there is easily accessible. The source of this letter is Eva March Tappan, ed., The World's Story: A History of the World in Story, Song, and Art, Volume I: China, Japan, and the Islands of the Pacific, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914), pp. 325-331. The following excerpts were scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, of California State University, Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg and offered online as part of the on-line Modern History Sourcebook project created by Paul Halsall. The study questions which follow have been developed by this writer.
After reading these excerpts, students may be directed to answer the following questions. In view of his mission as described above, how candid is Adams in his description of his past actions and motives? What was the likely statement he might have made to the Japanese about political conditions in Europe and, assuming he told the truth of conflict between Catholic and Protestant nations, why would the Japanese be satisfied with that account? Research the conflict being played out between these European nations and relate them to Adam's European enemies' speaking against him in court. How did the Japanese court treat Adams and his men? What favors did he perform for his Japanese overlord? How did he adjust to the place he had found himself occupying there and what were its costs?
|Will Adams, My Coming to Japan, 1611|
|Document No. 2: An Image of a "Visiting" Procession|
|Thanks to Henny Siveniji, we have a large number of journals, dagregisters, maps, and illustrations of Dutch operations in the East Indies accessible on-line. One of these offers an account of the procession accompanying a Korean mission to the Court at Edo, which can be used to accompany the images and accounts of "visiting" processions discussed and illuminated above and pictured again below (see this document dated September, 1666 at http://www.hendrick-hamel.henny-savenije.pe.kr/Dutch/dag6614se.htm). Students can be directed to closely examine the image below for elements of European and Japanese customs and dress and the differential in status between the two.|
|Document No. 3: Life within the World That Trade Created|
|A six meter Japanese silk screen mural (called a makimono) produced between 1840-1850 illustrates the interior of the Dutch factory at Deshima. Students can be directed to the use of skin and hair color as defining characteristics of the anonymous painter's subjects. The Dutch are stereotyped here and in other Japanese mediums as all having pure white skin; the darker figure with long hair in the center is likely a Thai servant (the Dutch long had a factory at Ayuthia in Siam), two men of possibly African descent (African slaves were not uncommon in Asia) are pushing a bale of what may be Chinese silk, while two servants are seen engaged in other activities. There are further details students can be asked to identify and explore as signifying this early phase of globalization by trade.|
|Document Exercise No. 4: Persecution of Catholics in Japan|
|What follows is an account of a very different procession, the arrival in Nagasaki of a group of Roman Catholic missionaries who entered Japan despite the Tokugawa ban on Europeans of that faith. Their arrival and trial is recorded in the day register at Deshima for August 21, 1642. Small notational changes and some less literal translations of the Dutch into English have been added to the text for clarity. For the original in Dutch, see http://www.hendrick-hamel.henny-savenije.pe.kr/Dutch/daghreg21a42.htm. The original English translation (Copyright Henny Saveniji) can be found at http://www.hendrick-hamel.henny-savenije.pe.kr/Dutch/daghreg21a42e.htm.|
|This document can be used to measure student understanding of the reasons why the Japanese sought to ban contact with most Westerners. Students might usefully explore why the Dutch might be less impressed with the confessions of the arrested Catholics than the Japanese apparently were. They could address why Japanese officials might have been emotionally moved by their bravery, yet, while so moved, why would these same officials still torture the missionaries to death? Why did the Japanese feel such persecution was justified? What steps did they believe their government had taken to make such punishment unnecessary? How does the list of captured Catholics, and one in particular, reflect the breadth of the Western colonial enterprise in early modern Asia? Students might also explore why there might be more than one reason the assimilated former Christian Jaon seemed "touched" in his mind and walked away without comment after his attempt to save his former co-religionists lives failed.|
|Thanks to the work of Gerald Danvers and others there are now new and more productive ways of using maps to examine world historical processes. However any map of Asia can be employed to direct students to the "country trade," the means by which Europeans acted as transporters of the merchandise of Asian trading nations. The Dutch trade with Deshima was a classic example of this trade, which enabled the Dutch, who could not otherwise afford much trade due to the lack of domestic goods that were desirable in Asia, to buy cheap goods elsewhere in Asia and trade them at Deshima for Japanese silver in excess of the cost of the original trade item. The profits in silver could be repatriated to Holland or used to purchase otherwise costly items in Asia where silver, unlike merchandise from Holland, was in demand. The Casteneda collection at the University of Texas provides a host of free maps tracing this trade. See, for example, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/asia_mediaeval_commerce.jpg.|
|Lesson Plans and Other Classroom Approaches|
Students can replicate the procession of the Dutch factory to the Tokugawa Court using Matthi Forrer and Fifi Effert's The Court Journey of the Shogun of Japan: From a Private Account by Jan Cock Blomhoff (Amsterdam: Hotei Publishers, 2000). Their study can be enriched by taking a visit of their own to Edo via a spectacular virtual tour provided at http://www.us-japan.org/edomatsu/.
The images of the Dutch participation in Japan's "visiting system" to the Court of the Tokugawa can also be viewed and used as a basis for a discussion of "Journey as Narrative" at http://www.fulltable.com/vts/j/jn/jn.htm. For further comparison studies, see A Bibliography of Travel Literature in Asia prepared by Bryn Mawr College at http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/speccoll/guides/travel/asia.html.
A bibliography on Tokugawa Japan features study guides, topical questions, projects and other student activities related to this period. See http://www.nvcc.edu/home/jebraden/Tokugawa/tkgstudyguide.htm.
Students can be assigned a reading of René Bersma's Titia: The First Western Woman in Japan (2002) as a book review assignment or as the source of an essay exam question.
Using the works of the Blomhoff's or the day registers, students can examine these sojourners' perceptions of Japanese society. This can be accomplished individually or in study groups.
Teachers may find Henry Smith (ed.), Learning from Shogun: Japanese History and Western Fantasy (Santa Barbara: University of California, Santa Barbara, distributed by the Japan Society of New York, 1980) a useful tool. This book is available online for personal and instructional use at http://www.columbia.edu/%7Ehds2/learning/Learning_from_shogun_txt.pdf. It includes articles about James Clavell's novel Shogun by Elgin Heinz, William Lafleur, Susan Matisoff, Chieko Mulhern, Sandra Piercy, David Plath, Henry Smith, and Ron Toby.
The literature on the impact of Japanese woodblock prints on Western art can be used alongside lesson plans on Impressionist paintings (see, for example, that at http://www.impressionism.org/teachimpress/browse/lesson7.htm). For material usefully drawn from that literature, see Charlotte van Rappard-Boon, Willem van Gulik, Keiko van Bremen-Ito, "Catalogue of the Van Gogh Museum's Collection of Japanese Prints (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, 1991) and major sites on cultural exchange fostered by woodblock prints at http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/japaneseprints/ and Ukioy-earts at http://www.cjn.or.jp/ukiyo-e/index.html.
A Lesson Plan on the Coming of Admiral Matthew Perry to Japan can be found at: http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/teach/ends/opening.htm.
Lesson plans that address the Dutch in Japan can be found at:
|Students can be assigned to analyze the content of an exhibit currently sponsored by The Netherlands Economic History Archive entitled "Red-Haired Barbarians: The Dutch and other foreigners in Nagasaki and Yokohama, 1800 1865." This exhibit examines 40 woodblock prints (Nagasaki-e and Yokohama-e,) sold to Japanese who were curious about the Dutch community on Deshima Island. This digital presentation is self-described as highlighting "the amazement with which the Japanese looked at Westerners. The Dutch are depicted as pale, ugly, red-haired barbarians with large noses. The ships the Dutch used and the exotic animals they brought caused much astonishment and admiration." In 1858, Americans and other Europeans were granted the same rights as the Dutch. The Dutch settlement in Yokohama is also the subject of the popular illustrations on view as part of a virtual version of this exhibition at http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/japaneseprints/index.html or http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/japaneseprints/.|
Bersma. René P. Titia: The First Western Woman in Japan. Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing (imprint of KIT Publishers) 2002.
Blussé, Leonard, Remmelink, Willem and Smits, Ivo (eds.). Bridging the Divide: 400 Years The Netherlands-Japan. Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2000.
Bodart-Bailey, Beatrice M.;Vialle, Cynthia ;Blusse, Leonard, trans., eds, The Deshima Dagregusters, Volume XI, 1641-1650. Leiden: Intercontinenta No. 23, Universiteit Leiden, 2001.
Boxer, C. R. A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam. London, The Argonaut Press, 1935.
Flynn, Dennis Owen. Cycles of Silver: Global Economic Unity through the Mid-Eighteenth Century in the Journal of World History, Volume 13, Number 2 (Fall 2002): 391-427.
Forrer, Matthi and Effert, Fifi (eds.and trans.). Court Journey to the Shogun of Japan: From a Private Account by Jan Cock Blomoff. Amsterdam: Hotei Publishers, 2000.
Haberland, Detlef. Translated by Peter Hogg. Engelbert Kaempfer–a Biography. London: The British Library 1996.
Hyma, A. The Dutch in the Far East (1942, repr. 1953); study by B. Gardner (1972).
Kaempfer, Engelbert. The history of Japan, giving an account of the ancient and present state and government of that empire; of its temples, palaces, castles and other buildings; of its metals, minerals, trees, plants, animals, birds and fishes; of the chronology and succession of the emperors, ecclesiastical and secular; of the original descent, religions, customs, and manufactures of the natives, and of their trade and commerce with the Dutch and Chinese. Together with a description of the kingdom of Siam. Written in High-Dutch by Engelbertus Kaempfer ... and translated from his original manuscript, never before printed, by J. G. Scheuchzer ... With the life of the author, and an introduction. London: Printed for the translator, 1727. A copy is at Bryn Mawr College Library at DS808 .K127 1727 v. 1-2.
Milburn, William. Oriental Commerce Containing a Geographical Description of the Principal Places in The East Indies, China, and Japan with their Produce, Manufactures, and Trade, including the Coasting or Country Trade from Port to Port also The Rise and Progress of the Trade of the Various European Nations with the Eastern World Particularly that of the English East India Company From the Discovery of the Passage Round the Cape of Good Hope to the Present Period with An Account of the Company's Establishments, Revenues, Debts, Assets, & c. at Home and Abroad Deduced from Authentic Documents, and Founded upon Practical Experience Obtained in the Course of Seven Voyages to India and China. London: Black, Parry and Co., 1813 rpt. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1999.
Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie, The Deshima Dagregisters: Their Original Tables of Contents. Leiden: Leiden Centre for the History of European Expansion, 1986-. Volumes 1-2 (published in 1988 and 1989) were edited by Toni Vermeulen; Volume 3 (1989) was jointly edited by Toni Vermeulen and Paul van der Velde; Volumes 4-7 (1989-1993) were edited by Paul van der Velde; Volume 8 (1994) was edited by Paul van der Velde and Cynthia Vialle; Volume 9 (1996) was edited by Cynthia Vialle and Leonard Blussé; Volume 10 (1997) was edited by Cynthia Vialle; Volume 11 (2001) was edited by Cynthia Vialle and Leonard Blussé. Series contents: Dagregisters Volume 1 (1680-1690), Volume 2 (1690-1700), Volume 3 (1700-1710), Volume 4 (1710-1720), Volume 5 (1720-1730), Volume 6 (1730-1740), Volume 7 (1740-1760), Volume 8 (1760-1780), Volume 9 (1780-1790), Volume 10 (1790-1800), Volume 11 (1641-1650).
Siebold, Dr. Philipp Franz von. Manners and Customs of the Japanese [in the Nineteenth Century from the accounts of Dutch residents in Japan and from the German work of]. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1841; Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company; 1973, 1977.
Totman, Conrad. Tokugawa Ieyasu Shogun. Kyoto: Heian International Inc., 1988.
van der Velde, Paul and Bachofner, Rudolf. The Deshima Diaries Marginalia, 1700-1740. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute, 1992.
van Gulik, Willem. A Distant Court Journey, Dutch Traders visit the Shogun of Japan. Amsterdam: Amsterdam: Stichting Koninklijk Paleis 2000.
_____The Dutch in Nagaskai: 19th Century Japanese Prints. Amsterdam: 1998.
_____In the wake of the Liefde. Cultural relations between the Netherlands and Japan, since 1600. Rotterdam: Museum voor Volkenkunde / De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1986.
Vialle, Cynthia and Leonard van der Velde, Paul and Bachofner, Rudolf. The Deshima Diaries Marginalia, 1700-1740. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute, 1992.
A Bibliography of travel literature in Asia prepared by Bryn Mawr College: http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/speccoll/guides/travel/asia.html.A World of Difference: The VOC and Japan's Economic Policy, 1640-1715: http//: www.iias.nl/iiasn/22/theme/22T7.html.
Christianity in Nagasaki: http://www.tca-japan.com/en/htmle/pagej04-6.html.
Chronology of Dutch Colonial History: http://www.colonialvoyage.com/NLpoAsFarEast.html.
Commerce and Culture: A Reader on Japan edited by Alex Redetich: http://www.indiana.edu/~easc/resources/commerce_culture/index.htm.
Dejima Comes Back to Life at http://www1.city.nagasaki.nagasaki.jp/dejima/en/history/index.html.
Deshima Re-Emerges at http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/earns/deshima.html.
Dutch accounting in Japan 16091850: isolation or observation? http://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/acbsfi/v11y2001i3p369-382.html.
The Dutch and other Foreigners in Nagasaki and Yokohama, 1800-1865, 40 Japanese Prints from the National Economic History Archive at http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/japaneseprints/index.html.
Dutch in Japan: http://email@example.com?http://batavia.rug.ac.be/Japan/Desjima.htm. http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=bergen&book=japan&story=dutch.
The Dutch-Japanese Relationship: http://www.holland-expo2005.com/1036/Dutch-Japanese.Relations.html.
Dutch Japanese Relations (Netherlanden Consulaat): http://www.oranda-cg.or.jp/english/index.html.
The DutchTtrade with Japan: http://www.nationaalarchief.nl/webviews/ead/ead_scopecnt.webview?eadid=NL-HaNA_1.04.21&id=1082461644453.110.
Dutch and Japanese in Taiwan: http://www.cbs.org.tw/English/TDF/EP1-INT.asp.
The Dutch in Nagasaki: http://www.nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp/nagasaki/6.html.
The Dutch in Nagasaki: http://www.artelino.com/articles/dutch_nagasaki.asp.
Inventory of Pictures of Deshima at http://flcsvr.rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/~michel/serv/eujap/voc/dejima/.
East Meets West: Original Records of Traders, Travellers, Missionaries and Diplomats to 1852 Original Records of Western Traders, Travellers, Missionaries and Diplomats to 1852 Part 3: Papers of John Scattergood (1681-1723), Isaac Titsingh (1740?-1812), Heinrich Julius Klaproth (1783-1835) and other early materials from the British Library, London, at http://www.adam-matthew-publications.co.uk/collections_az/EastWest-3/description.aspx.
Englebert Kaempfer, a bibliography at http://www.fl.kyushu-u.ac.jp/~michel/se*rv/ek/lit1946_1999.html.
Englebert Kaempfer, a biographical essay in William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi. "The History of Soy Pioneers Around the World", Unpublished Manuscript at http://www.fengshuitours.com/MOSkaempfer/kaempferpg1.asp.
Japan-Netherlands Relations at http://www.iias.nl/iiasn/22/theme/22T7.html.
Philipp Seibold at http://www.users.qwest.net/~rjbphx/1800Refs/Siebold.html.
Reconstructions of VOC establishments at http://www.tanap.net/obp/help/.
Shogun, the novel, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shogun_(novel).
The Oldest Share (Dutch East India Company): http://www.oldest-share.com/.
Will Adams at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0802443.html
|Biographical Note: Marc Jason Gilbert is Professor of History at North Georgia College and State University, and is a University System of Georgia Regents Distinguished Professor of Teaching and Learning. He is also co-director of the University System of Georgia's programs in India and Vietnam. He has published several books about Vietnam, and is co-author with Peter Stearns, Michael Adas and Stuart Schwartz of the third revised edition of the world history survey text, World Civilizations: The Global Experience (2000).||24|
1 See news reports at http://www.medway.gov.uk/index/leisure/localhistory/timeline/17900/26373.htm.
2 See http://www.nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp/nagasaki/6.html.
3 For the manner of the introduction of the "Tale of 47 Ronin," see http://www.columbia.edu/~hds2/chushinguranew/retelling/47_ronin.htm.
4 See "East Meets West: Original Records of Traders, Travelers, Missionaries and Diplomats to 1852 Original Records of Western Traders, Travelers, Missionaries and Diplomats to 1852 Part 3: Papers of John Scattergood (1681-1723), Isaac Titsingh (1740?-1812), Heinrich Julius Klaproth (1783-1835) and other early materials from the British Library, London," at http://www.adam-matthew-publications.co.uk/Collections_az/EastWest-3/description.aspx.
5 Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie, The Deshima Dagregisters: Their Original Tables of Contents. Leiden : Leiden Centre for the History of European Expansion, 1986- Volumes 1-2 (published in 1988 and 1989) were edited by Toni Vermeulen; Volume 3 (1989) was jointly edited by Toni Vermeulen and Paul van der Velde; Volumes 4-7 (1989-1993) were edited by Paul van der Veld; Volume 8 (1994) was edited by Paul van der Velde and Cynthia Viallé; Volume 9 (1996) was edited by Cynthia Viallé; Volume 10 (1997) was edited by Cynthia Viallé and Leonard Blussé; Volume 11 (2001) was edited by Bodart-Bailey, Beatrice M.,Cynthia Viallé and Leonard Blussé. Series contents: Dagregisters Volume 1 (1680-1690), Volume 2 (1690-1700), Volume 3 (1700-1710), Volume 4 (1710-1720), Volume 5 (1720-1730), Volume 6 (1730-1740), Volume 7 (1740-1760), Volume 8 (1760-1780), Volume 9 (1780-1790), Volume 10 (1790-1800), Volume 11 (1641-1650).
6 See https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/1811/611/1/V10N2Bailey.pdf.
7 Harold Bolitho, review of Titia: The First Western Woman in Japan By René P. Bersma, (Amsterdam: the Netherlands: Hotei Publishing (imprint of KIT Publishers). 2002) in Pacific Affairs, vol. 76, no. 4(Winter,2003/2004: .
8 See http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/9074822533/104-8736248-1524769?v=glance&n=283155.
9 Richard Illing, The Art of Japanese Prints, Gallery Books, 1980: 155.
11 Flynn, Dennis Owen, "Cycles of Silver: Global Economic Unity through the Mid-Eighteenth Century," Journal of World History, Vol. 13, No.2, (Fall 2002): 391-427.
12 See http://www.running-battle.com/porcelain.html.
13 See http://www.nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp/nagasaki/6.html.
14 Fumihiko Sueki, "Civilizations: How We see Others, How Others see Us," Proceedings of the International Symposium Paris, 13 and 14 December 2001 at http://www.unesco.org/dialogue/en/Regard1sueki.htm.
15 From "Philipp Seibold, "Dwarf Trees" at http://www.users.qwest.net/~rjbphx/1800Refs/Siebold.html.
16 See http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/ref/philipp_franz_von_siebold.
17 From "Philipp Seibold, "Dwarf Trees" at http://www.users.qwest.net/~rjbphx/1800Refs/Siebold.html.
18 William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi, "The History of Soy Pioneers Around the World," Unpublished Manuscript at http://www.fengshuitours.com/MOSkaempfer/kaempferpg1.asp.
20 See, for example, Peter Stearns, et. al, World Civilizations: The Global Experience (new York: Longman, 4th ed., 2004): 653.
21 For this review, see http://www.maa.org/reviews/scitrans.html.
22 See the Nagasaki City webpage at http://www1.city.nagasaki.nagasaki.jp/dejima/en/index.html.
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